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WWI: Nationalism and Total War
 

WWI: Nationalism and Total War

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PowerPoint presentation by Kerry Ann Miquel

PowerPoint presentation by Kerry Ann Miquel
For MDSK 5253 EE#3, UNC-C

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    WWI: Nationalism and Total War WWI: Nationalism and Total War Presentation Transcript

    • Nationalism in Total War
    •  Europe’s longest sustained peace in centuries tookafter the Franco-Prussian War ended in 1871 Industrialization and militarization of majorEuropean powers (Great Britain, France, Germany)increased animosity Tension mounted…On the Path to TotalWar
    • It Begins… June 28, 1914 Archbishop FranzFerdinand, heir to theAustro-Hungarian throne,and his wife Sophie areassassinated in Sarajevo bySerb nationalist GavriloPrincip Austria-Hungary retaliatesagainst the nationalistfactions in Serbia, and givesthe country an ultimatum.
    • Austria-Hungary (AH)declares war onSerbiaRussia’s treatywith Serbiaforces them todeclare war onAHGermany’salliance with AHforces them todeclare war onRussiaFrance’s alliancewith Russiacauses them todeclare war onGermanyGermany invadesBelgium (neutral)for easier accessto FranceBritain’s treatywith Francerequires theCommonwealthto declare war onGermanyThings escalate
    • The Ottomanempire allies withAH and Germany.Japan allies withBritain. Italy(eventually) sideswith the GB.German U-Boatsbegin a blockade ofGreat BritainUnited Statesdeclares itsneutrality.The Lusitania issunk, killing 128Americans. U.S.warns them to stopunrestricted subattacks.Germany limitsattacks temporarily,but restarts inFebruary 1917U.S. Congressdeclares war onGermany in April1917… and escalate
    •  Battle of Tennenberg: Germany’s most successful battle on the EasternFront Poor planning by Russia caused high casualties: almost 250,000Russian deaths Significant because it reduced support for Russian involvement inthe conflict Battle of Gallipoli: Allies attempt to take the Gallipoli peninsula fromthe Ottomans Poor planning led to an unsuccessful campaign Battle of Verdun: Longest battle of the War Ended in a draw More than one million casualtiesEarly Major Battles
    • Why such high casualties? First mechanized war Artillery, airplanes,tanks, submarines Trench Warfare An estimated 1/3 ofAllied casualties tookplace in the trenches Disease, infestationcaused constantmedical issues
    •  The Battle of Passchendaele: Small gains for theAllies, at a cost of 700,000 lives The March Offensive: German Blitzkrieg In an attempt to push the British out of France beforethey receive U.S. assistance, the Germans begin anaggressive campaign Artillery cannot keep pace with infantry, so initialsuccess turns into failure with high casualties.The tide turns…
    •  British on American forces successfully push backagainst the German Blitzkrieg on all fronts Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates the German throne onNovember 9, 1918 Germany and the Allies sign an armistice onNovember 11, 1918, effectively ending the warResolution
    •  Paris Peace Conference: The Allies establish thepeace terms for the Central Powers through a seriesof treaties. The Treaty of Versailles: Officially ended the war withGermany Placed strict economic penalties on Germany throughreparations Restricted size and scope of German military Reestablished borders of 1871, and stripped Germany ofits colonial holdings.The Aftermath
    •  The League of Nations was established at the ParisPeace Conference Four “Great Powers” (U.S., Great Britain, France, Italy)established the League of Nations with the goal ofmaintaining world peace Responsible for “managing” the former OttomanEmpire and German coloniesThe Aftermath
    • Peace? The burden of reparations anddomestic problems plagued thenew Weimar Republic. Germans blamed the Treaty ofVersailles The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin,overthrew Tsar Nicholas II. Gained support because ofRussia’s involvement in WWI Started to establish communistgovernment throughout Russia Gained full control of thecountry at the end of theRussian Revolution in 1921 Established the Soviet Union“The Bolshevik”Boris Kustodiev, 1920
    • Learning Check:Political CartoonsSocratic Dialogue
    • Learning Check: Political Cartoons• What is the main idea of this cartoon?• What do you think is meant by “The Crime of the Ages?"• What other details do you notice in this cartoon?
    • Learning Check: Political Cartoons• Which countries are represented by the dog and the man in this cartoon?• What is the cartoon saying about the relationship between these two countries?
    • Learning Check: Political Cartoons• What is this cartoon referencing?• What is the cartoonist implying about the event?
    • Learning Check: Political Cartoons• What part of WWI is this cartoon referencing?• What is this cartoon foreshadowing?