2.
Data in the real world is dirty
incomplete: lacking attribute values, lacking certain attributes of
interest, or containing only aggregate data
e.g., occupation=― ‖
noisy: containing errors or outliers
e.g., Salary=―-10‖
inconsistent: containing discrepancies in codes or names
e.g., Age=―42‖ Birthday=―03/07/1997‖
e.g., Was rating ―1,2,3‖, now rating ―A, B, C‖
e.g., discrepancy between duplicate records
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3.
Data Cleaning / Data Cleansing
Fill in missing values, smooth noisy data, identify or
remove outliers, and resolve inconsistencies
Data Integration
Integration of multiple databases, data cubes, or files
Data Transformation
Normalization and aggregation
Data Reduction
Obtains reduced representation in volume but produces
the same or similar analytical results
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4.
DESCRIPTIVE DATA
SUMMARIZATION
Measuring the Central Tendency
Distributive
Measure
Algebraic
Measure
Holistic
Measure
Measuring the Dispersion of Data
Range, Quartiles,
Outliers and
Boxplots
Variance
and
Standard
Deviation
Graphic
Displays
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5.
The variance of N observations, x1, x2, ....xN is
1
2 =
N
N
( xi x)
i1
2
1
N
2
i
x
1
( xi )2
N
5
6.
Where
x
is the mean value of observations
The Standard deviation is
The of the observations is the square root of the
variance, 2
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7.
The basic properties of the standard deviation ,
measures spread about the mean and should be used only
when the mean is chosen as the measure of center
= 0 only when there is no spread, that is, when all
observations have the same value. Otherwise > 0
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8.
Apart from the bar charts, pie charts and line graphs, there
are other popular types of graphs for the display of data
summaries and distributions.
Histograms
Quantile plots
q-q plots
Scatter plots
Curves
8
9.
Plotting histograms, or frequency histograms, is a graphical method
for summarizing the distribution of a given attribute.
A histogram for an attribute A partitions into subsets or buckets.
The width of each bucket is uniform
Each bucket is represented by a rectangle
The resulting graph is referred to as Bar chart
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10.
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Series 3
Series 2
Series 1
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11.
It is a simple and effective way for a univariate data distribution
First, it displays all of the data for the given attribute
Second, it plots quantile information
The mechanism is slightly differ from percentile computation
fi = i – 0.5 / N
11
13.
A quantile-quantile plot, or q-q plot graphs the quantiles of one
variate distribution against the corresponding quantiles of another
It is a powerful visualization tool that allows the user to view
whether there is a shift in going from one distribution to another.
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14.
6
5
4
3
Series 1
2
Series 2
1
Series 3
0
Category Category Category Category
1
2
3
4
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15.
A Scatter plot used for determining if there appears to be a
relationship, pattern, or trend between two numerical attributes
To construct a scatter plot, each pair of values is treated as a pair of
coordinates in an algebraic sense and plotted as points in the plane
Bivariate data to see clusters of points and outliers or correlation
relationships
15
19.
It is another graphic aid that adds a smooth curve to a scatter plot in order
to provide better perception of the pattern of dependence
The word loess is short for ―local regression‖
There are two values are needed that is smoothing parameter () and , the
degree of the polynomials that are fitted by regression
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21.
Descriptive data summaries provide valuable insight into the
overall behavior of our data
By helping to identify noise and outliers, they are especially useful
for data cleaning
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22.
Data Cleaning or Data Cleansing routines attempt to fill in missing
values,
smooth
out
noise
while
identifying
outliers,
and
correct
inconsistencies in the data.
Handling missing values
Data Smoothing techniques
Data Cleaning as a process
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23.
Many tuples have no recorded value for several attributes
Methods:
1. Ignore the tuple :
This is usually done when the class label is missing
It is not very effective
2. Fill in the missing value manually:
It is time-consuming and may not be feasible in large data set
3. Use a global constant to fill in the missing value:
Replace all missing attribute values by the same constant
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24.
4. Use the attribute mean to fill in the missing value:
Use the mean value to replace the missing value for particular
attribute
5. Use the attribute mean for all samples belonging to the same class as the
given tuple:
if classifying customers according to credit_risk, replace the missing
value with the average income value for customers
6. Use the most probable value to fill in the missing value:
This may be determined with regression, inference-based tools using
a Bayesian formalism, or decision tree induction.
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25.
Methods 3 to 6 bias the data. The filled-in value may not be correct
Method 6 is a popular strategy to predict missing values
By considering the other values of the other attributes in its estimation
of the missing value
In some cases, a missing value may not imply an error in the data!
Ex: Phone number in some application form NULL
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26.
What is Noise?
Noise is a random error or variance in a measured variable.
Data Smoothing techniques:
Binning
Regression
Clustering
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27.
Binning
first sort data and partition into (equal-frequency) bins then
one can smooth by bin means, smooth by bin median, smooth by bin
boundaries, etc.
Regression
smooth by fitting the data into regression functions
Clustering
detect and remove outliers
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28.
Combines data from multiple sources into a coherent store
Schema integration:
Integrate metadata from different sources
Entity identification problem:
Identify real world entities from multiple data sources,
e.g., Bill Clinton = William Clinton
Detecting and resolving data value conflicts
For the same real world entity, attribute values from different
sources are different
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29.
Redundant data occur often when integration of multiple databases
Object identification: The same attribute or object may have
different names in different databases
Derivable data: One attribute may be a ―derived‖ attribute in
another table, e.g., annual revenue
Redundant attributes may be able to be detected by correlation analysis
Careful integration of the data from multiple sources may help
reduce/avoid redundancies and inconsistencies and improve mining
speed and quality
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30.
Smoothing: remove noise from data
Aggregation: summarization, data cube construction
Generalization: concept hierarchy climbing
Normalization: scaled to fall within a small, specified range
min-max normalization
z-score normalization
normalization by decimal scaling
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31.
Min-max normalization: to [new_minA, new_maxA]
v'
v minA
(new _ maxA new _ minA) new _ minA
maxA minA
◦ Ex. Let income range $12,000 to $98,000 normalized to [0.0, 1.0].
Then $73,000 is mapped to 73,600 12,000 (1.0 0) 0 0.716
98,000 12 ,000
Z-score normalization (μ: mean, σ: standard deviation):
v
A
v'
73,600 54 ,000
A
1.225
◦ Ex. Let μ = 54,000, σ = 16,000. Then
Normalization by decimal scaling
v
v'
10 j
16 ,000
Where j is the smallest integer such that Max(|ν’|) < 1
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32.
Why data reduction?
A database/data warehouse may store terabytes of data
Complex data analysis/mining may take a very long time to run on
the complete data set
Data reduction
Obtain a reduced representation of the data set that is much
smaller in volume but yet produce the same (or almost the same)
analytical results
Data reduction strategies
o Data cube aggregation:
o Dimensionality reduction — e.g., remove unimportant attributes
o Data Compression
o Numerosity reduction — e.g., fit data into models
o Discretization and concept hierarchy generation
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33.
Data preparation or preprocessing is a big issue for both data
warehousing and data mining
Discriptive data summarization is need for quality data preprocessing
Data preparation includes,
Data cleaning and data integration
Data reduction and feature selection
Discretization
A lot a methods have been developed but data preprocessing still an active
area of research
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