A Presentation made on Solar Energy use at IESL

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The Use of Solar Energy a Presentation made in 2008 at Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka

The Use of Solar Energy a Presentation made in 2008 at Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka

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  • 1. Customers with large generators being paid SLRs. 21.15 per unit for generating their own power . News two days before!
  • 2. Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) verified by NREL to be as efficient as 14.6% in 2006, NANOSOLAR POWERSHEET THE NEW DAWN OF SOLAR http://www.popsci.com/popsci/flat/bown/2007/index.html
  • 3. Solar cell Price and production 2009=6700 MW
  • 4. 1234567
  • 5. ON AVERAGE AROUND THE WORLD, SUNLIGHT DELIVERS A BARREL OF OIL OF ENERGY ON EVERY SQUARE METER OF LAND EVERY YEAR Incoming solar energy to Earth Sri Lanka gets at 6 kWh/m2/day 7000kWh/year Colombo
  • 6. Efficiency (Lumens/Watt) Rated Life (Hours) Cost per 50,000 hours Kerosene .03 Supply of Kerosene Incandescent Bulb 5-18 1000 $175 Light Emitting Diode (LED) 25-50 50,000 $20 $1251
  • 7. Buy power during the night
  • 8. CEB TARIFF Domestic effective from Nov 2008 Fuel Adjustment Charge 30% on all unit charges except DP & RP consumers consuming less than 90 units per month
  • 9. Residential tiered tariff 30.00X1.3=Rs39 25.00X1.3=Rs32.50 16.00X1.3=Rs20.80 Rs7.50 Rs4.70 Rs3.00
  • 10. Rs 39 Rs39/kWh
  • 11. Technology transfer to rural Sri Lanka
  • 12. . . Annual Savings Before and After . 10000 . 8000 6000 4000 2000 . 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years 3
  • 13. Accumulated Net Savings . RS 8000 6000 4000 2000 20 . 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 YEAR
  • 14. How Storage will Help Smoothing of Out Put 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101
  • 15. Conversion factor (multiply top row by factor to obtain side column) W/m² kWh/(m²·day) sun hours/day W/m² 1 41.66666 41.66666 kWh/(m²·day ) 0.024 1 1 sun hours/day 0.024 1 1 kWh/m²•y 8.765813 365.2422 365.2422 kWh/kWp/y 6.574360 273.9316 273.9316 kWh/m²•y kWh/kWp/y 0.1140796 0.1521061 0.0027379 0.0036505 0.0027379 0.0036505 1 1.333333 0.75 1
  • 16. Solar Radiation in W/m sq
  • 17. Efficiency of Solar cells 2009 12345 1 2 3 4 5 6 71314
  • 18. Cost of Generation by Solar CEB DOM tariff for>600kWh/m
  • 19. SUN POWER PRODUCTION vs LOAD PROFILE 1234567 A Typical CEB Load curve
  • 20. The annual results for Sri Lanka, which range from 4.5 to 6.0 kWh/m2/day, are consistent with, and slightly higher than earlier studies using sunshine recorders, which gave results of 4.2 to 5.6 kWh/m2/day. The slightly higher results are due most likely to the fact that, for Sri Lanka, we chose to calculate the resource for a flat plate collector tilted to latitude, rather than the more traditional method of calculating the resource on a horizontal surface that the earlier studies used. With two axis tracking one axis done manually for seasons we can get 7.32 kWh/m2/day. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/34645.pdf http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/codes_algs/PVWATTS/version1/#map With a 4kW system we can get this amount of Energy • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Radiation Energy 2/day) (kWh/m (kWh) Colombo Ratmalana 6.58 7411 6.35 7172 5.38 6028 Colombo/Katunayake 6.71 7632 6.47 7377 5.46 6177 Hambantota 7.32 8494 7.00 8140 5.71 6583 Trincomalee (AFB) 7.11 8033 6.83 7731 5.64 6343 Axis tracking 2 1 0 Energy per Watt/day 1.85 1.79 1.51 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 22.5% Extra 23.56% Extra 2.12 29% Extra 26.1% Extra
  • 21. Solar Power Costs for Sri Lanka Power needed 1577 kWh/yr OR 131 kWh/Month AC output needed 0.75 kW Module area 1.33 sq.ft Area needed 11 sq.ft No of Modules 8 Power per module 100 watts DC power 789 watts Inverter efficiency 95 % AC power 750 watts Module cost rate $2.00 watt Module Cost $1,500 Rs/house 178,406 (assuming today’s exchange rate) Inverter cost rate $0.50 watts Inverter cost $395 Installation cost rate $0.50 per watt Installation cost $395 Capacity factor 24 % Sri Lanka 2102.4 kWh/Year/kW Output per year 1577 kWh Degradation rate -0.30 %/Output after year: 25 Total power delivered – kWh 37,991 Cost per kWh amortized with out batteries = $0.11 (With net metering no Batteries are required). Simple Payback period < 4 Years Cost per kWh amortized with batteries = $0.25 Money saving for consumers >331kWh/M = Rs1,252,693/Y (At today’s tariff of Rs32.50 for>180 units Net metering but surely the CEB tariff will increase ) Typical CO2 emission from oil 583 kg/MWh Emissions saved (kg) 22,148 Typical fuel consumption per MWh 125 gal. Fuel saved (gal) 4,749. Cost of fuel saved for the country Rs 1,258,336. Assuming all marginal units are from Diesel Fuel Saving in Import Rs719,049/house (At today's import price but which will soon go up )
  • 22. NANO ORGANIC PV CELL (HIGH EFFICIENCY)
  • 23. Flexible Plastic PV Cell 1234567
  • 24. Ultra Triple Junction Solar Cells
  • 25. Solar Concentrators 123456
  • 26. 1234567
  • 27. The SolarWall® PV/thermal solar system is housed on the roof of a service centre and health clinic for the Olympic athletes in Beijing PV module efficiency is typically between 8-20%. What happens to the rest of the sun’s energy that shines on the panels? Most of it is converted into heat energy, which normally is lost and provides no value to the system owner. As well, the heat build-up behind PV modules reduces the electrical output by 0.4-0.5% for every 1°C above its rated output temperature (which is 25°C). Given that roofs can reach temperatures as high as 90°C, the actual operating efficiency of PV systems is often significantly less than the rated output.
  • 28. Benefits of Solar Cell Energy a Zero Emission Technology • • More manual labor jobs will be created The value of the property will go up • By distributed generation day peak will come down. Transmission and Distribution losses will be reduced. • • Reduction of costly oil imports to the country Reduction of costly Gas turbine generation and costly Private power. • • Reduction of Global warming Reduction of polluting CO2 and other CHS Gasses • • Reduction of wasteful use of water in thermal Power stations With net metering the large homes will benefit more on reducing there costly electricity bills. • • • Combined with energy efficiency and energy saving and use of LED lamps the night peak can also be reduced to benefit the utility. Should be able to get Renewable Energy Certificates and Carbon trading Low interest soft loans will become available from the local banks like for Rural solar home systems • A mental satisfaction that we have not contributed to Pollution and Global warming. • It is expected that bilateral and multilateral finance and market stimulation programs based on best service at least cost will be soon available Distributed Generation: the Next Step in Smart Power Distribution Solar Power is commercially viable.
  • 29. 123 456 7 20% efficiency = 200W/m2 or 20W/ft2. LED lamp LIFESPAN of up to 50,000 hours! Up to 90% more efficient than traditional lighting
  • 30. Solar Powered LED Lantern
  • 31. “Kiran” Solar LED Lamp @ $10 http://www.dlightdesign.com/products_kiran_global.php The Kiran is designed to be extremely user-friendly and flexible. It has no detachable parts and includes an integrated solar panel that makes recharging simple and easy. The product shape, portability, and multiple-setting handle give the customer many options for use. The Kiran can be carried, hung from the wall or ceiling, or placed on any surface to effectively illuminate the surrounding area Product Specifications Time for full charge on Solar 8h Hours of light on Full charge 4h on full bright 8h on Low Hours of light based on solar charging in full sunlight at 25 degrees Celsius These are priced at INDRs 500 in India
  • 32. QS Solar 55 Watt Panels http://www.qspv.net/ • Technical Datasheet • Electrical Data • The electrical specifications shown below are stabilized values measured at Standard Report Conditions:1000W/m2 irradiance, AM1.5 spectrum at 25 degree C, while Voc or Isc can be customized. QS Solar, the first producer reaching the selling price of USD 1 per watt • http://www.qspv.net/ 55 Watts
  • 33. Solar street lamps in China
  • 34. D Light India
  • 35. Solar power has several advantages • Economical Benefits: • • • The energy from the sun is practically free, after the initial investment has been recovered Solar energy reduces our dependence on foreign or centralized conventional source of energy Solar energy supports local jobs and creates wealth, which elevates local economies • Environmentally Friendly: • Solar energy is clean, quiet, renewable and sustainable unlike other conventional energy sources such as gas, oil, and coal Solar energy does not contribute to global warming, acid rain, or smog, on the contrary, it helps to lower harmful green house gas emissions • • • Independent/Semi-Independent: • • Solar energy reduces our dependence on foreign or centralized sources of energy Solar energy can reduce your electric bill, and also supply your property with electricity in the event of a power outage Solar energy systems can operate entirely independent from a power or gas grid; therefore systems can be installed in remote location • • • Low or no Maintenance: • • • Solar energy systems are virtually maintenance free and will last at least 25 years System sizes can be increased in the future as your electricity needs grow Systems operate silently, and have no moving parts
  • 36. Toyota 2010 Solar Roof Prius These panels will power the air conditioning system, allowing its operation without turning on the car's main engine. Toyota has announced that the next redesign of their highly successful hybrid Prius automobile will include solar panels on its roof
  • 37. A photo of the new world record solar cell. (© Fraunhofer ISE) The sunlight was concentrated 454-times onto a 5 mm² multi-junction solar cell composed of GaInP/GaInAs/ Ge (gallium indium phosphide, gallium indium arsenide on a germanium substrate) a record 41.1 percent efficiency.
  • 38. A new phone of Samsung "Blue Earth" powered by solar energy is seen at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Spain, Monday, Feb. 16, 2009. Priced at $40
  • 39. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg have reached a record 41.1 percent efficiency
  • 40. http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,25105900-2862,00.html
  • 41. First Solar first to US$1 per watt manufacturing cost http://www.pv-tech.org/news/_a/first_solar_first_to_us1_per_watt_manufacturing_cost/
  • 42. ou
  • 43. Bicycle Powered Generator http://www.mattshaver.com/bikegen/index.htm Ind Rs.4000