Relation of achievement motivation to success in managerial


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  • Artikel lengkap dikompilasi oleh/hubungi :
    Kanaidi, SE., M.Si (Penulis “Buku PERIKLANAN”, Service Quality and Motivation Trainer, Dosen Marketing Management, Praktisi Bisnis)
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    HP. 08122353284
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Relation of achievement motivation to success in managerial

  1. 1. Relation of Achievement Motivation to Success in Managerial Work By : Kanaidi, SE., M.Si [email_address] ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Training
  2. 2. McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory <ul><li>McClelland and colleagues studied the behavioral effects of three needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the Need for Achievement , although they investigated all three needs </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Strong need for achievement people : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for results of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to take calculated risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set moderate achievement goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer to set performance standards for themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer nonroutine tasks to routine assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welcome feedback about how well they are doing </li></ul></ul>McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory . . .
  4. 4. <ul><li>Acquire the Need for Achievement through socialization to cultural values </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Need for Achievement themes in folklore, mythology, art </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Achievement societies had high levels of economic development </li></ul>McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory . . .
  5. 5. <ul><li>Need for achievement and behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money: important to both high and low achievers, but for different reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High achiever wants concrete feedback about performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making a profit, or receiving a bonus, is a statement about success or failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol of success and feedback about job performance </li></ul></ul></ul>McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory . . .
  6. 6. <ul><li>Need for achievement and behavior (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High achiever wants a challenging job and responsibility for work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Want to feel successful at doing something over which they have control </li></ul></ul></ul>McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory . . . <ul><ul><li>Low achiever views monetary reward as an end in itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get increased performance from low Need for Achievement person by rewarding with money </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Managers and executives usually have a stronger Need for Achievement than people in other occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence points to strong Need for Achievement as an entrepreneur characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Need for Achievement behavior fits well with such role demands </li></ul>McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory . . .
  8. 8. <ul><li>Need for Achievement and Need for Power, some relationships : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Need for Power person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draws attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk taking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present oriented </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses situations for change potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Need for Achievement person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task centered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future oriented </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performs to internal standard of excellence </li></ul></ul></ul>McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory . . .
  9. 9. <ul><li>Need for Achievement and Need for Power: some relationships (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both types of people important for successful organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Need for Achievement managers keep an organization going </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Need for Power people bring dramatic change and innovation </li></ul></ul>McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory . . .
  10. 10. <ul><li>Motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is considered to be a function of ability , opportunity and motivation , thus: </li></ul><ul><li>Job Performance =f(ability)(motivation)(opportunity) </li></ul>Motivation is the key to performance improvement
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ability depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance opportunities vary in different situations and over time. Managers can strongly influence performance opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>There are broadly seven strategies for motivation : </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement / high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Effective discipline and punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Treating people fairly </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfying employees needs </li></ul><ul><li>Setting work related goals </li></ul><ul><li>Restructuring jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Base rewards on job performance </li></ul>
  13. 13. Employee motivation in the workplace <ul><li>The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees . </li></ul><ul><li>To do this the manager should be able to motivate employees . </li></ul><ul><li>But that's easier said than done ! Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>To understand motivation one must understand human nature itself . And there lies the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. An understanding and appreciation of this is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation in the workplace and therefore effective management and leadership. </li></ul>Employee motivation in the workplace …
  15. 15. <ul><li>The need for achievement is a distinct human motive that can be distinguished from other needs. More important, the achievement motive can be isolated and assessed in any group. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people tend to be extreme in their attitude toward risks, either favoring wild speculative gambling or minimizing their exposure to losses. </li></ul>Employee motivation in the workplace …
  16. 16. <ul><li>The psychological contract is regarded as the key factor influencing employees' attitudes (Raja, Johns, & Ntalianis, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>When employees are treated well by organizations, they are willing to contribute to the organizations in return. </li></ul><ul><li>A psychological contract refers to the items and ideals in a reciprocal exchange agreement between employees and organizations (Rousseau, 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>The employees' achievement motivation and the extent of their fulfillment of the duties, when : </li></ul><ul><li>managers evaluate, or </li></ul><ul><li>try to improve the work attitude of staff </li></ul>Research : Achievement motivation, Psychological contract, and Work attitudes ( Hung-Wen Lee , Ching-Hsiang Liu , 2009)
  17. 17. <ul><li>Motivation is regarded as the drive and persistence required to fulfill targets. It is an important base to achieve planning, organizational and policy-making skills, and learning and assessment in cognitive behaviors (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement tends to be more competitive and positively related to traditional outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement motivation consisted of mastery needs, work orientation, competition, and personal unconcern (Helmreich and Spence, 1978). </li></ul><ul><li>Employees with relational contracts (Rousseau, 2004) are more willing: </li></ul><ul><li>to work, </li></ul><ul><li>to help coworkers at work, and </li></ul><ul><li>to support changes in the organization. </li></ul>Research : Achievement motivation, Psychological contract, and Work attitudes . . . ( Hung-Wen Lee , Ching-Hsiang Liu , 2009)
  18. 18. The psychological contract reciprocal exchange agreement : employees and organizations (Rousseau, 1989) SUCCESS in Managerial Work Hoppock ,1935 & Robbins, 1992 Employees' Work Attitudes (Raja, Johns, & Ntalianis, 2004) <ul><li>Achievement Motivation : </li></ul><ul><li>mastery needs, </li></ul><ul><li>work orientation, </li></ul><ul><li>competition, and </li></ul><ul><li>personal unconcern </li></ul><ul><li>Work satisfaction as employees' : </li></ul><ul><li>psychological, </li></ul><ul><li>emotional, and </li></ul><ul><li>physical feelings </li></ul><ul><li>as well as their natural reaction to their work environment (Hoppock ,1935) </li></ul><ul><li>Work satisfaction as employees' : </li></ul><ul><li>overall feelings </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation of work, including internal and external returns, </li></ul><ul><li>work attributes, and </li></ul><ul><li>overall work satisfaction (Robbins, 1992) </li></ul>Relation of Achievement Motivation to Success in Managerial Work