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Elements of story telling xD



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  • 1. Group 5
  • 2.
  • 3.  Plot is a literary term defined as the events that make up a story, particularly as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, how the reader views the story, or simply by coincidence. Plot
  • 4.  The exposition introduces all of the main characters in the story. It shows how they relate to one another, what their goals and motivations are, and the kind of person they are. Exposition
  • 5.  Rising Action is the action that occurs before the climax. Complicating incidents or obstacle . Rising Action
  • 6.  It is the peak of the story because it is the stage where a decision, an action, an affirmation or denial, or realization has to be made. It is the logical conclusion of the preceding actions for there are no new developments that follows after it. Climax
  • 7.  Falling Action is the events that occur after the climax and lead to the resolution. Falling Action
  • 8.  Resolution of the story is after the climax. This is when we find out what happens after the conflict is resolved between characters. Resolution/Denouement
  • 9.  Identifies a basic problem or conflict. Complicating incidents or obstacles Highest point of Excitement occur after the climax and lead to the resolution. How the problem is resolved
  • 10.  how to write a plot:
  • 11.  The connected pattern of causes and effects which a character (protagonist) must face and try to overcome. Conflict brings out complications that make up most stories. Conflict
  • 12.  There are two types of conflict: 1) External - A struggle with a force outside one's self. 2) Internal - A struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc. Two types of Conflict
  • 13.  1) Man vs. Man (physical) - The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, or animals. 2) Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - The leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her. Four kinds of Conflict
  • 14.  3) Man vs. Society (social) - The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people. 4) Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) - The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.
  • 15.  Stories tell about characters who are drawn from life and who can either be good or bad. A story is concerned with the major problem that a character must face. This may involve interaction with another character with a difficult situation. The character may learn for the better or may remain unchanged after the experience. Characters
  • 16.  The basic trait of round characters is that they recognize, change with, or adjust to circumstances. The round character benefits from experience and changes are reflected in 1) an action or several actions, 2) the realization of a new condition, Round Characters/Protagonist
  • 17.  or 3) the discovery of unrecognized truths. A round character often called the hero or heroine, and thus the protagonist. The protagonist moves against the antagonist.
  • 18.  Examples of a round characters:
  • 19.  opponent, competitor, enemy, rival", from anti- "against“ to contend for a prize. A character, group of characters, or institution that represents the opposition against which the protagonist must contend. In other words, an antagonist is a person or a group of people who oppose the main character(s). In the classic style of stories wherein the action consists of a hero fighting a villain/enemy, the two can be regarded as protagonist and antagonist, respectively. Antagonist/foil
  • 20.  Example of Antagonists:
  • 21.  A flat character is a minor character who does not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story. Also referred to as "two-dimensional characters" or "static characters," flat characters play a supporting role to the main character, who as a rule should be round. Flat Characters/minor character
  • 22.  Example of Flat Characters:
  • 23.  Refers to characters in these repeating situation. Stock characters stay flat as they only perform their roles and exhibit conventional and unindividual traits. When the stock characters posses no attitudes, expect those of their class, they are called stereotypes they appear to have been cast from the same mold. Stock Characters
  • 24.  Example of Stock Characters:
  • 25.  1. Individual - round, many sided and complex personalities. 2. Developing - dynamic, many sided personalities that change, for better or worse, by the end of the story. 3. Static - Stereotype, have one or two characteristics that never change and are emphasized e.g. brilliant detective, drunk, scrooge, cruel stepmother, etc. Characters are…
  • 26.  1. Action- expresses their characters. 2. Descriptions, both personal and environmental- appearance and environment show much about a character’s social and economic status. 3. Dramatic statements and thoughts – speeches of the most characters keep the story moving, but more significantly, provide material from which readers can draw conclusions. Judgments about the qualities of the characters
  • 27.  4. Statements by other characters- what other characters say about a character will provide better understanding about him/her. 5. Statements by the author speaking as a story teller or observer – what the author say about a character can be accepted factually.
  • 28.  Their actions, statements, and thoughts are reflective of what human beings are likely to do, say, and think under specific circumstances in the story. Reality and Probability
  • 29.  The Natural, manufactured, political, cultural, and temporal environment – including everything the characters known and own. Characters may be helped or hurt by their surroundings, and they may fight about possession or goals. Setting
  • 30.  a) place - geographical location. Where is the action of the story taking place? b) time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc) c) weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc? Types of Settings
  • 31.  d) social conditions - What is the daily life of the characters like? Does the story contain local colour (writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular place)? e) mood or atmosphere - What feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening?
  • 32.  Example of Settings:
  • 33.  Refers to the position of the voice that adapt for their works. It supposes a living narrator or persona who tells stories, presents arguments, or expresses attitudes such as love, anger or excitement. Point of View
  • 34.  In a first-person narrative the story is relayed by a narrator who is also a character within the story, so that the narrator reveals the plot by referring to this viewpoint character as "I" (or, when plural, "we"). Often, the first-person narrative is used as a way to directly convey the deeply internal, otherwise unspoken thoughts of the narrator. Frequently, the narrator's story revolves around him-/herself as the protagonist and allows this protagonist/narrator character's inner thoughts to be conveyed openly to the audience, even if not to any of the other characters Participant or First Person Point of View
  • 35.  The rarest mode in literature (though quite common in song lyrics) is the second-person narrative mode, in which the narrator refers to the reader as "you", therefore making the audience member feel as if he or she is a character within the story Second Point of View
  • 36.  In the non-participant or third person point of view, the teller is not the character in the tale. Non-Participant or Third Person Point of View
  • 37.  The story is told through the eyes of a child (his/her judgment being different from that of an adult) . Innocent Eyes
  • 38.  The story is told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions. Stream of Consciousness
  • 39.  The author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses. There are two main types of omniscient point of view: Omniscient
  • 40.  a) Omniscient Limited - The author tells the story in third person (using pronouns they, she, he, it, etc). We know only what the character knows and what the author allows him/her to tell us. We can see the thoughts and feelings of characters if the author chooses to reveal them to us.
  • 41.  b) Omniscient Objective – The author tells the story in the third person. It appears as though a camera is following the characters, going anywhere, and recording only what is seen and heard. There is no comment on the characters or their thoughts. No interpretations are offered. The reader is placed in the position of spectator without the author there to explain. The reader has to interpret events on his own.
  • 42.  Refers to the result(s) of general and abstract thinking. It may also mean concept, thought, opinion, and principle. There are many separate ideas in the story , but one of the ideas seems to be the major one. This is called theme. This is also called major or central idea. Idea and Theme
  • 43.  How to find a theme of a story:
  • 44.  Stories embody values along with ideas. This means that ideas are presented along with the expression or implication that certain conditions and standards should be or should not be highly valued. Ideas and Values
  • 45.  In analyzing stories and ideas, it is important to avoid the trap of confusing ideas and actions. Distinguishing Between Ideas and Action
  • 46.  To determine an idea, one has to consider the meaning of what is read before developing explanatory and comprehensive assertions. These assertions may not be the same as the others. People notice different things and individual formulation vary. How to Find Ideas
  • 47.  Literary Devices
  • 48.  A similar object, action, person, or place or something else that stands for something abstract. Symbolism
  • 49.  analogy is a comparison made between something that is known and something less familiar. The purpose of creating an analogy is to help others better understand a dif"cult concept or process. Analogy
  • 50.  The series of Hints and clues to show the reader what will happen and, usually whether the upcoming events will be happy, fearful, sad, etc. Foreshadowing
  • 51.  Describes how the writer arranges and places materials based on the general ideas and purpose of the work. Structure defines layout – the way the story is shaped. It refers to placement, balance, recurring themes, true and misleading conclusions . Structure
  • 52.  Formal Structure is an ideal pattern that moves from the beginning to end. However, most stories depart from formal to real structure. Real Structure variations to increase the story’s impact. Formal and Real Structure
  • 53.  Which present circumstances are explained by the selective introduction of past events. Flashback
  • 54.  Thank You!