Human Human Anatomy Urinary System

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Human Human Anatomy Urinary System

  1. 1. The Urinary System PART 1
  2. 2. The Urinary System <ul><li>Important functions of the kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain the chemical consistency of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter many liters of fluid from blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess water out of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main waste products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uric acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creatinine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Organs of the Urinary System <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul>Figure 23.1a
  4. 4. Location and External Anatomy of Kidneys <ul><li>Located retroperitoneally </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral to T 12 –L 3 vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Average kidney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 cm tall, 6 cm wide, 3 cm thick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hilus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On concave surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vessels and nerves enter and exit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal capsule surrounds the kidney </li></ul>
  5. 5. Relationship of the Kidneys to Vertebra and Ribs Figure 23.1b
  6. 6. Position of the Kidneys with in the Posterior Abdominal Wall Figure 23.2a
  7. 7. Internal Gross Anatomy of the Kidneys <ul><li>Frontal section through the kidney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major calicies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minor calicies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gross vasculature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branch into segmental arteries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Summary of Blood Vessels Supplying the Kidney Figure 23.3c
  9. 9. Internal Gross Anatomy of the Kidneys <ul><li>Nerve supply – renal plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A network of autonomic fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An offshoot of the celiac plexus </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys Figure 23.3b
  11. 11. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidneys <ul><li>Uriniferous tubules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nephron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renal corpuscle plus renal tubules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting duct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in concentrating urine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>PLAY Nephron
  12. 12. Mechanisms of Urine Production <ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtrate of blood leaves kidney capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reabsorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most nutrients, water, and essential ions reclaimed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active process of removing undesirable molecules </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Basic Kidney Functions Figure 23.4
  14. 14. The Urinary System PART 2
  15. 15. Uriniferous Tubule Figure 23.5a
  16. 16. The Nephron <ul><li>Renal corpuscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulus and glomerular capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulus – tuft of capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries of glomerulus are fenestrated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal layer – simple squamous epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral layer – consists of podocytes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Renal Corpuscle and the Filtration Membrane Figure 23.6a
  18. 18. Renal Corpuscle and the Filtration Membrane Figure 23.6c
  19. 19. Tubular Section of Nephron <ul><li>Filtrate proceeds to renal tubules from glomerulus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal convoluted tubule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loop of Henle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descending limb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin segment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick segment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distal convoluted tubule </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Micrograph through the Renal Medulla Figure 23.7
  21. 21. Classes of Nephron <ul><li>Cortical nephrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of nephrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Juxtamedullary nephrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% of nephrons </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Collecting Tubules (Collecting ducts) <ul><li>Collecting tubules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive urine from distal convoluted tubules </li></ul></ul>Figure 23.8
  23. 23. Classes of Nephron Figure 23.9a
  24. 24. Microscopic Blood Vessels <ul><li>Nephrons associated with two types of capillary beds (a portal system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fed and drained by arterioles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afferent and efferent arterioles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peritubular capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arise from efferent arterioles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-pressure, porous capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorb solutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Microscopic Blood Vessels <ul><li>Vasa recta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin-walled looping vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the kidney’s urine-concentrating mechanism </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Urinary System PART 3
  27. 27. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney <ul><li>Juxtaglomerular apparatus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions in the regulation of blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juxtaglomerular cells – secrete renin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macula densa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A portion of distal convoluted tubule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tall, closely packed epithelial cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act as chemoreceptors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Figure 23.10
  29. 29. Ureters <ul><li>Carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique entry into bladder prevents backflow of urine </li></ul><ul><li>Histology of ureter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucosa – transitional epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscularis – two layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner longitudinal layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer circular layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia – typical connective tissue </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Microscopic Structure of the Ureter Figure 23.12
  31. 31. Urinary Bladder <ul><li>A collapsible muscular sac </li></ul><ul><li>Stores and expels urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full bladder – spherical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expands into the abdominal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty bladder – lies entirely within the pelvis </li></ul></ul>Figure 23.13
  32. 32. Urinary Bladder <ul><li>Urachus – closed remnant of the allantois </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lies directly inferior to the bladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds the urethra </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 23.14
  33. 33. Urinary Bladder <ul><li>Wall of bladder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detrus or muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Histology of the Urinary Bladder Figure 23.15a, b
  35. 35. Structure of the Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 23.16a
  36. 36. Structure of the Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 23.16b
  37. 37. Urethra <ul><li>Epithelium of urethra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the proximal end (near the bladder) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified and pseudostratified columnar – mid urethra (in males) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified squamous epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the distal end (near the urethral opening) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Urethra <ul><li>Internal urethral sphincter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External urethral sphincter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntarily inhibits urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxes when one urinates </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Urethra <ul><li>In females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of 3–4 cm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In males – 20 cm in length – three named regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostatic urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passes through the prostate gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through the urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy (penile) urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passes through the length of the penis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Micturition Figure 23.17
  41. 41. Disorders of the Urinary System <ul><li>Urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More common in females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning sensation during micturition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal calculi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bladder cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3% of cancers – more common in men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kidney cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arises from epithelial cells of uriniferous tubules </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. The Urinary System Throughout Life <ul><li>Embryo develops three pairs of kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronephros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesonephros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metanephros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only metanephros persists to become the adult kidneys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metanephric kidney produces urine by fetal month three </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to the volume of amniotic fluid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Development of the Urinary Organs Figure 23.18a,b
  44. 44. Development of the Urinary Organs Figure 23.18c, d
  45. 45. The Urinary System Throughout Life <ul><li>Kidney and bladder function declines with advancing age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nephrons decrease in size and number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubules less efficient at secretion and reabsorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration declines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of desire to urinate is delayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of muscle tone in the bladder </li></ul></ul>

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