Utility Infrastructure (Strom-water Management) by Mr.Wasif Ali

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This presentation was presented in 'The Lahore Project' Monthly Discussion Forum on Utility Infrastructure (Strom-water Management) by Mr.Wasif Ali, on 21st Aug.2013 at Dabistan-e-Iqbal, (2-S, Gulberg II) Lahore.

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Utility Infrastructure (Strom-water Management) by Mr.Wasif Ali

  1. 1. Utility Infrastructure of Lahore City (Stormwater Drainage) Engr. Wasif Ali B.Sc. (Civil Engineering) M.Sc. (Environmental Engineering) The Lahore Project Working Session
  2. 2. Presentation Outline  Existing Scenario  Stormwater Management Techniques  Case Study…… Mohlanwal Area  Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems  Conclusions & Recommendations The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  3. 3. Existing Scenario  Frequent and Widespread Stormwater Flooding  Unplanned Development Pattern  Water Table Decline  Limited Space & Funds for Drainage  Poor Assessment of Existing Drainage facilities  Authorities are in mode of crisis The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  4. 4. Existing Scenario The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  5. 5. Existing Scenario  Groundwater Decline Sr. No Location Water Level below NSL (ft) Avg. Decline (ft/yr)Year Feet Year Feet 1 A-Block Gulberg 1977 40.75 2000 87.74 2.04 2 Nawan Kot Police Station 1981 30.83 2000 66.22 1.86 3 Takkia Lehri Shah 1978 33.75 2000 86.92 2.41 4 Singh Pura 1981 45.40 2000 86.59 2.16 5 Rehman Pura 1987 58.71 2000 94.46 2.75 6 Masti gate 1987 46.08 2000 85.11 3.00 8 Masoom Gunj 1987 26.57 2000 70.81 3.40 9 Avari Hotel 1987 70.68 2000 107.45 2.83 10 Jia Musa 1987 25.65 2000 37.72 0.93 Source: Integrated Master Plan of Lahore for 2021, NESPAKThe Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  6. 6. Existing Scenario  Design Rainfall Distribution Curve for Lahore (1953-2005) Source: Pilot Balloon Observatory (PBO) LahoreThe Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  7. 7. Existing Scenario  Rainfall Distribution Source: Pilot Balloon Observatory (PBO) LahoreThe Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  8. 8. Stormwater Management Techniques  Conventional Techniques ☼ Rapid Removal of Water ☼ Reactive Approach ☼ Increased Flooding ☼ Increased Erosion and Pollution ☼ Reduced Aquifer Recharge ☼ Complex Pipe Network ☼ Expensive The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  9. 9. Stormwater Management Techniques  Alternative Techniques ☼ Nomenclature ☼ BMPs… Best Management Practices ☼ SUDS… Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems ☼ USM… Urban Stormwater Management ☼ Localized Stagnation ☼ Lesser Erosion & Pollutant Loads ☼ Aquifer Recharging ☼ Flexible Network ☼ Proactive Approach ☼ Economical The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  10. 10. Best Management Practices (BMPs)  Green Roofs  Rooftop Runoff Controls  Bioretention / Recharge Garden  Dry Well / Seepage Pit  Pervious Pavements  Vegetated Swale  Infiltration Trench  Infiltration basin  Wet Pond / Retention Basin The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  11. 11. Green Roofs  Reduced & Delayed Runoff  (up to 70% peak reduction)  Insulation of Buildings  Lower Energy Consumption  Habitat for Birds and Insects  Reduced Carbon Dioxide levels  Higher Cost  Leakage  Harsh Conditions for Vegetation  Higher Maintenance Benefits Limitations The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  12. 12. Rooftop Runoff Control Benefits Limitations  Limited Suitability for small houses  Requires Proper Maintenance  Pumping Cost may involve if sub surface storage is provided  Irrigation of Landscaped areas & Gardens  Firefighting Storage  (Building like WAPDA house, School etc)  Reduced Peak Volume of Stormwater  Reuse for Grey Water….i.e. flushing toilets.  Reuse for Athletic Field Irrigation  Cost Savings during Summer The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  13. 13. Rooftop Runoff Control The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  14. 14. Bioretention/Rain Garden Limitations  Regular Inspection  Rain Gardens may Require Watering in dry season  Reduce Runoff Volume  Filter Pollutants  Recharge Groundwater  Enhance Aesthetics  Provide Habitat Benefits The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  15. 15. Bioretention/Rain Garden The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  16. 16. Dry Well/Seepage Pit  2’ Separation to Bedrock and Water Table  Min. 10’ distance from Foundation  Overflow Outlet for Large Storms  Min. One Observation Well.  Maximum Drain-Down Time is 72 hours Imp. Features The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  17. 17. Pervious Pavements Limitations  Higher Construction and Maintenance Costs  Depends on Infiltration Rates of Underlying Soils  Less Durable  Good for impervious areas  Reduces runoff  Increased infiltration  Healthier vegetation Benefits The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  18. 18. Pervious Pavements Variations 1) Pervious Bituminous Asphalt 2) Porous Concrete 3) Pervious Pavers BlocksThe Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  19. 19. Vegetated Swale Imp. Features  Significantly slow the rate of runoff conveyance compared to pipes  Attenuation & Infiltration of runoff  Pollutants Removal  Longitudinal slope = 1 to 6%  Check Dams for steeper slopes  Side slope = 3:1 to 5:1  Bottom width = 2 to 8 ft The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  20. 20. Vegetated Swale 1) Vegetated Swale with Infiltration Trench 3) Swale with Check Dams2) Grassed SwaleThe Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  21. 21. Infiltration Trench Benefits Limitations  Ground Water Recharging  Stormwater Treatment  Good for Small Sites with Porous Soils  Groundwater Contamination  High Clogging Potential  Significant Setback Requirements  Geotechnical Testing Required The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  22. 22. Infiltration Basin The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  23. 23. Infiltration Basin  100% Reduction in the Load Discharged to Surface Waters  Approximation of Pre-Development Hydrology  Channel Erosion Control  Not Appropriate for Industrial / Spill sites  Not suitable on Fill-Sites or Steep Slopes  Infiltration rate ≥ 0.5 and ≤ 2.4 inch/hr  Difficult to Restore once Clogged. Benefits Limitations The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  24. 24. Wet Pond/Retention Basin  Wildlife and Wetlands Habitat  Aesthetic & Recreational Value  Public Amenity when integrated into a Park  Water Quality Improvement  Public Safety Concern  Mosquito Breeding  Cannot be Placed on steep slopes Benefits Limitations The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  25. 25. Study Area The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  26. 26. Study Area Master Plan of the Mohlanwal The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  27. 27. Study Area  Building Bye-Laws  LDA Land-Use Distribution for New Schemes Sr.# Land Use Area Requirement 1 Open Spaces / Parks Not less than 7% of Total Scheme Area 2 Graveyard Not less than 2% of Total Scheme Area 3 Commercial Area Not more than 5% of Total Scheme Area 4 Public Buildings 2 to 10 %  LDA Bye-Laws for Open Areas in Residential Units Category Area (Sft) Deduct Car Porch & Drive Way (Sft) Net Open Area (Sft) %age of Open AreaPlot Open Front Side Rear Total 2-kanal 9,000 1,500 1,800 750 4,050 600 3,450 38.3 1-Kanal 4,500 500 365 350 1,215 300 915 20.3 10-Marla 2,250 350 235 245 830 300 530 23.6 5-Marla 1,125 125 0 125 250 0 250 22.2The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  28. 28. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems ☼ Stormwater Systems  Conventional Techniques  Partially Combined Sewer System (Model #1)  Separate Storm Sewer System (Model #2)  Alternative Techniques  Storm Sewer System with Park Storage (Model #3)  Storm Sewer System with Park & Lawn storage (Model #4) ☼ Analysis / Design Tool  Storm Water management Module (SWMM) The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  29. 29. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  30. 30. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems Model # 1 & 2 The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  31. 31. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems ☼ Summary of Node Flooding Node Type 2-Yrs 5-Yrs 10-Yrs Total Flooding (acre-in) Total Minutes Flooded Total Flooding (acre-in) Total Minutes Flooded Total Flooding (acre-in) Total Minutes Flooded J1 Junction 15.59 364 34.98 384 48.57 393 J2 Junction 5.05 71 23.68 218 43.85 355 J3 Junction 0.01 0 0.01 0 2.81 48 J4 Junction 0 0 0.01 0 0.70 30 J5 Junction 8.79 372 15.31 393 20.36 402 J6 Junction 29.19 364 57.46 384 76.84 393 J7 Junction 5.04 121 18.61 354 31.39 363 J8 Junction 0.00 1 4.62 63 8.65 83 J9 Junction 10.09 374 18.29 399 25.46 412 J10 Junction 10.95 352 29.65 372 43.84 384 J11 Junction 21.67 362 51.63 380 75.32 387 J12 Junction 0 0 0 0 0.00 1 J13 Junction 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 J14 Junction 0 0 0 0 0 0 O1 Outfall 0 0 0 0 0 0 Model # 1 Partially Combined Sewer System The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  32. 32. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems ☼ Summary of Links Link Type Diameter (inch) Link Type Diameter (inch) C1 Circular 9 C8 Circular 9 C2 Circular 15 C9 Circular 12 C3 Circular 24 C10 Circular 18 C4 Circular 24 C11 Circular 12 C5 Circular 9 C12 Circular 24 C6 Circular 12 C13 Circular 24 C7 Circular 15 C14 Circular 27 Model # 1 Partially Combined Sewer System The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  33. 33. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems Model # 3 Storm Sewer System With Park Storage The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  34. 34. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems Model # 4 Storm Sewer System With Park & Lawn Storage The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  35. 35. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems ☼ Evaluation of different Models  Flooding Velocity %age Peak Domestic flow as Stormwater Allowance Provided as per WASA Criteria Required as per SWMM Analysis Return Period fps 2-Yrs 5-Yrs 10-Yrs 2.0 100 345 635 1000 2.5 100 460 825 1275 3.0 100 570 1005 1550 Comparison of Stormwater Allowance for different Frequencies  Length-weighted Diameter {(D1xL1+D2L2+……..DnLn) / ΣLn}  Cost of the System The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  36. 36. Design & Analysis of Stormwater Systems Type of Stormwater System Length-weighted Diameter (inch) Cost (Millions Rs.) 2-Yrs 5-Yrs 10-Yrs 2-Yrs 5-Yrs 10-Yrs Combined System 16 16 16 2.6 2.6 2.6 Separate System 34 45 52 6.7 11.0 14.7 Storm Sewer with Park Storage 16 22 26 2.9 4.4 5.5 Storm Sewer with Park and Lawn Storage 09 16 19 1.5 2.9 3.5  Summary of the Network Sizing & Cost The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  37. 37. Conclusions & Recommendations 1) Mean average decline in ground water table of Lahore comes to be 2.03 ft/yr which clearly shows the need to implement the alternative storm water techniques instead of conventional techniques. 2) The “knee of curve” for Lahore is in the range of 0.60 to 1.00 inch of rainfall hence BMPs will be most efficient and economical in Lahore if they target the storm event having the value lesser than 1.0 inch. 3) The value of “Storm water Allowance”, as per WASA design criteria is taken as 100% of peak domestic flow but this study shows that it varies from 345% to 1000% for 2-yrs and 10-yrs return period respectively. Hence the value suggested by WASA is of no use if one is designing combined system for No-flooding condition. ☼ Conclusions The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  38. 38. 4) This study shows that ample reduction in conduit size can be achieved by utilizing BMPs. For example the ultimate diameter for separate sewer system are 42, 54 and 66 inch respectively for 2, 5 and 10 year return period while using only two BMPs (i.e. Lawn Depression and Park Storage) the ultimate diameters are 12, 21 and 24 inch for 2,5 and 10 year return period respectively. 5) Common misconception about the additional land requirement for any storage facility can be wrecked by the results of this study that even using the current open space regulation of LDA, 89% of peak flow reduction can be achieved through BMPs. Conclusions & Recommendations ☼ Conclusions The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  39. 39. 1) The rainfall data is a basic requirement for the analysis purposes. Continuous recording of rainfall is required to develop a shorter time interval for rain fall intensity curves. Presently most of the data is in 3-hr interval form and only a limited record of continuous recording rain- gages is available. It is strongly recommended that meteorological department should make such arrangements that rainfall can be recorded up to 5 minutes interval. 2) Main emphasis of the bye-laws in Lahore is on ventilation and sunlight criteria. No provision is made in these bye-laws to meet the sustainable drainage. Hence it is needed to develop such guidelines by which sustainable development can be achieved. Conclusions & Recommendations ☼ Recommendations The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  40. 40. 3) Peak and quantity of the stormwater flow should be reduced by the application of storage BMPs. Government agencies like WASA should prepare a master drainage plan for all major drains (natural as well as man-made) and a specific quantity and peak of flow should be allotted to each and every section of these drains. A stormwater tax should be imposed if society discharges any additional flow than that of allotted by the competent authority like WASA. 4) The LDA should encourage the vertical growth so that more and more space can be utilized for the BMPs. Constructed wetland, wet ponds and many other storage facilities require a huge land area. It will not only increase the ground water recharging but at the same time such spaces can be utilized as recreational spot, walkways and children’s play areas. Conclusions & Recommendations ☼ Recommendations The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  41. 41. 5) Most of the BMP techniques can only be implemented by the active public participation hence educational and awareness campaigns should be set up for local community groups. Electronic media can play an important role in this regard. 6) Because of rapid urbanization, extensive and more frequent flooding has been occurring in recent years and the continued use of conventional techniques to stormwater management result in municipalities becoming victims of their municipality’s development success therefore it makes sense to implement the Alternative techniques to stormwater management. Conclusions & Recommendations ☼ Recommendations The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013
  42. 42. Questions & Answers The Lahore Project Working Session on Utility Infrastructure 21 August 2013

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