FUNGi POWER POINT

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FUNGi POWER POINT FOR ONLINE CLASS

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FUNGi POWER POINT

  1. 1. FUNGI http://blog.stayfreemagazine.org/images/fries25.jpg CLICK SOME FRIES TO FIND OUT MORE!
  2. 2. C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S S T R U C T U R E bigger than a blue whale? really??? REPRODUCTION & EVOLUTION NOT FOR THE… squeamish!!! TOUR FUNGI HALL TO LEARN MORE! (don’t be afraid to click  ) ECOLOGY
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI <ul><li>eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>heterotrophic – secrete enzymes into food and absorb digested materials through cell walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most are saprophytic – absorb organic materials from dead organisms, “nature’s recycler” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>many are microscopic </li></ul><ul><li>BACK TO FUNGI HALL </li></ul>
  4. 4. STRUCTURE OF FUNGI <ul><li>made up of hyphae (filaments), collectively called mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>mycelium  </li></ul><ul><li>cell walls contain chitin (also found in insect and crustacean exoskeletons) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plant cell walls contain ??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eubacteria cell walls contain ??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>CELLULOSE! </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>PEPTIDOGLYCAN! </li></ul>
  7. 7. STRUCTURE OF FUNGI <ul><li>cells can be coenocytic – have many nuclei or have separated by septa – “walls” </li></ul><ul><li>range in size from microscopic (yeast) to the largest organism in the world (Armillaria – 3.1 mi 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>some are dimorphic – can change form based on environmental conditions, can grow as mycelium in soil or as unicellular organisms in humans (Histoplasma) </li></ul><ul><li>BACK TO FUNGI HALL </li></ul>
  8. 8. REPRODUCTION IN FUNGI <ul><li>reproduce both asexually (genetically identical offspring) and sexually </li></ul><ul><li>most fungi are haploid throughout their life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>sexual reproduction occurs when hyphae of different mating types </li></ul><ul><li>(+ and -) meet and fuse together </li></ul><ul><li>BACK TO FUNGI HALL </li></ul>
  9. 9. FUNGAL EVOLUTION <ul><li>evolved at about the same time as early plants – 460 million years ago </li></ul>BACK TO FUNGI HALL
  10. 10. THE FUNGAL PHYLA
  11. 11. Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold) <ul><li>600 species </li></ul><ul><li>coenocytic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Rhizopus mycelium (moldy strawberries) <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Spinellus fusiger - mushroom parasite <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Pandora neoaphidis - parasitic fungus that kills green peach aphids <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Zygomycota Life Cycle <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. mature zygospore <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Rhinocerebral Zygomycosis – causes lesions of the palate, face and brain Conidiobolus coronatis - causes polyps in the nose or masses under the skin, found in tropical areas <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>25,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>form a basidiocarp , a reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>structure also known as a mushroom! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. DEADLY MUSHROOMS Some Amanita species associated with oak trees contain alpha-amanitin which works by slowly attacking RNA polymerase, an enzyme in the liver. It ultimately affects the central nervous system and kidneys. Death often results if a liver transplant or other heroic measures are not performed. <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Chlorophyllum molubdites - most common cause of mushroom poisoning in the US <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Omphallotis olearius dine on rotting tree stumps, yum!!! <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>BACK TO FUNGI CHARACTERISTICS
  22. 22. Sexual Reproduction in Basidiomycota <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. basidium and basidiospores <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. bracket fungus - hemlock varnish shelf fungus <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. coral fungus <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>30,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>believed to have evolved most recently </li></ul><ul><li>live in salt, freshwater and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>phyla includes morels, powdery mildews, yeasts and cup fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. sac fungi <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Sexual Reproduction in Ascomycota <ul><li>hyphae of 2 mating strains form gametangia </li></ul><ul><li>female - ascogonium male - antheridium </li></ul><ul><li>gametangia fuse and move into ascogonium, nuclei pair but do not fuse </li></ul><ul><li>cells divide mitotically, each heterokaryotic hyphae grows and intertwines to form an ascocarp (reproductive body) </li></ul><ul><li>asci form on the surface of the ascocarp, near the tips of some hyphae </li></ul><ul><li>each ascus has 2 nuclei that fuse </li></ul><ul><li>each diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis to produce 4 haploid nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>haploid nuclei divide once by mitosis so that each ascus ends up with 8 haploid ascospores </li></ul><ul><li>ascus ruptures to release ascospores that germinate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED – yes, there is a diagram! </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>Sexual Reproduction in Ascomycota
  30. 30. asci with 8 spores in each <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Xylaria polymorpha - aka Dead Man’s Fingers, often found at the base of beech trees <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Xylaria polymorpha cut in half (note the asci - the small black dots!) <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>10,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>no sexual reproductive phase has been discovered </li></ul><ul><li>many are similar to ascomycetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Athlete’s foot - caused by Tricophytom ruburm </li></ul><ul><li>lives within and eats outer skin layers (parasite) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Ringworm - can be caused by the same organism that causes Athlete’s Foot or other organisms, eats skin (parasite) <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Penicillium roqueforti …DE-licious <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Aspergillus can be a parasite (eye infection caused by Aspergillus ) <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. some organisms in this phyla can be used to make soy sauce (soy bean fermentation) BACK TO FUNGI HALL
  39. 39. ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE and IMPACT of FUNGI
  40. 40. <ul><li>may have helped early plants obtain nutrients through a symbiotic relationship </li></ul><ul><li>played an important role in plant evolution 460 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>many fungi are plant parasites responsible for 15-20% of crop loss yearly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>play an essential role in maintaining equilibrium in every ecosystem (even the human body) by recycling nutrients , </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>breaking down wastes and keeping other populations in check </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>replace essential nutrients that plants remove from the soil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>BACK TO FUNGI HALL
  42. 42. wheat rust - produces spores in barberry plants that then migrate to wheat fields <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. corn smut…not for popping  CONTINUED
  44. 44. SYMBIOSIS <ul><li>lichens and mycorrhizea </li></ul><ul><li>fungus is usually an ascomycete (can be a basidiomycete) </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthetic organism is green algae or cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>what does each organism get from the relationship ? </li></ul><ul><li>what is the ecological importance of these organisms ? </li></ul>lichens BACK TO ECOLOGY
  46. 46. fungi provide moist shelter for the algae, while the algae provide a constant food supply (through photosynthesis) to their fungal host <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. lichens are often the first organisms to inhabit barren areas (succession), creating soil by breaking down rock and adding organic nutrients (from their decay) lichen growing on gneiss <ul><ul><li>CONTINUED </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>mycorhizzae are symbiotic relationships between the roots of most plants and fungi </li></ul><ul><li>the fungi fix nitrogen so that it can be used by plants, while they use the plants as a shelter and food source </li></ul>

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