Detailed Analysis Of Power Plant Equipments (Power Sector)
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
Detailed Analysis of Power Plant Equipments (Power Sector)
Section – B
The successful completion of any task would be incomplete
without mentioning the names of the persons who helped to make it
possible. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude in a few words to
all those who helped me in the completion of this project.
I convey my sincere thanks to Prof. R. Sathyanarayanan for
giving this opportunity to have such a detailed study about Power
I express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my
friends for giving timely advice in all the aspects for the success of this
S. No. TITLES Page No.
1 Executive Summery
2 Introduction to Power Sector
3 Power Sector in India
4 Power Sector Impacts on Environment
5 Analysis of Power Sector
Study of Selected Companies
6 b) GE
Availability of power is one of the important ingredients for industrial growth. It
is an important infrastructure facility without which no industrial activity can be
thought of in modern times. Increasing automation of Indian industries has created
huge demand of power in India. This huge demand has resulted into demand supply
gap in India in recent times.
This report gives an extensive study of Power Sector. Analysis of the power
sector by PORTER’s Five Force Model and through SWOT analysis gives the
direction of the sector. Environmental impact of the sector is discussed.
The PORTER’s five forces analysis, SWOT analysis are used to analyze the
industry of power sector. The various analyses show that there has been a
continuous growth in generation and consumption of power in India.
World electricity generation rose at an average annual rate of 3.7% from 1971
to 2004, greater than the 2.1% growth in total primary energy supply. Total world
consumption of marketed energy is projected to increase by 50 percent from 2005 to
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 1|P age
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 2|P age
The energy required to support our economies and lifestyles provides
tremendous convenience and benefits. Energy consumption is reportedly higher in
countries where less than 5 % of the population lives below the poverty line than it is
in countries where most people live in poverty -- four times higher.
For example, Americans make up less than 5 % of the world’s population yet
consume 26 % of the world’s energy. World electricity generation rose at an average
annual rate of 3.7% from 1971 to 2004, greater than the 2.1% growth in total primary
energy supply. This increase was largely due to more electrical appliances,
development of electrical heating in several developed countries and rural
electrification programmes in developing countries.
De-regulation in areas of the global energy markets has led to fierce competition.
Now more than ever electricity has to be produced at a lower cost with many
countries imposing ever tightening environmental legislation to reduce the impact
power generation has on the environment. The enormous challenges are recognised
in providing electricity as efficiently as possible and strive to develop technology to
meet your needs. Collectively, developing countries use 30% of the world's energy,
but with projected population and economic growth in those markets, energy
demands are expected to rise 95 %. Overall global consumption is expected to rise
50 % from 2005 to 2030.
World energy consumption is projected to expand by 50% from 2005 to 2030 in the
IEO2008 reference case projection. Although high prices for oil and natural gas,
which are expected to continue throughout the period, are likely to slow the growth of
energy demand in the long term, world energy consumption is projected to continue
increasing strongly as a result of robust economic growth and expanding populations
in the world’s developing countries.
Energy demand in the OECD economies is expected to grow slowly over the
projection period, at an average annual rate of 0.7%, whereas energy consumption
in the emerging economies of non-OECD countries is expected to expand by an
average of 2.5 % per year.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 3|P age
China and India—the fastest growing non-OECD economies—will be key
contributors to world energy consumption in the future. Over the past decades, their
energy consumption as a share of total world energy use has increased significantly.
In 1980, China and India together accounted for less than 8 % of the world’s total
energy consumption. In 2005 their share had grown to 18 %. Even stronger growth is
projected over the next 25 years, with their combined energy use more than doubling
and their share increasing to one-quarter of world energy consumption in 2030 in the
IEO2008 reference case. In contrast, the U.S. share of total world energy
consumption is projected to contract from 22 % in 2005 to about 17 % in 2030.
Energy consumption in other non-OECD regions also is expected to grow strongly
from 2005 to 2030, with increases of around 60 % projected for the Middle East,
Africa, and Central and South America. A smaller increase, about 36 %, is expected
for non-OECD Europe and Eurasia (including Russia and the other former Soviet
Republics), as substantial gains in energy efficiency result from the replacement of
inefficient Soviet-era capital stock and population growth rates decline.
POWER SECTOR - Current Scenario
2.4% of the overall world energy output
6th largest energy user, comprising about 3.3% of the overall global energy
expenditure per year.
The gross electricity production capability of Indian Power Sector is placed at
around 111 GW.
POWER SECTOR – Scope
Abundant coal reserves (enough to last at least 200 years).
Vast hydroelectric potential (150,000 MW).
Large pool of highly skilled technical personnel.
Impressive power development in absolute terms (comparable in size to those
of Germany and UK).
Enabling framework for private investors.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 4|P age
Potentially, one of the largest power markets in the world
POWER SECTOR – Future
Exponential demand growth
Increased significance of the role of the private players and foreign
New strategies and reforms
Increased significance of renewable sources of energy
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 5|P age
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 6|P age
The process of electrification commenced in India almost with the developed
world, in the 1880s, with the establishment of a small hydroelectric power station in
Darjeeling. However, commercial production and distribution started in 1889, in
Calcutta (now Kolkata). In the year 1947, the country had a power generating
capacity of 1,362 MW. Generation and distribution of electrical power was carried out
primarily by private utility companies such as Calcutta Electric. Power was available
only in a few urban centers; rural areas and villages did not have electricity. After
1947, all new power generation, transmission and distribution in the rural sector and
the urban centers (which was not served by private utilities) came under the purview
of State and Central government agencies. State Electricity Boards (SEBs)
were formed in all the states.
Legal provisions to support and regulate the sector were put in place through the
Indian Electricity Act, 1910. Shortly after independence, a second Act - The
Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948 was formulated, paving the way for establishing
Electricity Boards in the states of the Union.
In 1960s and 70s, enormous impetus was given for the expansion of distribution of
electricity in rural areas. It was thought by policy makers that as the private players
were small and did not have required resources for the massive expansion drive, the
production of power was reserved for the public sector in the Industrial Policy
Resolution of 1956. Since then, almost all new investment in power generation,
transmission and distribution has been made in the public sector. Most of the private
players were bought out by state electricity boards.
From the installed capacity of only 1,362mw in 1947, has increased to 97000 MW as
on March 2000 which has since crossed 100,000 MW mark India has become sixth
largest producer and consumer of electricity in the world equaling the capacities of
UK and France combined. The number of consumers connected to the Indian power
grid exceeds is 75 million.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 7|P age
India's power system today with its extensive regional grids maturing in to an
integrated national grid, has millions of kilometres of T & D lines criss-crossing
diverse topography of the country.
However, the achievements of India's power sector growth looks phony on the face
of huge gaps in supply and demand on one side and antediluvian generation and
distribution system on the verge of collapse having plagued by inefficiencies,
mismanagement, political interference and corruption for decades, on the other.
Indian power sector is at the cross road today. A paradigm shift is in escapable- for
better or may be for worse.
World’s Energy Overview
35% of world energy need is supplied by crude oil, 25% by coal & 21% by
Most of the reserve is concentrated in the Middle-east region.
World Primary Energy Sector growing at 2%
India’s Energy Overview
India is the 5th largest energy consumer
India has vast potential in the Exploration Sector.
54% Coal, 32% Oil, 9% Natural Gas
Indian Primary Energy Sector growing at 5%
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 8|P age
Energy Consumption (MTOE) 10224 376
Coal 27% 54%
Oil 37% 32%
Natural gas 24% 8%
Nuclear 6% 1%
Hydro 6% 5%
Oil & Gas Imports (MTOE) 2467 98 (US$ 30 billion)
Total Primary Energy 2.1% 4.8%
Natural Gas 2.6% 6.8%
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 9|P age
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 10 | P a g e
The need for electricity – for productive purposes and for extending home
electrification – far outstrips supply in India.
Electricity generation has several impacts on the environment, depending on the
choice of technologies. While the evaluation of specific power plants would
necessitate the assessment of site and plant-specific issues, in general, one can
consider source-specific local, regional, and global impacts.
Large power sources can affect their surroundings through impacts such as
air pollution, submergence of land and waste accumulation, excessive resource use
and disruption of human activity.
The impacts of coal-based thermal plants are particularly important in a study of
India, as these plants currently provide the largest generating capacity in India, and
about 80% of the actual generation. Electricity generation consumed 67% of India’s
coal use, in 2002; further, India’s coal consumption is projected to grow 2.2%
annually between 2002 and 2025 (EIA, 2005).
Most of the existing thermal power plants in India use the traditional pulverized coal
combustion technology. As a result, they have to contend with gaseous emissions
including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide,
mercury and particulate matter. Coal-burning thermal power plants in India are
responsible for about 40% of the country’s SO2 and 41% of its CO2 in 2000. Coal-
plant emissions far outweigh those from other fossil-fuel plants contributing to acid
rain, and air pollution and the consequent adverse effects on health.
When based on locally mined coal, the associated problems of mining accidents and
land degradation are serious. In some areas, the use of high ash coal results in
disposal problems, although ash does have productive uses such as brick-making.
However, with the alternative fossil-fuel options, oil- and gas-based plants, too,
issues of waste disposal and possible drilling and pipeline accidents have to be
considered. The water use by some thermal plants constitutes a more serious
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 11 | P a g e
problem; Indian thermal power plants reportedly use 88% of the country’s industrial
water supply (DTE, 2003). Temperature increases and pollution of receiving water
bodies through inadequately treated effluents have also to be dealt with.
Although based on a clean and renewable source, large hydroelectric plants are not
impact free. Large dams can cause submergence of human settlements and natural
forests, adversely affecting or even destroying people’s livelihoods, particularly
traditional lifestyles, and also terrestrial ecosystems. However, the magnitude of
these impacts varies with the location and the height of the dams constructed.
With nuclear power plants, radiation hazards (not only through accidents), and
disposal of radioactive spent fuel must also be contended with. Thus far, no country
is sure of safe and permanent waste disposal. And, while clean in terms of carbon-
emissions, both ends of the nuclear fuel cycle – uranium mining and nuclear waste –
have harmful environmental impacts, if not very carefully managed.
However, environmental impact costs are not easily quantifiable. Pollution-induced
health impacts are underestimated when economically disadvantaged people do not
obtain medical treatment; similarly, disruption costs of displaced communities could
Regional pollution issues, for example the issue of acid rain and sulphur deposition,
have received attention in Northeast Asia. While the magnitude of coal-fired power
plants' contribution may be disputed, particularly during winter and spring, when
dominant high pressure systems sweep accumulated pollutants off the landmass
toward the eastern ocean mass.
The Indian power sectors contribute about 52% of the carbon emissions in the
country. Due to the magnitude of its electricity generation, China’s total carbon
emissions are over three times those from India and even on a per capita basis are
over 2½ times. However, as emissions per capita are low by international standards
(EIA, 2003), and developing countries are not required to adopt greenhouse gas
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 12 | P a g e
(GHG) reduction targets under the Kyoto protocol (in effect from February 16, 2005),
global issues currently remain less important than local impacts.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 13 | P a g e
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 14 | P a g e
PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL:
The model of pure competition implies that risk-adjusted rates of return should
be constant across firms and industries. However, numerous economic studies have
affirmed that different industries can sustain different levels of profitability; part of this
difference is explained by industry structure.
Porter’s model is based on the insight that a corporate strategy should meet
the opportunities and threats in the organizations external environment. Especially,
competitive strategy should base on and understanding of industry structures and
the way they change.
Many projects have been planned but due to slow regulatory environment, the
supply is far lesser than demand. Currently, India needs to double its generation.
Many projects have been planned but due to slow regulatory environment, the
supply is far lesser than demand. Currently, India needs to double its generation
capacity to meet the potential demand.
The long-term average demand growth rate is 6%.
Barriers to Entry
Barriers to entry are high, as entering this business requires heavy investment
initially. The other barriers are fuel linkages, payment guarantees from State
Governments, Retail distribution licensed, etc.
Bargaining Power to Suppliers
Not very high as Government controls tariff structure. However, this may change the
Bargaining Power of Customers
Bargaining power of retail customers is low, as power is in short supply. However,
Government is a big buyer and payment by Government can be more erratic.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 15 | P a g e
Not high currently. The Electricity Act, 2003 will encourage investments, thereby
STRENGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF POWER SECTOR:
Well established and vast transmission and distribution network.
Highly qualified engineering and technical personnel.
Regulatory framework is further facilitated with enactment of Electricity Bill,
The Electricity Bill, 2003 holds promises for the power sector and certainly for
the consumer by way of competition reliability and rationalized tariff structure.
Emergence of strong and globally comparable central utilities (NTPC,
India has substantial non-conventional energy resource base and
technologies to meet growing power requirements by tapping this energy.
WEAKNESSES AND THREATS TO POWER SECTOR:
Poor infrastructure has led to heavy T&D losses. Old and poor transmission
and distribution network has led to frequent power outages and poor quality of
Lack of proper metering and theft has led to large scale losses. Only 51% of
the power generated is billed and only 41% is realized
Moreover, Government provides power to agricultural sector at subsidized
rates and also free of cost in some states. All these factors have resulted in
financial disorder of the State Electricity Boards (SEBs).
Restoration of SEBs financial health and improvement in their operating
performance continues to be a critical issue. The Government of India has
signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with various states reflecting
the joint commitment of centre and states to undertake reforms in a time
Poor return to utilities, which affect their profitability and capacity to make
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 16 | P a g e
Increasing gap between unit cost of supply & revenue, approximately Rs 1.10/
Managerial and financial inefficiencies in state sector utilities have adversely
affected capacity addition and systems improvement
Non-availability of quality coal may hamper thermal plants’ efficiency in power
Inability of SEBs to raise funds, as most of the SEBs is on the verge of
bankruptcy due to poor operational performance. Adding to the problems,
SEBs need huge money to measure up competition from efficient private
The major risk of privatizing a critical sector like power is the precedence of
commercial over public interest. Some of these interests that will take a back
seat include development of environment friendly generation and provision of
electricity for rural areas. The new Electricity Act does not provide any specific
financial incentives for private players to address public issues
The SBEs which are right now holding 60% of total installed capacity, will be
hit adversely by some provisions of the new electricity act such as delicensing
of generation and open access for IPPs and CPPs, there by such units will
take away the most lucrative customers (like industrial and commercial users)
from the SEBs. This will not only affect SEB’s but also the entire power sector
for near term.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 17 | P a g e
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 18 | P a g e
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) was set up in 1959 by the
Government of India with the objective of creating indigenous manufacturing base for
power plant equipments. Today, BHEL is the 12th largest company in the world in
Power Plant Equipments manufacturing and the largest in India. The company has
the ability to manufacture the entire range of power plant equipment and has one of
the largest capacities of power plant equipment in the world. This enables the
company to bid for large power projects. BHEL's cost-competitiveness vis-a-vis
international competition in the power sector can be attributed to the factors like fully
depreciated manufacturing facilities, lower labour and freight costs and economies of
scale. Apart from being the lowest cost producer, BHEL also possesses the
infrastructure that can supply power equipment for 4,000 MW of generating capacity
The company operates through 14 plants and 9 service centers. The major
inhibiting factor for the growth of BHEL in the past has been lack of access to large
fund base. The company is a candidate for disinvestment as the Central Government
has decided to offload atleast 20% of its stake towards a strategic partner. This could
help the company in the long run as the strategic partnership could bring in benefits
like access to new technologies and capital.
The business of BHEL is focused essentially on two broad segments, viz.
Power Equipment, accounting for 60% of revenue, and, Industrial Equipment, and
accounting for the rest. Earlier the company was focused on the Power Equipment
only. However, in order to reduce the dependence on power utility providers (SEBs),
the company widened its focus area and hence product base. BHEL is now
manufacturing equipments for industrial users, railways and several other industries
including telecommunications, metallurgical and process industry.
BHEL's forte is coal-based Thermal Power Plants. BHEL's products, services
and projects are exported to over 52 countries including United States and New
Zealand. BHEL's market share in the coal-based thermal power plant segment is
75%, 65% in nuclear-based thermal plants, 50% in hydro-based thermal power
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 19 | P a g e
plants. However, in the emerging gas-based combined cycle thermal plants, which
have short gestation period, the company has a relatively low market share of just
18%. BHEL also provides services of erecting plants and executing projects on a
turnkey basis. The cumulative capacity of power generating equipment supplied by
BHEL outside India is over 3000 MW.
Power Sector Products:
THERMAL POWER PLANTS GAS BASED POWER PLANTS HYDRO POWER PLANTS
DG POWER PLANTS INDUSTRIAL SETS BOILERS
HEAT EXCHANGERS AND
BOILER AUXILIARIES PUMPS
POWER STATION CONTROL
BUS DUCTS SWITCHGEAR
COMPRESSORS SILICON RECTIFIERS CONTROL GEAR
OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT POWER DEVICES
THYRISTOR EQUIPMENT ENERGY METERS
CAPACITORS SYSTEMS AND SERVICES AVIATION
TELECOMMUNICATION SEAMLESS STEEL TUBES
CASTINGS AND FORGINGS INSULATORS TRANSFORMERS
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 20 | P a g e
5 Forces Model
Rivalry among competitors
o ALSTOM, Mitsubishi
o Creating competitive advantages to gain bigger market share
Acquisitions, mergers and joint-ventures in other countries
Potential of New Entrants
o BGR Energy (1985)
o Competitive Price
o Many orders are captured in recent times
o Existing tactic in the market will not help in the current scenario
o Materials, parts, components, other resources
o Suppliers are well diversified across the globe
o Prompt delivery by Suppliers are ensured by BHEL
o Has many substitutes that might pose a threat
o Has less diversification with sectors, so that concentrated focusing on
the respective sector avoids chance of getting substituted
o Eg. Power Sector Equipments, Industry Equipments
o Has a order book worth thousands of crores
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 21 | P a g e
o Wide Customer base in India and in all parts of the world
o With excellent customer satisfaction the order are booked for the next
two years (Information from the employee)
The company has 180 products under 30 major product groups that cater to
the needs of the core sector like power, industry, transmission, transportation,
defence, telecommunications and oil business.
BHEL's ability to acquire modern technology and make it suitable to Indian
conditions has been an exceptional strength of the company.
Strong relationship with NTPC is the strength, as NTPC is planning a capacity
expansion of Rs. 52 bn and based on the past, 85% of NTPC projects have
been bagged by BHEL. The company also enjoys purchase price preference.
PSU status is a big weakness for BHEL as it is subject to their rules and
regulations and is forced to carry a huge amount of labor force, which it is not
able to retrench.
The company offers very stringent credit facilities to the customers and this is
a weakness when compared in the face of rising competition. On the other
hand their customers in the power segment, SEBs, have a huge amount of
receivables standing against their name in the company's balance sheet. This
is a major weakness for the company.
The company is vertically integrated, which could have been avoided by
outsourcing its components for power generation and transmission. This could
have reduced the cost.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 22 | P a g e
The power sector reforms are expected to pick up in the near future in India,
which would directly benefit BHEL.
Increase in defence budget will increase the topline for the company.
NTPC is planning additional capacities to the tune of 2,800 MW, at a cost of
Rs 52 bn. BHEL could benefit a lot as it has happened in the past that
significant portion of the project of NTPC is handled by BHEL. Nearly 85% of
the NTPC projects were assigned to BHEL only.
The business of modernization and renovations of power plants is expected to
grow in India.
The disinvestment plans of the government would bring in new resources and
experience into the company.
Joint Venture with Siemens in the name of Powerplant Performance
Improvement Ltd. (PPIL), is a major strength for the company. This tie-up will
be beneficial as there is a lot of scope for business. During FY00 the PPIL
received orders worth Rs. 320 crore.
The global trend of consolidation has already resulted in a fall in turnover of
the company and this will prove to be a major threat in the years to come as
The company is dependent on NTPC to a great extent.
Recently, the government has permitted the import of second hand capital
goods that are 10 years old without the need for a license. This move will
definitely increase competitive pressures for BHEL.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 23 | P a g e
It all started with the flicker of a light bulb and soon enough GE was off and
o In 1890, Thomas Alva Edison established the Edison General Electric
Company in Menlo Park, New Jersey
o At the same time Charles A. Coffin was growing his business, The
o It was increasingly difficult for Edison and Coffin to remain competitive
based their own technologies
o Fairfield, Connecticut
Number of Employees
o Over 315,000
o Over 160 Countries
Symbol on Stock Exchange
Number of Shareholders
o 4 Million
GE is imagination at work- - a diversified technology, media, and financial
services company focused on solving some of the world’s toughest problems. With
products and services ranging from aircraft engineering, power generation, water
processing and security technology to medical imaging, business and consumer
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 24 | P a g e
financing, media content and advance materials, GE serves customers in more than
100 countries and employs more than 3,00,000 people worldwide.
GE is focused on growth and is committed to achieving worldwide
leadership in each of its business. The company is organized into six market focused
group. GE infrastructure, GE commercial financial services, GE industrial, NBC
universal, GE health care and GE consumer finance. This structure is aimed at
expanding the company’s growth capability and positioning the company for
GE is committed to serving the communities where we do business, providing our
customers with innovative, high-quality products and services and protecting the
health of our workers and our environment.
GE’s reputation for honest and reliable business conduct, built by so many people
over so many decades, is tested and proved in each business transaction they
Environment, Health & Safety
They are committed to keeping our workers safe on the job and ensuring compliance
with environmental regulations.
GE employees embrace Six Sigma's customer-focused, data-driven philosophy and
apply it to everything they do.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 25 | P a g e
GE in POWER SECTOR:
GE energy business supplies a full spectrum of power plant solution, ranging
from fossil fuel technology to renewable energy, to suit customer specific
requirements. Offering includes equipment-only packages, engineered packages or
total turnkey projects. GE technology gas and steam turbine, hydro turbine, wind
turbine and nuclear units account for more than 10% of India’s power generation
installed capacity. With more than 200 customers in the Indian subcontinent, GE’s
energy business also offers an array of transmission and distribution product and
services, as well as condition monitoring products and services, optimization
services, energy rentals, aero derivative technology, wind energy, gas fuelled
reciprocating engines, hydro power, solar technologies and nuclear energy
GE is Organized along 11 Businesses
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 26 | P a g e
5 Forces Model
Rivalry among competitors
o ALSTOM and Siemens, in particular
o Creating competitive advantages to gain bigger market share
Acquisitions, mergers and joint-ventures
Battle for innovation and technological improvements
Potential of New Entrants
o Adaptac (1981) and Adept Technology (1983)
o Late bloomers, but slowly gaining market share
o Does not pose too much of a threat to GE, ALSTOM or Siemens for
o Tough for new entrants to pinch a sizable chunk of market share from
GE, ALSTOM or Siemens
o Materials, parts, components, other resources
o Vertically integrated (GE Advanced Plastics, GE Consumer and
o Has to be aware of suppliers that might integrate forward
o Has many substitutes that might pose a threat
o Very well-diversified which means that GE is spreading the risk of
failure in every market
o Eg. GE’s NBC-Universal’s substitute are pirated VCD’s or DVD’s
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 27 | P a g e
o Similar to its substitutes, GE has a broad line of buyers, ranging from
consumers to large corporations
o Eg. GE Healthcare’s buyers are hospitals and pharmacies.
o Global strength and recognition
5th in Fortune 500 list, operating in more than 160 countries
o Excellent management
Proven leadership and business model
Confident investors – raising capital
o Diverse product range
Long Term (GE Aircraft engines)
Short Term (GE Lighting, Plastics, NBC)
Financial Services (contributes to 40% of GE’s revenue)
Spreading the risk of failure in every market and not just one
o Better service
o Better technology
o Company size/ acquisition restriction
Eg. GE’s planned acquisition of Honeywell International
specializing in aerospace products, was rejected by the EU
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 28 | P a g e
o Energy Segment
Underperforming, no signs of near future recovery
Large and diverse businesses might overstretch the company
and reduce reaction times to shifts in targeted markets
o Higher prices
o Research and Development
Immense capital allows GE to contribute a lot to R&D for product
development and improvement
o Increased geographic growth
Global expansion = more opportunities (Eg. China)
o Merger between NBC and Vivendi
Further opportunities in the media business
o Improved customer services
Adopted a new customer focus initiative
o Exposure to global economy
Economy slowdown would affect GE, since 40% of the revenue
is generated overseas
Exposed to currency fluctuations
o Intense scrutiny after Enron
More transparency and disclosure; skeptical investors
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 29 | P a g e
Public image of all large companies suffered
Constant change in technology heats up competition
Very diverse:- tough to be the best in all industry
o Changing market trends & Demand
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 30 | P a g e
Alstom is a large French multinational conglomerate which holds interests in
the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in
the years 2007-'08 Alstom had annual sales of over €16.9 billion, and employed
more than 81,500 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are located
in Levallois-Perret, near Paris. Its current CEO is Patrick Kron.
Alstom is a world leader in hydroelectric power generation; in conventional
islands for nuclear power plants; and in environmental control systems. It is also a
producer of very high speed trains and of high speed trains, being the manufacturer
of the AGV, TGV, and Eurostar series, as well as of Citadis trams. Alstom is also
present in the urban transport market, and is behind regional train models, signalling
infrastructure equipment, and a number of associated services.
Alstom power activities include the design, manufacturing, services and supply of
products and systems for the power generation sector and industrial markets. The
group covers all energy sources - gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind. Alstom supplies
and maintains all components of a power plant and provides complete turnkey
solutions. During the financial year 2007/08, Alstom Power sales amounted to 11.4
Steam turbines, gas turbines
Turbo generators and generators
Air quality control systems
Monitoring and control systems for power plants
Gas-fired power plants
Coal-fired (steam) power plants
Conventional islands for nuclear power plants
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 31 | P a g e
Hydroelectric power plants
Maintenance and services
Refurbishment of existing plants
FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS
• Strong parental support gives ALSTOM a clear edge in integrated power and
• Strong order backlog (Rs30 bn+, >2.4XFY07 revenues) imparts earnings visibility.
• Strong references in India provide a definite advantage to ALSTOM for future
• ALSTOM is one of the few players to execute hi-end power projects in India.
• ALSTOM has a longer execution cycle (Hydro projects >5 years, gas projects 2-
2.5 yrs & steam > 4 years)
• ALSTOM’s hydro projects carry various risks including on environmental issues
over which ALSTOM has no control.
• ALSTOM operates in a cyclical industry where business volumes are dependent
upon government plans.
• 11th & 12th Plans comprise 72%+ (coal & lignite) capacity addition in 660/800 Mw
• Huge capex in generation (11th plan envisages 157% more than what was
achieved in the 10th plan).
• Competition with the likes of BHEL remains a key threat for ALSTOM.
• Problems with fuel (like gas) could lead to cancellation / delays in planned projects.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 32 | P a g e
Porter’s Five Force analysis
The Intensity of Competitive Rivalry
The number of players in the power sector it comes to providing fully
integrated service are few but the intensity of competitive rivalry can be termed as
medium as there is sufficient scope available in the industry for all the existing
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
As the requirement of equipments are growing exponentially, the supply of
Power Equipments can be met by Importing or from the domestic suppliers. So the
bargaining power of the Supplier is medium enough to tackle in the current scenario.
Bargaining Power of Buyers
In today’s world customer is the king. The power sector has to be developed
at a much rapid pace to cope up with the development activities which are in
progress. So that the bargaining power of the Buyer is more when compared to other
The Threat of Substitute Product
As renewable power generation for the world the threat of substitute product
is low. Wind power projects are also the most preferred bearing in mind the large
coastline, which we posses.
The Threat of New Entrants
As the power sector are highly capital intensive and involves large amount of
commitment in terms of capital , assets and work- force the threat of new entrants is
low . As only those organizations which have the required capabilities and are willing
to take the risk of entering a sector which can be seen as still developing will enter
the market. New entrants such as BGR Energy Systems pose threat to their Indian
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 33 | P a g e
India possesses a vast opportunity to grow in the field of power generation,
transmission, and distribution. The target of over 150,000 MW of Hydel power
generation is yet to be achieved. By the year 2012, India requires an additional
100,000 MW of generation capacity.
A huge capital investment is required to meet this target. This has welcomed
numerous power generation, transmission, and distribution companies across the
globe to establish their operations in the country under the famous PPP (public-
private partnership) programmes.
The power sector is still experiencing a large demand-supply gap. This has
called for an effective consideration of some of strategic initiatives. There are strong
opportunities in transmission network ventures - additional 60,000 circuit kilometres
of transmission network is expected by 2012 with a total investment opportunity of
about US$ 200 billion.
POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS 34 | P a g e