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Pharmacogenetics Ppt

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  • 1. What is Pharmacogenetics?
    • - Every year in the USA alone 2 million people experience adverse drug effects and more than a 100,000 die from those reactions.
    • - Another horrible fact is that the drugs in today’s society are only effective in 60 % of the population.
    • What can we do to stop these adverse drug effects? How can we develop drugs that can be effective for everyone?
    • THE ANSWER IS PHARMACOGENETICS
  • 2. Current Clinical Methods
    • Nico Test for personalised regimen to quit smoking 
    • Amplichip for CYP 450
    • PCR based strategy for CYP 2D6 genotyping
    • Tratuzumab : first drug with clinical application
    • Thiopurines : immunomodulating drugs for leukemia and chronic inflammatory conditions
    • Dosing considerations for other drugs such as Ironitecan , Warfarin , Tamoxifen , and Abacavir
    • FDA has labelled 10% of its recently approved drugs with pharmacogenomic information
  • 3. Ongoing Research on CYP
    • Cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes
    • Found all over the body but major enzymatic activity occurs in hepatic CYPs
    • Bioactivation and metabolism of approximately 75% of drugs gives CYPs prominence in pharmacogenetics research
    • Pharmacogenetic research is playing a major role in dosing of Warfarin (an anticoagulant)
  • 4. Pharmacogenetics vs Bioethics
    • Main ethical concerns are combination of the following: 
    •  
    • - Unequal distribution of benefits/resources
    •  
    • - Invasion of medical privacy
    •  
    • - Discrimination due to the involvementtof genetic tests
    •  
    • - Research/business conflict-of-interest
  • 5. Major Drugs Ineffective For Many … and harmful to some
  • 6. Costs Impact
    • Increase in costs
    •      - New Techniques need to be developed
    •      - Requires new training
    •      - Requires new facilities
    •      - Segmentation of market result in a reduction of revenue generated
    •      - Post marketing surveillance cost
    •  
    • Benefits
    •      - Shelved drugs coming back to life.
    •       - Fewer legal liabilities.
    •      - Saving lives. 
  • 7. Thank you for your attention
    • Group 13
    • Joe Hong
    • Tanvir Kahlon
    • Shereen Bart
    • Linnéa Kadfors
    • Traci Vogler
    • Jennifer Duncan
    • David Beshai
  • 8. References
    • Bioethics. (n.d.)  In  The Free Dictionary.  Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com
    •  
    • Barash, C.I. (2001). Ethical issues in pharmacogenetics.  American Institute of Biological Sciences.  Retrieved from http://www.actionbioscience.org/genomic/barash.html
    •  
    • Genomics.energy.gov, Genome programs of the U.S Department of Energy Office of Science, Human Genome Project Information. (2008, September, 19). Pharmacogenomics. Retrived from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/pharma.shtml
    •    
    • Gettig, E. (2009). Personalized Medicin e. Retrieved from  http://mostgene.org/2009_conference/personalized_meds_Gettig.pdf
    •    
    • Human Genome Project. (2008). Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml
    • Klug S. William & Cummings R. Michael & Spencer A. Charlotte.  Essential of genetics 6 th  edition . Retrieved from page. 437.
    •  
    • Lazarou, J., Pomeranz, B. H., Corey, P. N., (1998). Incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions in Hospitalized Patient s. JAMA. 279. 1200-5
    •    
    • Murray, M. F. (2009). Will Plavix be the pharmacogenetics exemplar? . Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/202479739.html
    •   
    • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nice.org.uk/ 
    • Nuffield Council on Bioethics. (2003). Pharmacogenetics Ethical Issues. Retrieved from http://nuffieldbioethics.org/go/ourwork/pharmacogenetics/introduction
    •  
    • Ross, A., Pharmacogenetics cut clinical trial costs. Retrieved from  http://www.ngpharma.com/article/The-genetic-advantage/
    • Stellenbosch University, Department of Biochemistry. (n.d).  Ac Swart group (Image of cytochrome P450 oxidase ). Retrieved from http://www0.sun.ac.za/biochem/Imagine/Media/Pictures/220px-CytP450Oxidase-1OG2.png
    •  
    • University of Liverpool. (n.d). Pharmacogenetics (Image of DNA and pills). Retrieved from  http://liv.ac.uk/pharmacogenetics/dna_and_pills.jpg
    • White. M. T. (2000). Ethical Issues in Genetic Research. Retrieved from http://poynter.indiana.edu/sas/res/genetics.pdf