psychology

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Introductory overview and memory ,goals of psychology and its trend or biological basis of behavior

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psychology

  1. 1. <ul><li>Presented by: </li></ul><ul><li>Saims’ group </li></ul><ul><li>Alwyn Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Arsalan Iqbal </li></ul><ul><li>Azeem Riaz </li></ul><ul><li>Faizan Sattar </li></ul><ul><li>Kamran Ilahi </li></ul><ul><li>Umer Farooque (Leader) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Psychology >> It is the science that deals with mental processes and behavior >> It is the emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual, group, or activity. >> It is the study of human behavior and animal mental functions. >> Simply, it is the science of mind and behavior .
  3. 3. GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY
  4. 4. Description: <ul><li>We have to describe psychology which is the process of mental files and behavior and identifying, classifying the behavior as accurate as possible . </li></ul>Explanation: . <ul><li>It is one of the objective/goal of psychology. It means proposing the mental behavior and the process of psychology and tent to explain the world around us as far as the behavior is concern. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prediction: <ul><li>The prediction is to predict about the future and tell us how a person will adopt the choices in daily life whether it’s healthy or unhealthy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Changing Behavior: <ul><li>Modifying behavior can be healthy or unhealthy but within ethical constraints, psychology attempts to voluntarily encourage individuals and groups to modify behavior for long term healthy gain. </li></ul>Limitation: . <ul><li>As with any science, and especially in social science, psychology is limited within its own goals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. MAJOR TRENDS IN PASYCHOLOGY: Existentialism
  8. 8. 1. Structuralism <ul><li>German physician  Wilhelm Wundt  is credited with introducing psychological discovery into laboratory setting. Known as the &quot;father of experimental psychology, he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879. </li></ul>2. Functionalism: . <ul><li>Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralism school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist and psychologist  William James . </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Psychoanalysis: <ul><li>From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician  Sigmund Freud  developed psychoanalysis, a method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict. </li></ul>4.Behaviorism: . <ul><li>The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind. Behaviorism comprises the position that all theories should have observational correlates but that there are no philosophical differences between publicly observable processes (such as actions) and privately observable processes (such as thinking and feeling) </li></ul>
  10. 10. 5. Humanism: <ul><li>Humanistic psychology was developed in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. The humanistic approach sought to glimpse the whole person—not just the fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive functioning.  </li></ul>6. Gestalt: . <ul><li>Wolfgang Kohler ,  Max Wertheimer  and  Kurt Koffka  co-founded the school of  Gestalt psychology . Gestalt psychology or gestalt of the Berlin School  is a theory of mind and brain positing that the operational principle of the brain is  holistic , parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 7. Existentialism: <ul><li>American psychologist  Rollo May pioneered an existential branch of psychology, which included existential therapy, in the 1950s and 1960s. Existential psychologists differed from others often classified as humanistic in their comparatively neutral view of human nature and in their relatively positive assessment of anxiety. </li></ul>
  12. 12. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR <ul><li>The physical structure of the body plays an important role in the behavior of an individual. The most important physical structure for psychologists is the nervous system. The nervous system carries orders from the brain and spinal cord to various glands and muscles; it also carries signals from stimuli receptors to the spinal cord and brain. If you wanted to blink your eye a signal would be created in the brain, then it would be transported by neurons to the muscle controlling the eyelid . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Neurons: <ul><li>The base of the nervous system is the  neuron . Neurons are cells that are specialized for communicating information. They are the basic tissue and element of the nervous system . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Structure of Neurons: <ul><li>Cell Body (Soma ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries information to the next cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry information to the cell body from other neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myelin Sheath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulates the axon and speeds up the neural impulse </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Brain and its Components: <ul><li>The brain has two primary functions (control the behavior and regulation of body’s psychological processes). </li></ul>
  16. 16. MEMORY: <ul><li>Memory is an organism's ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sensory memory: <ul><li>Very Brief Storage of Information by Our Sensory Channels. Information Stored is lost very fast </li></ul><ul><li>Example:- </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Sensory Register holds information of 11 to 16 items for only one second. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Register holds in formation for 4 or 5 seconds </li></ul>
  18. 18. Short –Term Memory <ul><li>A memory which can hold information from sensory register for about 30 seconds and which has less storage capacity, depending upon :- </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of information </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional State </li></ul>
  19. 19. Long Term Memory <ul><li>Memory which has no specific time limit for storing information. It can be weeks, months, or years or even lifetime. It has no limit in terms of storage capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic </li></ul>
  20. 20. Stimulus Shot-term Memory Rehearsal Long-term Memory F O R G O T T E N
  21. 21. PERCEPTION: <ul><li>According to the Stephen </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory expression in order to give meanings to their environment”. This term originated from Latin word. Perception meaning receiving, collecting, action of taking position with the mind of senses. </li></ul>
  22. 22. PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY: <ul><li>Perceptual selection is a process by which people filter out irrelevant or less significant information, so, that they can deal with the most important matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual selection is determine by two factor: </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1. External Factors: 2. Internal Factors: .
  24. 24. PERCEPTION ORRGANIZATION:
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION TO ATTENTION: <ul><li>Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one thing while ignoring other things. </li></ul>
  26. 26. CLINICAL MODEL OF ATTENTION:
  27. 27. ATTENTIONAL PROCESSES IN PERCEPTION: <ul><li>When you walk through a busy street, a large number of stimuli bombard your sense organs, but you can take in and use only a very small number of stimuli. </li></ul>
  28. 28. ATTENTION AND ITS COMPONENT PROCESSES:
  29. 29. Thank you

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