A logical sequence of events.
It contrasts the development
of action. This means to say
that one event controls or
overcome another event.
Refers to the layout of the materials of the
story – the main characters, their
characters, interest, goals, limitations, pot
ential, and basic assumptions. It contains
the beginning of the story including the
intricacies, twist, turns, false leads, blind
alleys, and surprises that
interest, perplex, intrigue, and give
Rising Action is the
action that occurs before
The consequences of the crisis. It is
the peak of the story because it is the
stage where a decision, an action, an
affirmation or denial, or realization
has to be made. It is the logical
conclusion of the preceding actions
for there are no new developments
that follows after it.
Falling Action is the
events that occur after
the climax and lead to
Resolution of the story is after
the climax. This is when we
find out what happens after
the conflict is resolved
The connected pattern of causes
and effects which a character
(protagonist) must face and try
to overcome. Conflict brings out
complications that make up
There are two types of conflict:
1) External - A struggle with a force
outside one's self.
2) Internal - A struggle within one's
self; a person must make some
decision, overcome pain, quiet their
temper, resist an urge, etc.
Two types of Conflict
1) Man vs. Man (physical) - The leading
character struggles with his physical strength
against other men, forces of nature, or animals.
2) Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - The
leading character struggles against fate, or the
circumstances of life facing him/her.
Four kinds of Conflict
3) Man vs. Society (social) - The leading
character struggles against ideas, practices, or
customs of other people.
4) Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) -
The leading character struggles with
himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of
right or wrong, physical
limitations, choices, etc.
Identifies a basic
incidents or obstacles
Highest point of
occur after the climax
and lead to the
How the problem is
Which present circumstances
are explained by the selective
introduction of past events.
Stories tell about characters who are
drawn from life and who can either be
good or bad. A story is concerned with
the major problem that a character must
face. This may involve interaction with
another character with a difficult
situation. The character may learn for the
better or may remain unchanged after the
The basic trait of round characters is
that they recognize, change with, or
adjust to circumstances. The round
character benefits from experience and
changes are reflected in 1) an action or
several actions, 2) the realization of a
or 3) the discovery of
unrecognized truths. A round
character often called the hero or
heroine, and thus the
protagonist. The protagonist
moves against the antagonist.
Flat characters do not grow because
they may be stupid, insensitive, or
lacking in knowledge and insights.
They are static, not dynamic. But flat
characters highlight the development
of round characters.
Refers to characters in these repeating
situation. Stock characters stay flat as
they only perform their roles and exhibit
conventional and unindividual traits.
When the stock characters posses no
attitudes, expect those of their class, they
are called stereotypes they appear to have
been cast from the same mold.
1. Individual - round, many sided and
2. Developing - dynamic, many sided
personalities that change, for better or
worse, by the end of the story.
3. Static - Stereotype, have one or two
characteristics that never change and are
emphasized e.g. brilliant
detective, drunk, scrooge, cruel
1. Action- expresses their characters.
2. Descriptions, both personal and
environmental- appearance and environment
show much about a character’s social and
3. Dramatic statements and thoughts – speeches
of the most characters keep the story
moving, but more significantly, provide
material from which readers can draw
Judgments about the
qualities of the characters
4. Statements by other characters- what
other characters say about a character will
provide better understanding about
5. Statements by the author speaking as a
story teller or observer – what the author
say about a character can be accepted
Their actions, statements, and
thoughts are reflective of what
human beings are likely to
do, say, and think under specific
circumstances in the story.
Reality and Probability
Natural, manufactured, political, cult
ural, and temporal environment –
including everything the characters
known and own. Characters may be
helped or hurt by their
surroundings, and they may fight
about possession or goals.
a) place - geographical
location. Where is the action of the
story taking place?
b) time - When is the story taking
place? (historical period, time of
day, year, etc)
c) weather conditions - Is it
rainy, sunny, stormy, etc?
Types of Settings
d) social conditions - What is the daily
life of the characters like? Does the story
contain local colour (writing that focuses
speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc.
of a particular place)?
e) mood or atmosphere - What feeling is
created at the beginning of the story? Is it
bright and cheerful or dark and
Refers to the position of the voice
that adapt for their works. It
supposes a living narrator or
persona who tells stories, presents
arguments, or expresses attitudes
such as love, anger or excitement.
Point of View
In the first person point of view, the character tells the
story. Sometimes, the first person narrator tells a story
that focuses on another character. The story
therefore, depends upon the curiosity and sympathetic
imagination of the narrator who describes his or her
examination of various information relating to the
major character, such as: what they have
done, said, heard, and thought (first hand experience),
Participant or First Person
Point of View
What they have observed others do and
say (first hand witness), what others have
told them )(second hand testimony and
hearsay), what they are able to find
(hypothetical or imaginative information)
and what they are able to imagine a
character or characters as doing or
thinking, given certain conditions.
In the non-participant or
third person point of
view, the teller is not the
character in the tale.
Non-Participant or Third
Person Point of View
The story is told through
the eyes of a child
(his/her judgment being
different from that of an
The story is told so that the
reader feels as if they are inside
the head of one character and
knows all their thoughts and
Stream of Consciousness
The author can narrate the story using the
omniscient point of view. He can move
from character to character, event to
event, having free access to the
thoughts, feelings and motivations of his
characters and he introduces information
where and when he chooses. There are
two main types of omniscient point of
a) Omniscient Limited - The author tells
the story in third person (using pronouns
they, she, he, it, etc). We know only what
the character knows and what the author
allows him/her to tell us. We can see the
thoughts and feelings of characters if the
author chooses to reveal them to us.
b) Omniscient Objective – The author tells the
story in the third person. It appears as though a
camera is following the characters, going
anywhere, and recording only what is seen and
heard. There is no comment on the characters
or their thoughts. No interpretations are
offered. The reader is placed in the position of
spectator without the author there to explain.
The reader has to interpret events on his own.
Refers to the result(s) of general and
abstract thinking. It may also mean
concept, thought, opinion, and principle.
There are many separate ideas in the
story , but one of the ideas seems to be
the major one. This is called theme. This is
also called major or central idea.
Idea and Theme
Stories embody values along with
ideas. This means that ideas are
presented along with the expression
or implication that certain conditions
and standards should be or should
not be highly valued.
Ideas and Values
In analyzing stories and
ideas, it is important to avoid
the trap of confusing ideas
Ideas and Action
To determine an idea, one has to consider
the meaning of what is read before
developing explanatory and
comprehensive assertions. These
assertions may not be the same as the
others. People notice different things and
individual formulation vary.
How to Find Ideas
object, action, person, or place
else that stands for something
analogy is a comparison made between
something that is
known and something less familiar. The
purpose of creating an
analogy is to help others better
understand a dif"cult concept or
The series of Hints and clues to
show the reader what will
happen and, usually whether the
upcoming events will be
happy, fearful, sad, etc.
Describes how the writer arranges and
places materials based on the general
ideas and purpose of the work. Structure
defines layout – the way the story is
shaped. It refers to placement, balance,
recurring themes, true and misleading
Formal Structure is an ideal pattern
that moves from the beginning to
end. However, most stories depart
from formal to real structure. Real
Structure variations to increase the
Formal and Real Structure