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    Chapter3 Chapter3 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 3: Introduction to C Programming Language
      • C development environment
      • A simple program example
      • Characters and tokens
      • Structure of a C program
        • comment and preprocessor directives
        • basic data types
        • data declarations
        • statements
      • Basic functions
    • C Development Environment Phase 2 : Preprocessor program processes the code. Preprocessor Disk Disk Compiler Phase 3 : Compiler creates object code and stores it on Disk . Disk Linker Phase 4 : Linker links object code with libraries, creates a.out and stores it on Disk. Editor Phase 1 : Program is created in the Editor and stored on Disk. Disk
    • Loader Phase 5 : : . Primary Memory Loader puts Program in Memory C P U Phase 6 : : . Primary Memory CPU takes each instruction and executes it, storing new data values as the program executes.
    • From code to executables Executable Code Pre-processor Source Code Compiler Assembler Linker Libraries Assembly Code Object Code
    • A Simple Program Example #include <stdio.h> main() { printf(&quot;Programming in C is easy. &quot;); } Sample Program Output Programming in C is easy.
      • NOTE ABOUT C PROGRAMS
      • In C, lowercase and uppercase characters are very important! All commands in C must be lowercase. The C programs starting point is identified by the word
      • main()
      • This informs the computer as to where the program actually starts. The brackets that follow the keyword main indicate that there are no arguments supplied to this program (this will be examined later on).
      • The two braces, { and }, signify the begin and end segments of the program.
    • The purpose of the statement #include <stdio.h> is to allow the use of the printf statement to provide program output. Text to be displayed by printf() must be enclosed in double quotes. The program has only one statement printf(&quot;Programming in C is easy. &quot;); printf() is actually a function (procedure) in C that is used for printing variables and text. Where text appears in double quotes &quot;&quot;, it is printed without modification. There are some exceptions however.
    • This has to do with the and % characters. These characters are modifiers, and for the present the followed by the n character represents a newline character. Thus the program prints Programming in C is easy. and the cursor is set to the beginning of the next line. As we shall see later on, what follows the character will determine what is printed, ie, a tab, clear screen, clear line etc. Another important thing to remember is that all C statements are terminated by a semi-colon ;
      • Summary of major points so far
          • program execution begins at main()
          • keywords are written in lower-case
          • statements are terminated with a semi-colon
          • text strings are enclosed in double quotes
    • Characters and tokens
      • Characters are the basic building blocks in C program, equivalent to ‘letters’ in English language
      • Includes every printable character on the standard English language keyboard except `, $ and @
      • Example of characters:
        • Numeric digits: 0 - 9
        • Lowercase/uppercase letters: a - z and A - Z
        • Space (blank)
        • Special characters: , . ; ? “ / ( ) [ ] { } * & % ^ < > etc
      • A token is a language element that can be used in forming higher level language constructs
      • Equivalent to a ‘word’ in English language
      • Several types of tokens can be used to build a higher level C language construct such as expressions and statements
      • There are 6 kinds of tokens in C:
        • Reserved words (keywords)
        • Identifiers
        • Constants
        • String literals
        • Punctuators
        • Operators
    • Reserved Words
      • Keywords that identify language entities such as statements, data types, language attributes, etc.
      • Have special meaning to the compiler, cannot be used as identifiers in our program.
      • Should be typed in lowercase.
      • Example: const, double, int, main, void, while, for, else (etc..)
    • Identifiers
      • Words used to represent certain program entities (program variables, function names, etc).
      • Example:
        • int my_name;
          • my_name is an identifier used as a program variable
        • void CalculateTotal(int value)
          • CalculateTotal is an identifier used as a function name
    • Constants
      • Entities that appear in the program code as fixed values.
      • 4 types of constants:
        • Integer constants
          • Positive or negative whole numbers with no fractional part
          • Example:
            • const int MAX_NUM = 10;
            • const int MIN_NUM = -90;
        • Floating-point constants
          • Positive or negative decimal numbers with an integer part, a decimal point and a fractional part
          • Example:
            • const double VAL = 0.5877e2; (stands for 0.5877 x 10 2 )
        • Character constants
          • A character enclosed in a single quotation mark
          • Example:
            • const char letter = ‘n’;
            • const char number = ‘1’;
            • printf(“%c”, ‘S’);
              • Output would be: S
        • Enumeration
          • Values are given as a list
          • Example:
    • String Literals
      • A sequence of any number of characters surrounded by double quotation marks.
      • Example:
        • “ REFORMASI”
        • “ My name is Salman”
      • Example of usage in C program:
        • printf(“My room number is BN-1-012 ”);
          • Output: My room number is BN-1-012
    • Punctuators (separators)
      • Symbols used to separate different parts of the C program.
      • These punctuators include:
        • [ ] ( ) { } , ; “: * #
      • Usage example:
    • Operators
      • Tokens that result in some kind of computation or action when applied to variables or or other elements in an expression.
      • Example of operators:
        • * + = - /
      • Usage example:
        • result = total1 + total2;
    • Structure of a C program Preprocessor directive (header file) Program statement } Preprocessor directive Global variable declaration Comments Local variable declaration Variable definition
    • Comments
      • Explanations or annotations that are included in a program for documentation and clarification purpose.
      • Completely ignored by the compiler during compilation and have no effect on program execution.
      • Starts with ‘/*’ and ends with ‘*/’
      • Some compiler support comments starting with ‘//’
    • Preprocessor Directives
      • The first thing to be checked by the compiler.
      • Starts with ‘#’.
      • Tell the compiler about specific options that it needs to be aware of during compilation.
      • There are a few compiler directives. But only 2 of them will be discussed here.
        • #include <stdio.h>
          • Tell the compiler to include the file stdio.h during compilation
          • Anything in the header file is considered a part of the program
        • #define VALUE 10
          • Tell the compiler to substitute the word VALUE with 10 during compilation
    • Basic Data Types
      • 3 examples of basic data types:
        • int (used to declare numeric program variables of integer type)
        • char (used to declare character variable)
        • double (used to declare floating point variable)
      • In addition, there are float, void, short, long, etc.
      • Declaration: specifies the type of a variable.
        • Example: int local_var;
      • Definition: assigning a value to the declared variable.
        • Example: local_var = 5;
      • A variable can be declared globally or locally.
      • A globally declared variable can be accessed from all parts of the program.
      • A locally declared variable can only be accessed from inside the function in which the variable is declared.
    • Statements
      • A specification of an action to be taken by the computer as the program executes.
      • In the previous example, there are 2 lines following variable declaration and variable definition that terminate with semicolon ‘;’.
        • global_var = local_var + VALUE;
        • printf (“Total sum is: %d ”, global_var);
      • Each line is a statement.
    • Basic Functions
      • A C program consists of one or more functions that contain a group of statements which perform a specific task.
      • A C program must at least have one function: the function main .
      • We can create our own function or use the functions that has been created in the library, in which case we have to include the appropriate header file (example: stdio.h).
      • In this section, we will learn a few functions that are pre-defined in the header file stdio.h
      • These functions are:
        • printf()
        • scanf()
        • getchar() & putchar()
      • In addition to those functions, we will also learn about Format Specifier and Escape Sequence which are used with printf() and scanf().
    • printf()
      • Used to send data to the standard output (usually the monitor) to be printed according to specific format.
      • General format:
        • printf(“control string”, variables);
      • Control string is a combination of text, format specifier and escape sequence.
      • Example:
        • printf(“Thank you”);
        • printf (“Total sum is: %d ”, global_var);
          • %d is a format specifier
          • is an escape sequence
    • Format Specifier Tells the printf() function the format of the output to be printed put.
    • Escape Sequence Escape sequence is used in the printf() function to do something to the output.
    • scanf()
      • Read data from the standard input device (usually keyboard) and store it in a variable.
      • General format:
        • scanf(“Control string”, &variable);
      • The general format is pretty much the same as printf() except that it passes the address of the variable (notice the & sign) instead of the variable itself to the second function argument.
      • Example:
    • getchar() and putchar()
      • getchar() - read a character from standard input
      • putchar() - write a character to standard output
      • Example:
      #include <stdio.h> void main(void) { char my_char; printf(“Please type a character: “); my_char = getchar(); printf(“ You have typed this character: “); putchar(my_char); }