Effective reorganization of the existing agroclimatic zones
Effective Reorganization of theExisting Agroclimatic zones basedon the Mandals of AndhraPradesh Using GIS technology K S Prasad PhD Scholar CESS and Director – Kanagiri Infotech, Dr Padmanabha Rao- Registrar - Cess
IntroductionThe total population of india as per the Census of2012 the total population are 1210.2 million out ofwhich 833.1 million are Rural Population and 377.1million are Urban Population..The Rural Population has been decreasing from 89.2Percent (1901- Census )to 68.8 percent (2011Census)The population in India is increasing at a growth rateof around 2%per anum, Whereas the availability ofresources particularly cultivable area is decreasingsimilarly trends can be observed even in AndhraPradesh.
Importance of Agriculture. Agriculture is the main stay of the economy ofAndhra Pradesh with about 70 percent of thepopulation dependent on Agriculture for theirlivelihood.The state is better placed as per resources areconcerned. It has high Irrigation potential fertile lands,good soils, vegetation, higher per hectare fertilizer useand labour inputs, in spite of all these Andhra Pradeshis not in the forefront and it is not able to achieveresults comparable with available advantage.It is interesting to note that in spite of high prioritygiven Irrigation the use of high yielding varieties ofseeds, technology and fertilizer use, The growth ofagriculture productivity was just at about 2 percent peranum
More Production onSustainable. The need for growing more food, on a sustainable basis, tosupport the ever-increasing population demands a systematicappraisal of our natural resources including climate, Soils, Floraand fauna. Since agriculture is highly location specific, groupingthe available land are in the country into different agro ecologicalregions based on certain identifiable characteristics becomes allthe more important.This may help the country to engage in more rational planningand optimizing resource use for the present and in preservingthem for the future.The demand for is not only for food grains but also fruitsvegetables and animal products. The total demand for foodgrains is projected to touch 280 million tone by the year 2020-21to achieve this a growth rate of more than 2 percent per anum infood production
Second Green revolution. Everyone in the scientific community feels theneed of the hour is the second green revolutionand that should be broad based with moresustainable and there is a need to produce morewithout depleting the natural resources
Growth rate of Population. Andhrapradesh has a population of 84.6millionaccording to 2011 census. The state thus standsfifth largest in terms of both population size andland area aiming Indian states. The growth rate ofpopulation in the 2011s (1.2 percent per annum)is significantly lower than the earlier decades (2.4)After a high growth rate of more than two percentfor two decades; the growth rate came down to avery low level of 1.2 percent per anum. This is aremarkable achievement for the state
Agriculture Dependent on Climate.It is an established fact that agriculture is highlydependent on soil and climate along with variousother factors, which together form the agro-ecological setting. Cropping pattern and allocationof inputs are very much dependent on the agro-ecological condition of the site.
Agroclimatic Zones. . Agro-Climatic zones under NARPThe Country has been divided into 131 agro-climaticzones under the World Bank supported NationalAgricultural Research Project (NARP) of theICAR, essentially based on climate, soils, and existingcropping patterns of each state as a unit.
Existing Agro Climatic ZonesBased on the climate parameters i.e., rainfall andtemperature, the State of Andhra Pradesh isbroadly divided into 9 distinct Agro-ClimaticZones.The agriculture planning for each zone issupported with the research andrecommendations of a Regional AgricultureResearch Station of ANGRAU set up with in theparticular zone.
Legend7.1 3.9Deccan (Telengana) Eastern Ghat) A.P.: Cuddapah, Kurnool Ustorthents, 700-750K6Dd3 (90-120)Plateau hot semi-arid ecosystem with Maharashtra: Satara and Rhodustalfs, (1800-1900)mixed red and black soils and Sangli, Solapur, Osmanabad, Ustropepts, 28-29°C GP 90-120 days and GP 90-120 days Bid, Ahmadnagar Chromusterts,Pellusterts7.2 9.2Deccan (Telengana, Plateau, hot semi- A.P.: Karimnagar, Rhodustalfs, 700-1000K6Dm4 (120-150)arid ecosystem with mixed red and Rangareddi, Hyderabad, Haplustalfs, (1600-1800)black soils and GP 120-150 days and Warangal, Khammam, Pellusterts, 25-29°CGP 90-120 days Mahboobnagar, Ustropepts,Nalgonda, Chromusterts,Sangareddi, Medak Pellusterts7.3 3.4Eastern Ghat, hot, moist semi-arid A.P.: Western parts Haplustalf 800-1000H6Dm/Cd5 (150-180)dry subhumid ecosystem with mixed (highlands) of Eluru Ustropepts (1500-1800)red and black soils and GP 150-180 (W. Godavari and Krishna Chromustert 24-25°Cdays and GP (machillipatnam) Guntur and PellustertOngole (Prakasam) and Rhodustalfs
Legend12.2 (3.3) Eastern Ghat, hot moist subhumid A.P.: Western highlands of Haplustalfs, 1400-1700H2Cm6 180-210ecosystem with Red and Lateritic soils Vishakhapatnam, Vizianagram Ustochrepts, (1400-1600)and GP 180-210 days Orissa: Western highlands of Haplaquepts, 26-27°C18.3 2.0Eastern Coastal (Andhra) Plain, hot dry A.P.: Coastal plain of Ustifluvents, 900-1100S7Cd5 150-180subhumid ecosystem with coastal and W. Godavari, Krishna and Ustropepts, (1700-1800)deltaic alluvium-derived soils and Guntur, Prakasham and Chromusterts, 28-29°CGP 150-180 days Nellore Paleusterts,Rhodustalfs,Ustorthents,Haplustalfs18.4 3.2 Eastern Coastal (Utkal) Plain, hot dry A.P.: Srikakulam, Coastal Halaquepts, 1200-1500S7Dd6 (180-210)subhumid ecosystem with coastal and plains of E. Godavari Fluvaquents, (1600-1700)deltaic alluvium- derived soils and (Kakinada) Vishakhapatnam, Haplaquepts, 26-27°CGP 180-210 days Vizianagaram Ustifluvents
Existing Agro Climatic Zones temp Soils Crops Rainfall Geographi Name of head No. of No. of Res.Sl. No. Districts cal area the Zone quarters mandals Stations. (lakh ha) 1000 – Max 33.36 : Red soils Rice, Srikakula 1100 mm & Min with clay sugarcane, North m, Vizian 26.27 base, groundnut, Anakapall 1 Coastal agaram, Pockets of pearlMillet 18.5 88 5 e Zone Visakhap acidic and finger atnam millet based East Godavari Godavari, 2 Maruteru 17.5 96 6 Zone West Godavari
Existing Agro Climatic Zones temp Soils Crops Rainfall Geographi Name of head No. of No. of Res.Sl. No. Districts cal area the Zone quarters mandals Stations. (lakh ha) 800 –1100 Max 32.36 Deltaic Rice- Krishna, Krishna mm & Min alluvium, based 3 Guntur, Lam 37.70 161 12 Zone 23.24 Red soils Prakasam with clay, 700 –1100 Red loamy Rice and Chittoor, mm Max 33.46 soils, groundnut Southern 4 Kadapa, Tirupati & Min Shallow to based 41.70 161 8 Zone Nellore 23.25 moderately deep.
Existing Agro Climatic Zones temp Soils Crops Rainfall Geographi Name of head No. of No. of Res.Sl. No. Districts cal area the Zone quarters mandals Stations. (lakh ha) 900 –1500 Max 30.37 : Chalkas, Sorghum, mm & Min red Sandy rice and 21.25 Soils, maize Dubbas, based Karimnag Deep Red Northern ar, Nizam Loamy 5 Telangan Jagtial 35.50 144 6 abad, Adi soils, a Zone labad Very deep Black Soils.
Existing Agro Climatic Zones temp Soils Crops Rainfall Geographi Name of head No. of No. of Res.Sl. No. Districts cal area the Zone quarters mandals Stations. (lakh ha) Warangal Central , 6 Telangan Warangal 30.60 132 7 Khamma a Zone m, Medak Mahbubn 700 –900 Max 28.34 Red Sorghum,ri agar, mm & Min earths ce and Nalgonda 22.23 with castor Southern , loamy based 7 Telangan Palem 39.30 164 6 Rangared sub-soils a Zone dy (+ (Chalkas Hyderaba d)
Existing Agro Climatic Zones temp Soils Crops Rainfall Geographi Name of head No. of No. of Res.Sl. No. Districts cal area the Zone quarters mandals Stations. (lakh ha) 500 – 750 : Max Ground,so mm 32.36 o rghum,set Scarce Kurnool, Centigrad ari 8 Rainfall Anantapu Nandyal 36.2 117 5 e Min ,rice and zone r 24.30 cotton based High Altitude & Tribal Areas of Srikakula High m, 1200 mm Rice and Altitude Visakhap Chintapal
Existing Agro Climatic ZonesAgriculture in Andhra Pradesh is mostlydependent on rainfall.Agricultural production depends upon theseasonal distribution of rainfall. In the State,South-West and North-East Monsoons are thetwo important periodic winds, which are theimportant sources of the rain. South-WestMonsoon (66%) is spread over the period fromJune to September and North-East Monsoon(24%) (From October to December).
Objective of the StudyThe Objective of the Study is that we need toreorganize the agro climatic zones based on themandal and it should be on micro level and not onbroad based
Agroclimatic - ZonationInitially the Agro climatic zones were classified in toSeven ZonesKrishan and Godavari has been divided in two zonesand North Telangana and South Telangana regionsare further divided in to three Northtelangana, Central Telngana and Southern telanganaWe have seen in the case of Telnagana and it hasbeen divided into three broad agrolimatic zones basedon their physical location and Charcterstics of themap namely 1. North Telngana 2. Central Telanganaand 3. Southern Telangana
Cont….Coming to Rayala seema the classification has bee done basedon the rainfall Criteria for districts namely Kurnool andAnanthapur and named as Scarce rainfall Zone.Other Two districts namely Chittor and Cuddaph and includingone district of Coastal region has classified in to Sothern Zone.Costal region has classified in three regions North Coastal Zone,Godavari Zone and Krishna Zone one district of Coastal AndhraNellore has been added to the RayalasemmaOne zone has been identified based on the physiographynaming as High altitude zone comprising of several mandal ofcoastal and telangan districts
Rainfall – District Averages 1963-2010 Rayalasemma Ananthap Kurnool Cuddapa Chittoor ur h Rainfall ( MM) 509 mm 595mm 662mm 864mm 1963-2002 Average annual Rainfall totals Telan Adb K Nzbd W Meda NLG H RRDIS M Khm gana a N k Y T h ri G D b m L n n g a r g a r Avera 979 8 938 9 842 643 7 728 5 1039 ge 3 2 6 5 Annu 4 5 5 3 al rainfa ll(mm )
ReorganizationReorganization of the Agro climatic zones are theneed of the hour .it should not based on the district and it shouldbased on the mandals and should consider all theparameters as mentioned in the methodology notbased on the broad district based and should bemanageable unit and in turn we can suggest thebest cropping system available based on the newagro climatic demarcation of the zone.
Agriculture Sustainability.The climatic resource endowments of a region ora country crucially affect agricultural sustainability.Agricultural productivity and production in about100 million ha of the country’s rainfed areascontinue to depend on the precipitation amountand their spatial and temporal variability. Climaticand weather variability also significantly affect theappropriateness of technologies andmanagement strategies in the irrigated areas.
Agriculture Sustainability-cont.... Climate is the least manageable of the resources (soils, irrigation water, nutrients, crops); yet a betterunderstanding of the climate resources and theirinteraction with agricultural parameters, agroeteorological/agroclimatological studies, have beenfound a powerful tool to develop climate/weather basedmanagement strategies that will enhance benefits frompositive and minimize the losses from, negativeinteractions (Virmani1994). These studies will becomeincreasingly important as we embark toward goals ofincreasing productivity and environmental security.Some of the approaches (Ramana Rao,1994) which willneed to the increasingly used to develop improvedmanagement strategies include:
Agriculture Sustainability-cont.... Charcterization of agroclimatic/agrometeorologicalregimes through collection, analysis andinterpretation of historical weather data foragricultural planning to develop weather basedmanagement strategies.Increased understanding of the interaction betweenweather and management practices on crop growthand development through simulation modeling fordeveloping sustainable production system.
Agriculture Sustainability-cont... Developing early warning systems on occurrenceand spread of pests and disease using real timeweather data to adopt plant protection measuresminimizing the use of chemicals.Assessment of global climate change and itsimpact. There is a fair degree of argument thatcontinuing build up of heat absorbing gases such ascarbon dioxide and methane is causing globalclimate change.