Ob chapter 1 introduction to ob


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Ob chapter 1 introduction to ob

  1. 1. 1-1 Chapter One
  2. 2. 1-2 Organizations and Organizational Behavior  Organizations  Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose  Structured patterns of interaction  Coordinated tasks  Have common objectives (even if not fully agreed)  Mission – Why are we here?  Organization may develop several goals or objectives to translate the mission into some specific measureable performance measures.  E.g.: Proton – “we want to become successful Malaysian Automobile Manufacturer globally by being customer oriented and producing competitively-priced and innovative quality products.”  To achieve organizational goals, top management works with management team to formulate strategies. Mission Goals Strategy Plans
  3. 3. 1-3 Organizations and Organizational Behavior  Strategy – a process of setting long-term goals of an organization, taking action and allocation resources to accomplish those goals.  Strategic management is a planning process that involves the formulation and implementation of strategies to achieve the organizational long-term goals by analyzing its internal and external environments  The formulation strategy would lead to plans or how to achieve the goals.  Plan – can be developed at various levels  Strategic – top level management  Tactical – division or business unit level  Operational – departmental level  Organizational behavior  The study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations.  A field of study that investigates how individuals, groups and structures impact behavior within organizations.
  4. 4. 1-4 Why Study Organizational Behavior?  OB theories help you to make sense of the workplace  Question and rebuild your personal theories for work  Important -- much of our time is in organizations  OB provides knowledge/tools to work with others  Helps you to get things done  OB improves an organization’s financial health
  5. 5. 1-5 Three Good Reasons Why You Should Care About . . . Organizational Behavior 1. Understanding the dynamics of behavior in organizations is essential to achieving personal success as a manager, regardless of your area of specialization 2. Principles of organizational behavior are involved in making people both productive and happy on their jobs 3. To achieve success in today’s rapidly changing environment, organizations must successfully address a wide variety of OB issues
  6. 6. 1-6 Characteristics of the Field of OB  OB applies the scientific method to practical managerial problems  OB focuses on three levels of analysis: individuals, groups, and organizations  OB is multidisciplinary in nature  OB seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and the quality of life at work
  7. 7. 1-7 Research Methods in OB Research Method Survey Research Experimental Research Naturalistic Observation Case Study Description Questionnaires are developed and administered to people to measure how they feel about various aspects of themselves, their jobs, and their organizations. Responses to some questionnaires are compared to others, or to actual behaviors, to see how various concepts are inter-related Behavior is carefully studied -- either in a controlled setting (a lab) or in an actual company (the field) -- to see how a particular variable that is systematically varied affects other aspects of behavior A non-empirical technique in which a scientist systematically records various events and behaviors observed in a work setting A thorough description of a series of events that occurred in a particular organization Comments This technique is the most popular one used in the field of OB This technique makes it possible to learn about cause-effect relationships This technique is subject to the biases of the observer Findings may not be generalizable to other organizations
  8. 8. 1-8 Three Levels of OB Analysis Chapters 2 - 5 Chapters 6 - 12 Chapters 13 - 15 Plan of the Book
  9. 9. 1-9 History of OB Scientific Management: The earliest attempt to study behavior in organizations that emphasized the importance of designing jobs as efficiently as possible The Human Relations Movement: A management philosophy that rejected the primarily economic orientation of scientific management and focused instead on the noneconomic, social factors operating in the workplace Classical Organizational Theory: An approach to studying organizations that focused on the efficient structuring of organizations
  10. 10. 1-10 Comparison of Early Approaches Scientific Management  Emphasis on human efficiency on the job  Sought to improve productivity by minimizing wasted movements  Major proponent was Frederick Taylor Human Relations Movement  Emphasis on social conditions in organizations  Sought to improve productivity by developing good working relationships  Major proponent was Elton Mayo
  11. 11. 1-11 The Multidisciplinary Roots of OB
  12. 12. 1-12 Challenges and Opportunities for OB  The workplace is contains a wide mix of cultures, races, ethnic groups, genders and ages  Employees have to learn to cope with rapid change due to global competition  Corporate loyalty has decreased due to corporate downsizing and use of temp workers  Managers can benefit from OB theory and concepts
  13. 13. 1-13 Current Issues in OB Cross-cultural aspects of behavior Unethical behavior in organizations Conserving energy and preserving the environment Workforce diversity Understanding and minimizing poor leadership decision- making Increasing team responsibility Unrelenting change
  14. 14. 1-14 Responding to Changes in Technology  Creating Leaner Organizations  Automation: The process f replacing people with machines, which includes white-collar and mental-labor as well as blue-collar and menial labor  Downsizing/Rightsizing: The process of adjusting the number of employees needed to work in newly designed organizations  Outsourcing: The process of eliminating those parts of organizations that focus on noncore sectors of the business and hiring outside firms to perform these functions instead  Creating Virtual Enterprises  Highly flexible, temporary organizations formed by groups of companies that join forces to exploit a specific opportunity  Increasing the Use of Telecommuting  The practice of using communications technology to enable work to be performed from remote locations
  15. 15. 1-15 Responding to Globalization  Increased foreign assignments  Differing needs and aspirations in workforce  Working with people from different cultures  Domestic motivational techniques and managerial styles may not work  Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor
  16. 16. 1-16 Managing Workforce Diversity Workforce diversity: organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation
  17. 17. 1-17 Diversity Implications “Managers have to shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity while, at the same time, not discriminating.”
  18. 18. 1-18 Implications for Managers  OB helps with:  Insights to improve people skills  Valuing of workforce diversity  Empowering people and creating a positive work environment  Dealing with labor shortages  Coping in a world of temporariness  Creating an ethically healthy work environment
  19. 19. 1-19 Keep in Mind… • OB’s goal is to understand and predict human behavior in organizations. • Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior. • It is more important than ever to learn OB concepts. • Both managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness.
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