CULTURE “The distinctive way of living of a group of people.” “Culture is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything including language, religion, social habits, music, arts and lifestyle.”
Nonmaterial Culture Includes the words that people use, ideas, beliefs and habits.Material Culture Physical substances used by people, like tools, automobiles, roads, farms etc.
EXAMPLESMaterialShopping centers.NonmaterialThe way people shop in the shopping centers.
IMPORTANT TERMSNational CharacterDifferences that distinguishes one nationalgroup from another.Silent LanguageNon-verbal language like gestures, postures,symbols, food and drinking habits.TaboosProhibited things in a culture, like color, phrase orsymbols.
RitualsA ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly fortheir symbolic value.It is usually repeated over a fixed episodicsequence, and repeats over and over again.ExampleHajj, Dewali, Eid ets
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE1. Culture is InventedCulture does not exist to be discovered but rather invented by groups of people.a.Ideological SystemIdeas, beliefs, values and way of reasoningthings.b.Technological systemsConsists of skills, crafts, arts used to producematerial things
c. Organizational SystemsIn coordination with others.E.g. family system and social class.2. Culture is Learned.Culture is passed from one generation toanother.Younger generation learns the culture from thesenior one.e.g. corruption in Pakistan.
3. Culture is Socially Shared.We share the our culture with others.Adapt other cultures in to our culture.The food we eat and clothes we wear areelements of imported culture.e.g. Basant, Mehndi, Valantines etc
4. Cultures are Similar but DifferentAll cultures have a lot in common.Like all cultures have food, dresses, songs,dances, worshiping style etc.Yet all these elements are different amongother cultures.e.g. Hajj and The Mela of KUM KUM
6. Culture is Adaptive.Although culture is persistent and does notchange over night, yet it is adaptive.It is always changing gradually by the passingtime.Some old things fade away while new thingsenter in to it.Some culture change slowly while others rapidly.
5. Culture is Gratifying and PersistentA culture is happily meeting the needs of itspractitioners.They are driving a sense of happiness andsatisfaction from their culture.So it stays over a longer period of time and doesnot change overnight.
7. Culture is Organized and Integrated.All cultures follow a set of rules and are hangingtogether upon those.All elements must fit together to form aconsistent and integrated culture.The guide lines set must be rationale andunderstandable.
8. Culture is PrescriptiveCulture gives direction.What to do in what situation etc.NormsRules or guideline of behavior in a givensituation whether acceptable or not.SanctionsTo impose a penalty in case of wrongful act.MoresNorms that have been converted into law.e.g. murder, robbery etc
IMPORTANT CULTURAL VALUES1. Individualism2. Equality3. Activity4. Progress and Achievement
5. Efficiency and Practicality6. Mastery over the Environment7. Religious and Moral Orientation8. Humanitarianism
9. Youthfulness10. Materialism11. Social interaction and Conformity