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  • 1. Contemporary Approaches• Biological• Behavioral• Psychodynamic• Humanistic• Cognitive• Evolutionary• Sociocultural © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 1 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 2. Biological Approach• Focus on brain and nervous system• Neuroscience • Structure, function, development, genetics, bioch emistry of nervous system • Brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 2 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 3. Behavioral Approach• Emphasis on observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants• Chapter 5• Notable behaviorists • John B. Watson (1878-1958) • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 3 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 4. Psychodynamic Approach• Emphasis on: • Unconscious impulses • Conflict between biological drives and society • Childhood family experiences• Founding father: • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 4 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 5. Humanistic Approach• Emphasis on: • Positive human qualities • Capacity for positive growth • Freedom to choose any destiny• Notable humanistic psychologists • Carl Rogers (1961) • Abraham Maslow (1971) © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 5 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 6. Cognitive Approach• Emphasis on mental processes involved in knowing• How we: • Direct attention • Perceive, remember, think • Solve problems © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 6 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 7. Evolutionary Approach• Use of evolutionary ideas such as: • Adaptation • Reproduction • Natural selection• Used as a basis for explaining specific human behaviors © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 7 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 8. Sociocultural Approach• Examination of ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior• Focus on comparisons of behavior across: • Countries • Ethnic and cultural groups within countries © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 8 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 9. Types of Psychological Research• Descriptive research • Finding out about some variable• Correlational research • Discovering relationships between variables• Experimental research • Establishing causal relationships © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 9 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 10. Descriptive Research• Describing some phenomemon, without answering questions of how and why• Observation• Surveys and interviews• Case studies- also known as case histories they are an in-depth look at a single individual © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 10 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 11. Correlational Research• Examining whether and how variables are related and change together• Correlation Coefficient: -1.00 ≤ r ≤ 1.00 • Strength: Number • Direction: Sign © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 11 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 12. Figure 1.4 - Scatter Plots ShowingPositive and Negative Correlations © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 12 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 13. Correlation and Causation• Correlation ≠ causation• Third variable problem • Some other variable accounts for relationship between two variables • Third variables also called confounds © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 13 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 14. Longitudinal Designs• Obtaining measures of variables of interest in multiple waves over time• Can suggest potential causal relationships• Causal variable would come first in time• Causal relationships are not completely clear © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 14 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 15. Experimental Research• Determining whether causal relationship exists between variables• Experiment • Manipulation of one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable• Random Assignment • Researchers assign participants to groups by chance © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 15 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 16. Experiments and Causation• Random assignment helps establish causation• Independent variables  manipulated• Dependent variables  measured• Experimental groups • Experience manipulation• Control groups • Serve as baseline for comparison © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 16 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 17. Experimental Research: Validity• External validity • Do experimental results apply, or generalize, to real world?• Internal validity • Are changes in dependent variables due to independent variables? © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 17 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 18. Experimental Research: Bias• Experimenter bias • Demand characteristics• Research participant bias • Placebo effect • Double-blind experiment © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 18 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 19. Research Samples• Population: entire group of individuals of interest• Sample: a small selection of the population chosen by the researcher for the study.• Random samples likely to be representative of population • To allow generalizing of research results • Every member of the population an equal chance of being selected. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 19 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 20. Research Settings• Laboratory research • Control, but with some drawbacks • One major drawback is that it is difficult to generalize findings to real world• Naturalistic observation • Real-world setting • Major drawback is that it is difficult to control and view the behavior of interest © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 20 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 21. Ethical Research• History: World War II• Research participants have certain rights • Human participants • Animal research• Institutional review board (IRB)- must go through each institutions review board and be approved before conducting research. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 21 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 22. APA Ethics Guidelines• Informed consent- participants must be aware of what they are getting into• Confidentiality- participants private information must be protected and secure• Debriefing- informing participants of the purpose of the research and the methods used as well as answering any questions• Deception- when you lie to a participant, before or during the study, about something being done in the study. This is allowed but only under special circumstances and always when the research is concluded a debriefing follows. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 22 posted on a website, in whole or part.
  • 23. Participation Activity• You may leave when your group finishes the activity.• Remember if someone is not present in your group then do not place their name on the assignment.• Write 2 multiple choice questions from the lecture and answer the questions.• Provide an explanation as to why it is the correct answer.• Questions need to be from different topics covered today. © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or 23 posted on a website, in whole or part.