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Session 16 4th edition


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  • 1. Project Communication Management
  • 2. Project Communication Management Knowledge Area Process Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Contol Closing Communication Indentify Stakeholder Plan Communication Distribute Information Manage Stakeholders - Expectations Report Performance Enter phase/ Start project Exit phase/ End project Initiating Processes Closing Processes Planning Processes Executing Processes Monitoring & Controlling Processes
  • 3. Project Communication Management • The process required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information. • Project managers spend the majority of their time (90%) to communicate.
  • 4. 4
  • 5. We all can recognize an elephant .. “when we see one”, can’t we?
  • 6. And the elephant (project) became …
  • 7. Identify Stakeholder • The process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regarding their interest, involvement, and impact on project success. Inputs 1. Project charter 2. Procurement documents 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Stakeholder analysis 2. Expert judgment Outputs 1. Stakeholder register 2. Stakeholder management strategy
  • 8. Stakeholder Analysis • A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative & qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. • Step 1: Identify all otential project stakeholders and relevant information • Step 2: Identify the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate and classify them so as to define an approach strategy. • Step 3: Assess how key stakeholder are likely to react or respond in various situation Sample grid showing classification model Keep Satisfied Manage Closely Keep Informed Monitor (Minimum Effort) Interest Power Low High High • A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H
  • 9. Output of Identify Stakeholder • Stakeholder Register Stakeholder Stakeholder interest(s) in the project Assessment of impact Potential strategies for gaining support or reducing obstacles Name Contact Information Role in Project Department/ Supervisor Company Impact Influence Main expectations Attitude about the project Major requirement • Stakeholder Management Strategy - Defines an approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholder. - The information could be too sensitive to be shared. - A common way of representing is by using a stakeholder analysis matrix.
  • 10. Plan Communication • The process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach. Inputs 1. Stakeholder register 2. Stakeholder management strategy 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Communication requirement analysis 2. Communication technology 3. Communication models 4. Communication methods Outputs 1. Communication management plan 2. Project document updates 90% of project manager’stime is spent for communication
  • 11. Communication Requirement Analysis • Includes communicating in all directions • Determine and limit who will communicate with whom and who will receive what information. Customer, sponsor, Functional managers, and Team Members Other Project Managers Other Projects Other Stakeholders The Project 2 )1( NN • Consider the number of potential communication channels or paths • Formula:
  • 12. Communication technology Urgency of the need for information Availability of technology. Expected project staffing. Duration of the project Project environment Is project success dependent upon having frequently updated information available on a moment’s notice, or would regularly issued written reports suffice? Are appropriate systems already in place or do project needs warrant change? Are the proposed communication systems compatible with the experience and expertise of the project participants, or is extensive training and learning required? Is the available technology likely to change before the project is over? Does the team meet and operate on a face-to-face basis or in a virtual environment?
  • 13. Communication Model • Basic Communication Model – The sender is responsible for making information clear and complete so that the receiver can receive it correctly, and for confirming that it is properly understood. SenderSender Encode Decode decode Encode Noise Noise Mediu m • To make effective communication, sender/receiver need to be aware of these factors: - Nonverbal: 55% of all communication is nonverbal - Paralingual: pitch and tone of voice - Effective listening
  • 14. Communication Blockers • Noise • Distance • Language • Hostility • Culture • Saying NO or BAD IDEA • Improper encoding
  • 15. Active listening • Don’t just hear the words. Get the whole message! - Pay attention - Show that you’re listening - Provide feedback - Defer Judgment - Respond appropriately
  • 16. Communication Methods • Interactive Communication – Most efficient way to ensure a common understanding – E.g. meetings, phone calls, video conferencing • Push Communication – Does not certify that it reached or understood – E.g. letters, email, press release, faxes, voice mail • Pull communication – Used for very large information volumes, very large audiences – E.g. intranet site, e-learning
  • 17. Communication type - Formal or informal - Written or verbal Preferred MethodSituation Formal WrittenProject Plan Informal WrittenMemo Informal VerbalMeetings Formal VerbalPresentations Informal verbalConversations Formal WrittenProject Charter Formal verbalSpeeches Informal writtenEmail Informal writtenNotes Formal WrittenComplex Problems Formal WrittenLong Distance
  • 18. Effective Meeting • Plan or prepare the meeting – Set a time/schedule and determine the participants. – Have a clear purpose for each meeting & communicate it in the invitation. – Create the agenda and distribute it in advance. • Stick to the plan (discipline) – Begin on time, end on time. – Introduce the moderator and stipulate who will keep the minutes. – End every agenda with a summary and consensus of the participants. • Good follow-up – Send the minutes showing the result along with the to do list. – Get feedback from the participants. – Monitor the status of all action items.
  • 19. Communication Management Plan
  • 20. COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT PLAN Project Title: Date Prepared: Message Audience Method Frequency Sender Describe the information to be communicated: For example, status reports, project updates, meeting minutes, etc. List the people or the groups of people who should receive the information. Describe how the information will be delivered. For example, e- mail, meetings, Web meetings, etc. List how often the information is to be provided. Insert the name of the person or the group that will provide the information. Term or Acronym Definition List any terms or acronyms unique to the project or that are used in a unique way. Provide a definition of the term or the full term for acronyms. List any assumptions or constraints. Constraints can include descriptions of proprietary information and relevant restrictions on distribution. Communication Constraints or Assumptions
  • 21. Distribute Information • Effective information distribution includes • Sender-receiver models. Feedback loops and barriers to communication. • Choice of media. writing versus orally, informal memo versus a formal report, face-to-face versus by e-mail. • Writing style. Active versus passive voice, sentence structure, and word choice. • Meeting management techniques. Preparing an agenda and dealing with conflicts. • Presentation techniques. Body language and design of visual aids. • Facilitation techniques. Building consensus and overcoming obstacles.
  • 22. Distribute Information • The process of making relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned. Inputs 1. Project management plan 2. Performance reports 3. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Communication methods 2. Information distribution tools Outputs 1. Organizational process assets updates Make surethe information arereceived, effective and efficient.
  • 23. Performance Reports project performance and status information, should be made available prior to project meetings, and should be as precise and current as possible. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance measurements provided as the project is executed. This information is about the project’s past performance that could impact the project in the future, for example in earned value management
  • 24. Manage Stakeholder Expectations • The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur. Inputs 1. Stakeholder register 2. Stakeholder management strategy 3. Project management plan 4. Issue log 5. Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques 1. Communication methods 2. Interpersonal skills 3. Management skills Outputs 1. Organizational process assets updates 2. Change requests 3. Project management plan updates 4. Project document updates
  • 25. Managing Stakeholder Expectations • Actively managing the expectation of stakeholders. – Increase the likelihood of project acceptance by negotiating. – Influencing their desire to achieve & maintain project goals. • Clarifying and resolving issues that have been identified.
  • 26. Interpersonal Skills interpersonal skills to manage stakeholder expectations. • Building trust, • Resolving conflict, • Active listening • Overcoming resistance to change.
  • 27. Management Skills Management skills used by the project manager include but are not limited to: - Presentation skills, - Negotiating, - Writing skills, and - Public speaking.
  • 28. Report Performance • the process of collecting and distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts Inputs 1-Project management plan .2 Work performance information .3 Work performance measurements .4 Budget forecasts .5 Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques .1 Variance analysis .2 Forecasting methods .3 Communication methods .4 Reporting systems Outputs .1 Performance reports .2 Organizational process assets updates .3 Change requests Report must betruthfuland not hide what is really going on.
  • 29. Types of Performance Reports Status Report: Where do we stand? Budget? schedule? Progress Report: what have we accomplished? -Trend Report: - are we improving? -Forecasting Report: -predicting future status and performance. -Earned Value: -unified reporting method that incorporate cost, scope and time.
  • 30. 1 ) Originally the project had four team members. Now the scope has expanded, and there are a total of six people in the project team. How many communication channels does the project have? A ) 6 B ) 9 C ) 12 D ) 15
  • 31. 2 ) All of the following are part of the communication management plan EXCEPT? A ) names of the stakeholders who can talk to the project manager B ) Names of those receiving a telephone call when the system crashes C ) Methods used to collect and store information D ) Names of the stakeholders and instructions on sending project status to them
  • 32. 3 ) If a project manager wants to report on the actual project results vs. planned results, he would use a : A ) trend report B ) forecasting report C ) status report D ) variance report
  • 33. 4 ) Project A has had ineffective project meetings since its inception. There have been complaints that information does not get to the right people, some people are talking too much during the meeting, and the right people are not there to resolve issues. What is MOST likely missing from this project? A ) A project scope management plan B ) A staffing management plan C ) A communication management plan D ) A process improvement plan
  • 34. 5 ) When a project manager is engaged in negotiations, nonverbal communication skills are of : A ) Little importance. B ) Major importance C ) important only when cost and schedule objectives are involved. D ) Important only to ensure you win the negotiation
  • 35. 6 ) Inputs to plan communications include all the following EXCEPT? A ) Stakeholder register B ) project scope statement C ) Organizational process assets D ) forecasts