What is Pharmacogenetics? <ul><li>- Every year in the USA alone 2 million people experience adverse drug effects and more ...
Current Clinical Methods <ul><li>Nico Test  for personalised regimen to quit smoking  </li></ul><ul><li>Amplichip  for CYP...
Ongoing Research on CYP <ul><li>Cytochrome P450  superfamily of enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Found all over the body but majo...
Pharmacogenetics vs Bioethics <ul><li>Main ethical concerns are combination of the following:  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></...
Major Drugs Ineffective For Many … and harmful to some
Costs Impact <ul><li>Increase in costs </li></ul><ul><li>      - New Techniques need to be developed </li></ul><ul><li>   ...
Thank you for your attention <ul><li>Group 13  </li></ul><ul><li>Joe Hong  </li></ul><ul><li>Tanvir Kahlon </li></ul><ul><...
References <ul><li>Bioethics. (n.d.)  In  The Free Dictionary.  Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com </li></ul...
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Pharmacogenetics Ppt

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Pharmacogenetics Ppt

  1. 1. What is Pharmacogenetics? <ul><li>- Every year in the USA alone 2 million people experience adverse drug effects and more than a 100,000 die from those reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>- Another horrible fact is that the drugs in today’s society are only effective in 60 % of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do to stop these adverse drug effects? How can we develop drugs that can be effective for everyone? </li></ul><ul><li>THE ANSWER IS PHARMACOGENETICS </li></ul>
  2. 2. Current Clinical Methods <ul><li>Nico Test for personalised regimen to quit smoking  </li></ul><ul><li>Amplichip for CYP 450 </li></ul><ul><li>PCR based strategy for CYP 2D6 genotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Tratuzumab : first drug with clinical application </li></ul><ul><li>Thiopurines : immunomodulating drugs for leukemia and chronic inflammatory conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Dosing considerations for other drugs such as Ironitecan , Warfarin , Tamoxifen , and Abacavir </li></ul><ul><li>FDA has labelled 10% of its recently approved drugs with pharmacogenomic information </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ongoing Research on CYP <ul><li>Cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Found all over the body but major enzymatic activity occurs in hepatic CYPs </li></ul><ul><li>Bioactivation and metabolism of approximately 75% of drugs gives CYPs prominence in pharmacogenetics research </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacogenetic research is playing a major role in dosing of Warfarin (an anticoagulant) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pharmacogenetics vs Bioethics <ul><li>Main ethical concerns are combination of the following:  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- Unequal distribution of benefits/resources </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- Invasion of medical privacy </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- Discrimination due to the involvementtof genetic tests </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- Research/business conflict-of-interest </li></ul>
  5. 5. Major Drugs Ineffective For Many … and harmful to some
  6. 6. Costs Impact <ul><li>Increase in costs </li></ul><ul><li>     - New Techniques need to be developed </li></ul><ul><li>     - Requires new training </li></ul><ul><li>     - Requires new facilities </li></ul><ul><li>     - Segmentation of market result in a reduction of revenue generated </li></ul><ul><li>     - Post marketing surveillance cost </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>     - Shelved drugs coming back to life. </li></ul><ul><li>      - Fewer legal liabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>     - Saving lives.  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Thank you for your attention <ul><li>Group 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Joe Hong </li></ul><ul><li>Tanvir Kahlon </li></ul><ul><li>Shereen Bart </li></ul><ul><li>Linnéa Kadfors </li></ul><ul><li>Traci Vogler </li></ul><ul><li>Jennifer Duncan </li></ul><ul><li>David Beshai </li></ul>
  8. 8. References <ul><li>Bioethics. (n.d.)  In  The Free Dictionary.  Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Barash, C.I. (2001). Ethical issues in pharmacogenetics.  American Institute of Biological Sciences.  Retrieved from http://www.actionbioscience.org/genomic/barash.html </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Genomics.energy.gov, Genome programs of the U.S Department of Energy Office of Science, Human Genome Project Information. (2008, September, 19). Pharmacogenomics. Retrived from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/pharma.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>Gettig, E. (2009). Personalized Medicin e. Retrieved from  http://mostgene.org/2009_conference/personalized_meds_Gettig.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>Human Genome Project. (2008). Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>Klug S. William & Cummings R. Michael & Spencer A. Charlotte.  Essential of genetics 6 th  edition . Retrieved from page. 437. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lazarou, J., Pomeranz, B. H., Corey, P. N., (1998). Incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions in Hospitalized Patient s. JAMA. 279. 1200-5 </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>Murray, M. F. (2009). Will Plavix be the pharmacogenetics exemplar? . Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/202479739.html </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nice.org.uk/  </li></ul><ul><li>Nuffield Council on Bioethics. (2003). Pharmacogenetics Ethical Issues. Retrieved from http://nuffieldbioethics.org/go/ourwork/pharmacogenetics/introduction </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Ross, A., Pharmacogenetics cut clinical trial costs. Retrieved from  http://www.ngpharma.com/article/The-genetic-advantage/ </li></ul><ul><li>Stellenbosch University, Department of Biochemistry. (n.d).  Ac Swart group (Image of cytochrome P450 oxidase ). Retrieved from http://www0.sun.ac.za/biochem/Imagine/Media/Pictures/220px-CytP450Oxidase-1OG2.png </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>University of Liverpool. (n.d). Pharmacogenetics (Image of DNA and pills). Retrieved from  http://liv.ac.uk/pharmacogenetics/dna_and_pills.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>White. M. T. (2000). Ethical Issues in Genetic Research. Retrieved from http://poynter.indiana.edu/sas/res/genetics.pdf     </li></ul>
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