Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Zoonosis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Zoonosis

6,975
views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Lifestyle

7 Comments
20 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,975
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
7
Likes
20
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Many definitions of zoonosis, for the class the WHO definition will be used. Historically zoonoses only referred to animal disease; however, the current use for disease and infections transmitted between animals and man. The term commonly is used to refer to the more specific and scientific terms of zooanthroponoses and anthropozoonoses
  • Transcript

    • 1. Zoonoses Dr Kamran Afzal Asst Prof Microbiology
    • 2.  
    • 3. Zoonosis
      • From the Greek-
      • Zoon: Animal Noson: Disease
      • Diseases and infections which are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans - WHO 1959
      • Any infectious disease that can be transmitted (by a vector) from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (reverse zoonosis)
        • Xenozoonosis is transmitted by transplantation between species
    • 4. Zoonoses?
      • • Classical/Traditional concept
      • • Animal with disease and transmission of pathogen to man
        • TB, Brucellosis
      • • Modern/Current concept
      • • Clinically normal animal and transmission of hazardous pathogen to man
        • Campylobacter, VTEC
    • 5. Epidemiology
      • 60% of pathogens are zoonotic
      • 75% of emerging diseases are zoonotic
        • Viruses most common
        • More than 99% of viruses remain to be discovered
      • Huge potential for future zoonotic emergence
    • 6. Emerging Zoonotic Diseases
      • Swine flu
      • Bird flu
      • Plasmodium knowlesi malaria
      • SARS
      • Mad cow disease
    • 7.  
    • 8.  
    • 9. People at Risk?
      • Direct or indirect contact with infected animals
      • Abbatoir workers
      • Poultry workers
      • Farmers
      • Veterinarians
      • Pet owners (birds and animals)
    • 10. Carriers Assassin bugs Bats Bank voles Birds Cats Cattle Chimpanzees Dogs Fish Fleas Flies Geese Goats Hamsters Horses Lice Mice Monkeys Mosquitos Opossums Pigs Rabbits and hares Raccoons Rats Rodents Sloths Sheep Snails Ticks
    • 11. Factors Promoting
      • Frequent contact with domestic animals
      • Overlap with wildlife habitat
      • Poor animal sanitation
      • Poor personal hygiene
      • Intensive livestock production
    • 12.
          • Disease
        • Organism
        • Main reservoirs
        • Usual mode of transmission to humans
        • Anthrax
        • Bacillus anthracis
        • livestock, wild animals, environment
        • direct contact, ingestion
        • Avian influenza
        • Influenza virus, avian strains
        • poultry, ducks
        • direct contact
        • Bovine tuberculosis
        • Mycobacterium bovis
        • cattle
        • milk
        • Brucellosis
        • Brucella species
        • cattle, goats, sheep, pigs
        • dairy products, milk
        • Cat scratch fever
        • Bartonella henselae
        • cats
        • bite, scratch
        • Cysticercosis
        • Taenia   species
        • cattle, pigs
        • meat
        • Cryptosporidiosis
        • Cryptosporidium species
        • cattle, sheep, pets
        • water, direct contact
        • Fish tank granuloma
        • Mycobacterium marinum
        • fish
        • direct contact, water
        • Food poisoning
        • Campylobacter species
        • poultry, farm animals
        • raw meat, milk
        • Salmonella species
        • poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs
        • food borne
        • Giardiasis
        • Giardia lamblia
        • humans, wildlife
        • waterborne, person to person
        • Glanders
        • Burkholderia mallei
        • horse, donkey, mule
        • direct contact
        • Haemorrhagic colitis
        • Escherichia coli O157
        • ruminants
        • direct contact (and food borne)
    • 13.
        • Hantavirus syndromes
        • Hantaviruses
        • rodents
        • aerosol
        • Hydatid disease
        • Echinococcus granulosus
        • dogs, sheep
        • ingestion of eggs excreted by dog
        • Leptospirosis
        • Leptospira species
        • rodents, ruminants
        • infected urine, water
        • Listeriosis
        • Listeria monocytogenes
        • cattle, sheep, soil
        • dairy produce, meat products
        • Lyme disease
        • Borrelia burgdorferi
        • ticks, rodents, sheep, deer, small mammals
        • tick bite
        • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
        • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
        • rodents
        • direct contact
        • Plague
        • Yersinia pestis
        • rats and their fleas
        • flea bite
        • Psittacosis
        • Chlamydophila psittaci
        • birds, poultry, ducks
        • aerosol, direct contact
        • Q fever
        • Coxiella burnetii
        • cattle, sheep, goats, cats
        • aerosol, direct contact, milk, fomites
        • Rabies
        • Rabies viruses
        • cats, dogs, foxes, bats
        • animal bite
    • 14.
        • Rat bite fever (Haverhill fever)
        • Streptobacillus moniliformis
        • rats
        • bite/scratch, milk, water
        • Ringworm
        • Dermatophyte fungi
        • cats, dogs, cattle, many animal species
        • direct contact
        • Streptococcal sepsis
        • Streptococcus suis
        • pigs
        • direct contact, meat
        • Streptococcal sepsis
        • Streptococcus zooepidemicus
        • horses, cattle
        • direct contact, milk
        • Toxocariasis
        • Toxocara canis/cati
        • dogs, cats
        • direct contact
        • Toxoplasmosis
        • Toxoplasma gondii
        • cats, ruminants
        • ingestion of faecal oocysts, meat
        • Trichinellosis
        • Trichinella spiralis
        • pigs, wild boar
        • pork products
        • Tularemia
        • Francisella tularensis
        • rabbits, wild animals, environment, ticks
        • direct contact, aerosol, ticks, inoculation
        • Zoonotic diphtheria
        • Corynebacterium ulcerans
        • cattle, farm animals, dogs
        • direct contact, milk
        • West Nile fever
        • West nile virus
        • wild birds, mosquitoes
        • mosquito bite
    • 15. Etiologic Classification
      • Viral
      • Bacterial
      • Parasitic
      • Mycotic
    • 16. Viral Zoonosis
    • 17. Avian Influenza “Bird Flu”
    • 18. Cycles of Avian Influenza
    • 19. SARS SARS map courtesy of WebMD Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
    • 20. Rabies
      • Reservoir
        • Dog, Cat, Bat, Racoon
      • Agent
        • Rabies virus
      • Transmission
        • Saliva of infected animals
      • Human symptoms
        • Seizures, paralysis, fever
    • 21. Lassa Fever
      • Found predominantly in West Africa, in particular Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Liberia
      • Reservoir : Rat ( Mastomys )
      • Transmission : Through contact with infected urine and feces
        • Man to man transmission can occur through contact with infected bodily fluids
      Mastomys
    • 22. West Nile Fever
      • Reservoir
        • Birds
      • Agent
        • West Nile Virus
      • Transmission
        • Mosquito bites bird, picks up virus, and then bites human
      • Human symptoms
        • Fever, flu like symptoms
    • 23. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
      • BSE or “Mad Cow Disease”
      • Reservoir: Cattle
      • Agent: Prion
      • Transmission: Eating infected beef
      • Human symptoms: Neurological disorders that worsen over time
      • Treatment: Supportive, but usually fatal
    • 24. Parasitic Zoonosis
    • 25. Toxoplasmosis
      • Reservoir: Pigs, Cats, Rats, Deer, Lamb
      • A single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii
      • Transmission: Touching infected cat feces, eating undercooked meat, contaminated water drinking
      • Human symptoms: Flu like symptoms
      • Treatment: Medications if needed, newborn babies infected through their mother can suffer eye and brain damage
    • 26.  
    • 27. Ringworm
      • Tinea fungus
      • Reservoir: Any surface contaminated with fungus
      • Transmission: Touching a contaminated surface such as cat or dog hair, brushes or combs, cows, horses, and other animals
      • Human symptoms: Rash shaped in a ring on the skin, scalp, groin area, and feet
      • Treatment: Medicated creams, keeping area clean and dry
    • 28. Bacterial Zoonosis
    • 29. Tuberculosis
      • Mycobacterium bovis
      • Reservoir : Cattle
      • Transmission
        • Foodborne: unpasteurized milk and raw meat
        • Droplet/aerosols
      • M. avium
      • Reservoir : Birds
      • Risk for immunocompromised persons
        • Elderly, HIV, on chemotherapy
    • 30. Anthrax - White Powder
      • Bacillus anthracis
      • Aerobic, Gram Positive Rods
      • Spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with a skin lesion on a host they may reactivate and multiply rapidly
        • Animals ingest or inhale the spores while grazing
        • Spores are passed in feces
      • Transmission :
        • Inoculation of infected blood to broken skin
        • Consumption of a diseased animal's flesh
      • Anthrax : Pulmonary, Gastrointestinal and Cutaneous
    • 31. Brucella
      • B.abortus : cattle
      • B.melitensis : goat, sheep Human pathogens
      • B.suis : swine
      • B.canis : dog
      • B. melitensis and B. suis more virulent
      • Small, non-motile, GNR, facultative intracellular
      • Reservoir: Animals
      • Incubation : 5-60 days; 1-2 months common
      • Undulant fever characteristic
        • Intermittent or irregular fever with variable duration
    • 32.
      • Transmission to Humans
        • Direct contact with infected tissues and secretions
        • Ingestion of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products
        • Inhalation of infectious aerosols
        • Inoculation with animal vaccines
        • No evidence of person-to-person transmission
      • Shed in large numbers in milk, urine, and reproductive tissues
        • Avoid consumption of raw dairy products
      • Pasteurization eliminates organism, reduces disease
    • 33. Psittacosis
      • Chlamydophila psittaci
      • Obligate intracellular bacterium
      • Incubation: 5-14 d
      • Transmission : From birds to humans
      • Elementary bodies
      • Routes of infection
        • Inhalation (feather dust, resp. secretions, dried feces)
        • Mouth-to-beak contact
        • Handling of infected bird’s plumage and tissues
      • Even brief exposures can lead to infection
    • 34. Yersinia Species Transmission Disease Y. pestis Flea bite Respiratory tract Plague Y. enterocolitica Digestive tract Contact Enterocolitis Y. pseudotuberculosis Digestive tract Enterocolitis
    • 35. Q-Fever
      • Coxiella burnetii
      • Obligate intracellular rickettsia
      • Highly infectious - one organism may cause disease
      • Reservoir : Goats, sheep, cattle, cats and rabbits
      • Incubation period : 20 days (14 - 39 days)
      • Transmission to Humans
        • Organism is excreted in urine, feces, milk, and in birth fluids
        • Humans are usually infected by inhalation of the organism from contaminated environments
    • 36. Leptospirosis
      • Spirochete Leptospira icterohemorrhagica
      • Motile, aerobic with hooked ends
      • Incubation : 7-14 days (range 2-21 days)
      • Bacteremic for 7-10 days
      • Leptospiruric 1 week to several months
    • 37.
      • Leptospirosis: Transmission Cycle
      Urine, Soil, Water and Tissues Contaminated with Leptospires hardjo Pomona cattle, skunks, opossums canicola icterohemorrhagica
    • 38. Cat Scratch Disease
      • Bartonella henselae
      • Transmission : Bite or scratch from infected cat
      • Reservoir : Cats
      • Incubation : 7-12 days
      • Papules at inoculation site persist several weeks
        • Subsequent lymphadenopathy
    • 39.  
    • 40. Lyme’s Disease
      • Borrelia burgdorferi
      • Reservoir: Deer
      • Transmission: Black legged tick feeds on infected deer, picks up bacterium, and bites human
      • Human symptoms: Rash, arthritis, fever, swollen lymph nodes, neurologic signs, heart problems
    • 41.
      • Mycotic Zoonoses
      • Aspergillosis
      • Blastomycosis
      • Cryptococcosis
      • Dermatophytosis
      • Histoplasmosis
      • Sporotrichosis
    • 42.
      • Avian influenza
      • Salmonellosis
      • Campylobacter Enteritis
    • 43.
      • Histoplasmosis
      • Cryptococcosis
      • Psittacosis
      • Candidiasis
      • Salmonellosis
      • St. Louis Encephalitis
      • West Nile Fever
    • 44.
      • Amoebiasis
      • Campylobacter diarrhea
      • Diseases caused by Salmonella, Shigella, Helicobacter
      • Yellow fever
      • Falciparum malaria
      • Knowlesi malaria
      • Monkey pox
      • Hepatits A
      • Rabies
    • 45.
      • Rabies
      • Brucellosis
      • Leptospirosis
      • Giardiasis
      • Babesiosis
      • Leishmaniasis
      • Intestinal worms
      • Blastomycosis
      • Histoplasmosis
      • Aspergillosis
    • 46.
      • Cat-scratch disease
      • Rabies
      • Toxoplasmosis
    • 47.  

    ×