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Human Human Anatomy Urinary System
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Human Human Anatomy Urinary System

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  • 1. The Urinary System PART 1
  • 2. The Urinary System
    • Important functions of the kidneys
      • Maintain the chemical consistency of blood
      • Filter many liters of fluid from blood
      • Send toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess water out of the body
        • Main waste products
          • Urea
          • Uric acid
          • Creatinine
  • 3. Organs of the Urinary System
    • Kidneys
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    Figure 23.1a
  • 4. Location and External Anatomy of Kidneys
    • Located retroperitoneally
    • Lateral to T 12 –L 3 vertebrae
    • Average kidney
      • 12 cm tall, 6 cm wide, 3 cm thick
    • Hilus
      • On concave surface
      • Vessels and nerves enter and exit
    • Renal capsule surrounds the kidney
  • 5. Relationship of the Kidneys to Vertebra and Ribs Figure 23.1b
  • 6. Position of the Kidneys with in the Posterior Abdominal Wall Figure 23.2a
  • 7. Internal Gross Anatomy of the Kidneys
    • Frontal section through the kidney
      • Renal cortex
      • Renal pyramids
      • Renal pelvis
        • Major calicies
        • Minor calicies
    • Gross vasculature
      • Renal arteries
        • Branch into segmental arteries
  • 8. Summary of Blood Vessels Supplying the Kidney Figure 23.3c
  • 9. Internal Gross Anatomy of the Kidneys
    • Nerve supply – renal plexus
      • A network of autonomic fibers
      • An offshoot of the celiac plexus
  • 10. Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys Figure 23.3b
  • 11. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidneys
    • Uriniferous tubules
      • Composed of
        • Nephron
          • Renal corpuscle plus renal tubules
        • Collecting duct
          • Involved in concentrating urine
    PLAY Nephron
  • 12. Mechanisms of Urine Production
    • Filtration
      • Filtrate of blood leaves kidney capillaries
    • Reabsorption
      • Most nutrients, water, and essential ions reclaimed
    • Secretion
      • Active process of removing undesirable molecules
  • 13. Basic Kidney Functions Figure 23.4
  • 14. The Urinary System PART 2
  • 15. Uriniferous Tubule Figure 23.5a
  • 16. The Nephron
    • Renal corpuscle
      • Glomerulus and glomerular capsule
        • Glomerulus – tuft of capillaries
          • Capillaries of glomerulus are fenestrated
        • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule
          • Parietal layer – simple squamous epithelium
          • Visceral layer – consists of podocytes
  • 17. Renal Corpuscle and the Filtration Membrane Figure 23.6a
  • 18. Renal Corpuscle and the Filtration Membrane Figure 23.6c
  • 19. Tubular Section of Nephron
    • Filtrate proceeds to renal tubules from glomerulus
      • Proximal convoluted tubule
      • Loop of Henle
        • Descending limb
        • Thin segment
        • Thick segment
      • Distal convoluted tubule
  • 20. Micrograph through the Renal Medulla Figure 23.7
  • 21. Classes of Nephron
    • Cortical nephrons
      • 85% of nephrons
    • Juxtamedullary nephrons
      • 15% of nephrons
  • 22. Collecting Tubules (Collecting ducts)
    • Collecting tubules
      • Receive urine from distal convoluted tubules
    Figure 23.8
  • 23. Classes of Nephron Figure 23.9a
  • 24. Microscopic Blood Vessels
    • Nephrons associated with two types of capillary beds (a portal system)
      • Glomerulus
        • Fed and drained by arterioles
          • Afferent and efferent arterioles
      • Peritubular capillaries
        • Arise from efferent arterioles
        • Low-pressure, porous capillaries
        • Absorb solutes
  • 25. Microscopic Blood Vessels
    • Vasa recta
      • Thin-walled looping vessels
      • Part of the kidney’s urine-concentrating mechanism
  • 26. The Urinary System PART 3
  • 27. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
    • Juxtaglomerular apparatus
      • Functions in the regulation of blood pressure
      • Juxtaglomerular cells – secrete renin
    • Macula densa
      • A portion of distal convoluted tubule
        • Tall, closely packed epithelial cells
        • Act as chemoreceptors
  • 28. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Figure 23.10
  • 29. Ureters
    • Carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
    • Oblique entry into bladder prevents backflow of urine
    • Histology of ureter
      • Mucosa – transitional epithelium
      • Muscularis – two layers
        • Inner longitudinal layer
        • Outer circular layer
      • Adventitia – typical connective tissue
  • 30. Microscopic Structure of the Ureter Figure 23.12
  • 31. Urinary Bladder
    • A collapsible muscular sac
    • Stores and expels urine
      • Full bladder – spherical
        • Expands into the abdominal cavity
      • Empty bladder – lies entirely within the pelvis
    Figure 23.13
  • 32. Urinary Bladder
    • Urachus – closed remnant of the allantois
    • Prostate gland
      • In males
        • Lies directly inferior to the bladder
        • Surrounds the urethra
    Figure 23.14
  • 33. Urinary Bladder
    • Wall of bladder
      • Mucosa
        • Transitional epithelium
      • Muscular layer
        • Detrus or muscle
      • Adventitia
  • 34. Histology of the Urinary Bladder Figure 23.15a, b
  • 35. Structure of the Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 23.16a
  • 36. Structure of the Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 23.16b
  • 37. Urethra
    • Epithelium of urethra
      • Transitional epithelium
        • At the proximal end (near the bladder)
      • Stratified and pseudostratified columnar – mid urethra (in males)
      • Stratified squamous epithelium
        • At the distal end (near the urethral opening)
  • 38. Urethra
    • Internal urethral sphincter
      • Involuntary smooth muscle
    • External urethral sphincter
      • Voluntarily inhibits urination
      • Relaxes when one urinates
  • 39. Urethra
    • In females
      • Length of 3–4 cm
    • In males – 20 cm in length – three named regions
      • Prostatic urethra
        • Passes through the prostate gland
      • Membranous urethra
        • Through the urogenital diaphragm
      • Spongy (penile) urethra
        • Passes through the length of the penis
  • 40. Micturition Figure 23.17
  • 41. Disorders of the Urinary System
    • Urinary tract infections
      • More common in females
      • Burning sensation during micturition
    • Renal calculi
      • Kidney stones
    • Bladder cancer
      • 3% of cancers – more common in men
    • Kidney cancer
      • Arises from epithelial cells of uriniferous tubules
  • 42. The Urinary System Throughout Life
    • Embryo develops three pairs of kidneys
      • Pronephros
      • Mesonephros
      • Metanephros
        • Only metanephros persists to become the adult kidneys
        • Metanephric kidney produces urine by fetal month three
        • Contributes to the volume of amniotic fluid
  • 43. Development of the Urinary Organs Figure 23.18a,b
  • 44. Development of the Urinary Organs Figure 23.18c, d
  • 45. The Urinary System Throughout Life
    • Kidney and bladder function declines with advancing age
      • Nephrons decrease in size and number
      • Tubules less efficient at secretion and reabsorption
      • Filtration declines
      • Recognition of desire to urinate is delayed
      • Loss of muscle tone in the bladder