Plot is a literary term defined as the
events that make up a story,
particularly as they relate to one
another in a pattern, in a sequence,
through cause and effect, how the
reader views the story, or simply by
The exposition introduces all of
the main characters in the story.
It shows how they relate to one
another, what their goals and
motivations are, and the kind of
person they are.
Rising Action is the
action that occurs before
or obstacle .
It is the peak of the story because it is
the stage where a decision, an action,
an affirmation or denial, or
realization has to be made. It is the
logical conclusion of the preceding
actions for there are no new
developments that follows after it.
Falling Action is the
events that occur after
the climax and lead to
Resolution of the story is after
the climax. This is when we
find out what happens after
the conflict is resolved
Identifies a basic
incidents or obstacles
Highest point of
occur after the climax
and lead to the
How the problem is
The connected pattern of causes
and effects which a character
(protagonist) must face and try
to overcome. Conflict brings out
complications that make up
There are two types of conflict:
1) External - A struggle with a force
outside one's self.
2) Internal - A struggle within one's
self; a person must make some
decision, overcome pain, quiet their
temper, resist an urge, etc.
Two types of Conflict
1) Man vs. Man (physical) - The leading
character struggles with his physical strength
against other men, forces of nature, or animals.
2) Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - The
leading character struggles against fate, or the
circumstances of life facing him/her.
Four kinds of Conflict
3) Man vs. Society (social) - The leading
character struggles against ideas, practices, or
customs of other people.
4) Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) -
The leading character struggles with
himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of
right or wrong, physical limitations, choices,
Stories tell about characters who are
drawn from life and who can either be
good or bad. A story is concerned with
the major problem that a character must
face. This may involve interaction with
another character with a difficult
situation. The character may learn for the
better or may remain unchanged after the
The basic trait of round characters is
that they recognize, change with, or
adjust to circumstances. The round
character benefits from experience and
changes are reflected in 1) an action or
several actions, 2) the realization of a
or 3) the discovery of
unrecognized truths. A round
character often called the hero or
heroine, and thus the
protagonist. The protagonist
moves against the antagonist.
opponent, competitor, enemy, rival", from anti-
"against“ to contend for a prize. A character, group of
characters, or institution that represents the opposition
against which the protagonist must contend. In other
words, an antagonist is a person or a group of people
who oppose the main character(s). In the classic style of
stories wherein the action consists of a hero fighting a
villain/enemy, the two can be regarded as protagonist
and antagonist, respectively.
A flat character is a minor character who
does not undergo substantial change or
growth in the course of a story. Also
referred to as "two-dimensional characters"
or "static characters," flat characters play a
supporting role to the main character, who
as a rule should be round.
Refers to characters in these repeating
situation. Stock characters stay flat as
they only perform their roles and exhibit
conventional and unindividual traits.
When the stock characters posses no
attitudes, expect those of their class, they
are called stereotypes they appear to have
been cast from the same mold.
1. Individual - round, many sided and
2. Developing - dynamic, many sided
personalities that change, for better or
worse, by the end of the story.
3. Static - Stereotype, have one or two
characteristics that never change and are
emphasized e.g. brilliant detective, drunk,
scrooge, cruel stepmother, etc.
1. Action- expresses their characters.
2. Descriptions, both personal and
environmental- appearance and environment
show much about a character’s social and
3. Dramatic statements and thoughts – speeches
of the most characters keep the story moving,
but more significantly, provide material from
which readers can draw conclusions.
Judgments about the
qualities of the characters
4. Statements by other characters- what
other characters say about a character will
provide better understanding about
5. Statements by the author speaking as a
story teller or observer – what the author
say about a character can be accepted
Their actions, statements, and
thoughts are reflective of what
human beings are likely to do, say,
and think under specific
circumstances in the story.
Reality and Probability
The Natural, manufactured, political,
cultural, and temporal environment
– including everything the characters
known and own. Characters may be
helped or hurt by their
surroundings, and they may fight
about possession or goals.
a) place - geographical
location. Where is the action of the
story taking place?
b) time - When is the story taking
place? (historical period, time of day,
c) weather conditions - Is it rainy,
sunny, stormy, etc?
Types of Settings
d) social conditions - What is the daily
life of the characters like? Does the story
contain local colour (writing that focuses
on the speech, dress, mannerisms,
customs, etc. of a particular place)?
e) mood or atmosphere - What feeling is
created at the beginning of the story? Is it
bright and cheerful or dark and
Refers to the position of the voice
that adapt for their works. It
supposes a living narrator or
persona who tells stories, presents
arguments, or expresses attitudes
such as love, anger or excitement.
Point of View
In a first-person narrative the story is relayed by a
narrator who is also a character within the story, so that
the narrator reveals the plot by referring to this
viewpoint character as "I" (or, when plural, "we").
Often, the first-person narrative is used as a way to
directly convey the deeply internal, otherwise
unspoken thoughts of the narrator. Frequently, the
narrator's story revolves around him-/herself as the
protagonist and allows this protagonist/narrator
character's inner thoughts to be conveyed openly to the
audience, even if not to any of the other characters
Participant or First Person
Point of View
The rarest mode in literature (though
quite common in song lyrics) is the
second-person narrative mode, in which
the narrator refers to the reader as "you",
therefore making the audience member
feel as if he or she is a character within
Second Point of View
In the non-participant or
third person point of
view, the teller is not the
character in the tale.
Non-Participant or Third
Person Point of View
The story is told through
the eyes of a child
(his/her judgment being
different from that of an
The story is told so that the
reader feels as if they are inside
the head of one character and
knows all their thoughts and
Stream of Consciousness
The author can narrate the story using the
omniscient point of view. He can move
from character to character, event to
event, having free access to the thoughts,
feelings and motivations of his characters
and he introduces information where and
when he chooses. There are two main
types of omniscient point of view:
a) Omniscient Limited - The author tells
the story in third person (using pronouns
they, she, he, it, etc). We know only what
the character knows and what the author
allows him/her to tell us. We can see the
thoughts and feelings of characters if the
author chooses to reveal them to us.
b) Omniscient Objective – The author tells the
story in the third person. It appears as though a
camera is following the characters, going
anywhere, and recording only what is seen and
heard. There is no comment on the characters
or their thoughts. No interpretations are
offered. The reader is placed in the position of
spectator without the author there to explain.
The reader has to interpret events on his own.
Refers to the result(s) of general and
abstract thinking. It may also mean
concept, thought, opinion, and principle.
There are many separate ideas in the
story , but one of the ideas seems to be
the major one. This is called theme. This is
also called major or central idea.
Idea and Theme
Stories embody values along with
ideas. This means that ideas are
presented along with the expression
or implication that certain conditions
and standards should be or should
not be highly valued.
Ideas and Values
In analyzing stories and ideas,
it is important to avoid the
trap of confusing ideas and
Ideas and Action
To determine an idea, one has to consider
the meaning of what is read before
developing explanatory and
comprehensive assertions. These
assertions may not be the same as the
others. People notice different things and
individual formulation vary.
How to Find Ideas
A similar object, action,
person, or place or something
else that stands for something
analogy is a comparison made between
something that is
known and something less familiar. The
purpose of creating an
analogy is to help others better
understand a dif"cult concept or
The series of Hints and clues to
show the reader what will
happen and, usually whether the
upcoming events will be happy,
fearful, sad, etc.
Describes how the writer arranges and
places materials based on the general
ideas and purpose of the work. Structure
defines layout – the way the story is
shaped. It refers to placement, balance,
recurring themes, true and misleading
Formal Structure is an ideal pattern
that moves from the beginning to
end. However, most stories depart
from formal to real structure. Real
Structure variations to increase the
Formal and Real Structure
Which present circumstances
are explained by the selective
introduction of past events.