# Termodinamika

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### Termodinamika

1. 1. 1 Kamil Arif Patarai Fanpage FB: Kamilap Corp. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Lots of thermodynamic processes that occur in daily activities. Examples such as the convection heat transfer in liquids and gases; relationship between volume, temperature, and gas pressure (Boyle's law Gay-Lussac); the relationship between heat (Q), work (W), and Energy (E). Based on these theories, we will make simple prop associated with the process. The tool utilizes the increased volume of gas when heated to the temperature increase. Then flowed into a container of water to turn the propeller by the bubbles generated. We used old materials that recycle into a tool named "The Bubble’s Propeller". 1.2 Objective a. To study the application of the first law of thermodynamic. b. To explain about Boyle-Gay Lussac law’s.
2. 2. 2 CHAPTER 2 THEORY 2.1 Convection If we look at the flame of a candle or a match, we are watching heat energy being transported upward by convection. Heat transfer by convection occurs when a fluid, such as air or water, is in contact with an object whose temperature is higher than that of its surroundings. The temperature of the fluid that is in contact with the hot object increases and (in most cases) the fluid expands. The warm fluid is less dense than the surrounding cooler fluid, so it rises because of bouyant force. The surrounding cooler fluid falls to take the place of warmer fluid, and a convective circulation is set up. 2.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics We are free to define our system in any convenient way, as long as we are consistent and can account for all energy transfers to or from the system. For example, we might define the system to be block of metal that is at a lower temperature than its environment, so that the interaction involves a transfer of heat from the environment to the block. Or we might define a system to be water and ice that are mixed together in an insulated container. In this case there is an exchange of energy within the system but no interaction with the environment. For a thermodynamic system, in which internal energy is the only type of energy the system may have, the law of conservation of energy may be expressed as ( 1 ) In this section we examine this equation, which is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics. In this equation: Q is the energy transferred (as heat) between the system and its environment because of a temperature difference between them. A heat transfer that occurs entirely within the system boundary is not included in Q. W is the work done on (or by) the system by forces that act through the system boundary. Work done by forces that act entirely within the system boundary is not included in W. intEWQ ∆=+
3. 3. 3 Process Q W Boundary Initial state Final state environment ∆Eint is the change in the internal energy of the system that occurs when energy is transferred into or out of the system as heat or work. By convention we have chosen Q to be positive when heat is transferred into the system and W to be positive when work is done on the system. With these coiches, positive values of Q and W each serve to increase the internal energy of the system. Eq. 1 is a restricted form of the general law of conservation energy. For example, he system as a whole may be in motion in our frame of reference. That is, there may be kinetic energy associated with the motion of the center of mass of the system. If that were the case, we would have to add a term ∆Kcm to the right side of Eq. 1. However, in the systems we discuss the center of mass of the system will always be at rest in our reference frame so that no such term is needed. (a) (b) (c) Figure 1. Process of system Figure 1 suggests how Eq. 1 is to be applied. The system starts in an initial equilibrium state i in Fig. 1(a), in which the properties of the system, such as its internal energy Eint, have definite constant values. We then permit the system to undergo a thermodynamic process –that is, to interact with its environment as in Fig. 1(b)- during which work may be done and/or heat energy exchanged. When the process is concluded, the system ends up in a final equilibrium state f, in which the properties of the system will, in general, have different values. There are many processes by which we can take a system from a specified initial state to a specified final state. In general, the values of Q and W will differ, depending on the process we choose. However, experiment shows that, although Q and W may differ individually, their sum Q + W is the same for all processes that connect the given initial and final states. As Eq. 1 suggests, this is the experimantal basis for regarding the internal
4. 4. 4 energy Eint as a true state function –that is, as just as much an inherent property of a system as pressure, temperature, and volume. To stress this point of view, we can express the first law of thermodynamics formally in these words: In any thermodynamics process between equilibrium state i and f, the quantity Q + W has the same value for any path between i and f. this quantity is equal to the change in value of a state function called the internal energy Eint. The first law of thermodynamics is a general result that is thought to apply to every process in nature thet proceeds between equilibrium states. It is not necesarry that every stage of the process be an equilibrium state, only the initial and the final state. 2.3 Boyle-Gay Lussac Law’s If the pressure of gas in closed container to keep constant, volume of gas comparable with its absolute temperature. constant ( 2 )= T pV
5. 5. 5 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 MATERIALS Pure water (at normal temperature and low temperature). 3.2 Equipments a. Bottle b. Water’s container c. Propeller d. Pipe e. Candle 3.3 Procedure a. Boiling the water in water’s container b. While the water is boil, set the point of pipe and propeller in the bottle (water) c. Put the other point of pipe in the bottle (air) d. Put the bottle (air) into the water’s container until the bubble out from pipe e. Finnaly, when the bubble out from pipe, the propeller will rotate. Figure 2. Design of tool Water’s container Bottle (air) candle pipe propeller Bottle (water)
6. 6. 6 CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Results In the experiment, the variable that changed the temperature of water in the bottle which contained the propeller and the number of candles as a heat source. Temperature of the water used at normal temperature and low temperature. In the first experiment used a candle and two candles in next experiments as a heater. First, water in the container is heated using a candle to the boil. Purpose water is heated toproduce a maximum temperature so that the resulting bubble is enough to rotate a propeller. The first experiment used a candle as a heater and water at normal temperature in a container that contained a propeller. When a closed bottle containing the gas put into a container of water that is heated, the gas flows through the hose into a container of water causes bubbles. The bubble then moves to the surface of the water and rotate the propeller.number of revolutions of the propeller in this state 7 rotates. The second experiment used two candle as a heater and water at room temperature. Bubbles are produced more, thus generating more and faster rotation on the propeller. The third experiment used low temperature water and a candle as a heater. Difference in the first experiment that produced larger bubbles resulting spin more and faster. The fourth experiment uses two candle as a heater and water at low temperatures (water and ice). Bubbles are produced and much larger than in the second experiment, so as to speed up the rotation on the propeller.
7. 7. 7 Table of Observation Figure 3. Graphic relation about number of candle and propeller’s rotation 4. 2 Discussion From the observational data table, it appears that the quantity of heating affects the number of revolutions of the propeller. In addition, the water temperature was used as a medium driving the propeller also affects the intensity of propeller rotation. In water with low temperature, the bubbles generated have sizes larger than normal water temperatures. Its happened because as the gas in the bottle is heated to flow from high temperature to a much lower temperature which has a higher pressure. Therefore, the propeller rotates with maximum when given two candles as a heater and use cold water as a medium rotating propeller. No Experiment Time (s) Number of rotation 1 One Candle (normal temperature’s water) 30 7 2 One Candle (low temperature’s water) 30 8 3 Two Candles (normal temperature’s water) 30 10 4 TwoCandles (low temperature’s water) 30 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1 2 Numberofrotation Number of Candle room temperature low temperature
8. 8. 8 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 5.1 Conclusion Based on the law of Boyle-Gay Lussac if the gas is heated until its temperature increases, the volume of gas increases. This is seen from the bubbles in the water that rotates a propeller. The bubble’s propeller work more effectively in low-temperature water and the amount of heating because it produces more bubbles much larger size. Thus, the propeller rotates faster. Table of Observation 5.2 Suggestion Improving the design of the tool. Try to use other materials to enhance the effectiveness of the propeller. Develop the use of propeller’s rotation. No Experiment Time (s) Number of rotation 1 One Candle (normal temperature’s water) 30 7 2 One Candle (low temperature’s water) 30 8 3 Two Candles (normal temperature’s water) 30 10 4 TwoCandles (low temperature’s water) 30 14
9. 9. 9 References Resnick, Robert, David Halliday, Kenneth S. Krane. 2001. Physics. John Wiley&Sons, Inc: New York Zemansky, Mark W, and Dittman, Richard H. 1981. Heat and thermodynamics. Mc Graw Hill Companies: USA
10. 10. 10 Appendice • One candle (normal temperature water) A. Boiling the water with one candle A. Water that is heated C. Room temperature water
11. 11. 11 • One candle (low temperature water) A. Boiling the water with one candle B. Put the low temperature water into the bottle C. Water that is heated D. Low temperature water
12. 12. 12 Two candles (normal temperature water) A. Boiling the water with two candle B. Produce bubbles to rotate the propeller
13. 13. 13 Two candles (low temperature water) A. Boiling the water with two candles B. Low temperature water C.Produce bubbles to rotate the propeller