History of Computers

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  • 1. History of Computers
  • 2. Imagine that you have a job where you have to perform nothing butcalculations every day, at one point of time you will get bored,you might even become careless and start making mistakes.
  • 3. History ofComputersHistory of Computer are Divided into Six GenerationsWhere Every new generation has certain dramatic improvements when compared to its previous generations.>> The Mechanical Era (1623-1900)>> First Generation Electronic Computers (1937-1953)>> Second-Generation (1954-1962)>> Third-Generation (1963-1972)>> Fourth-Generation (1972-1984)>> Fifth Generation (1984-1990)>> Sixth Generation (1990-till date)
  • 4. The Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)Machine/Device Year InformationAbacus 5000 BCAbacus is use for performing task inAddition,Subtraction,Division andMultiplication, also use for extracting square rootsand cubic roots.
  • 5. Napier’s bones 1624Napier bone is use for logarithm is one of the famoustools by changing large and difficult multiplicationoperations to simple addition in a table .Machine/Device Year InformationThe Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)John Napier Napier Bone
  • 6. Machine/Device Year InformationThe Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)Pascaline 1642Pascaline was a numerical wheel calculator ,it isinvented by Blaise Pascal it was ability to handlenumber up to 999,999.999.Blaise PascalPascal Calculator
  • 7. Machine/Device Year InformationGottfried Wilhelmvon Leibniz1646Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz was a German mathematician andphilosopher. He invented Slide Rule which is use to measuring theStorage.The Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz Slide Rule
  • 8. Machine/Device Year InformationThe Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)Difference EngineandAnalytical Engine1823 to1833Charles Babbage designed two classes of engines, Themathematical principle on which Difference Engine was based andthe Second was Analytical Engine which was much more than acalculator, helped in Performing fully fledged general-purposecomputation instead of mechanical arithmetic calculation.Difference EngineAnalytical Engine Charles Babbage
  • 9. The Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)Analytical Engine
  • 10. The Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)Joseph Marie Jacquard Jacquard LoomMachine/Device Year InformationJacquard Loom 1847Joseph Marie Jacquard invented Jacquard Loom, it isused for write or punch by a machine Jacquard Loom in1847.Data Punched on Jacquard Loom
  • 11. Machine/Device Year InformationThe Mechanical History of Computer (1623-1900)Punch Card 1890Herman Hollerith an American inventor developed theMachine that read information which had beenpunched into the cards.Punch Card MachinePunch CardHerman Hollerith
  • 12. First GenerationElectronic Computer (1937-1953)
  • 13. Machine/Device Year InformationAtanasoff-BerryComputer1942Professor John Vincent Atanasoff designed and built theAtanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) in 1939-1942.First Generation Electronic Computer (1937-1953)Prof: John Vincent Atanasoff Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)
  • 14. First Generation Electronic Computer (1937-1953)
  • 15. Machine/Device Year InformationHarvard Mark-1 1944Harvard Mark-1 was conceived by Haward Aiken,it was designedand built by IBM.it was as big as a room with fifty-feet long, itwas a relay-based Calculator, use for mathematical tables.First Generation Electronic Computer (1937-1953)Howard Hathaway AikenHarvard Mark-1
  • 16. Machine/Device Year InformationENIAC 1946ENIAC (Electronic Numerator Variable Automatic Computer) invented byJohn Mauchly and J Presper Eckert,it was the first general-purposeOperational Computer works withVacuum Tubes. Vacuum Tubes made by Engineer John Ambrose Fleming.First Generation Electronic Computer (1937-1953)John Mauchly ENIAC J.Presper Eckert Vacuum TubesEngr.John Ambrose Fleming
  • 17. Machine/Device Year InformationEDVAC 1949EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)as compare toENIAC had a major improvement ,In EDVAC binary numbers were usedinstead of decimal numbers which made construction arithmetic unitssimple.First Generation Electronic Computer (1937-1953)EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
  • 18. Machine/Device Year InformationTRADIC 1955TRADIC (Transistor Digital Computer) invented by Bell Labs for the US Airforce, It was fully made up of transistors and diodes and has no vacuumtubes, nearly 800 transistors used instead of vacuum tubes. Have to runthe machine 1/20th power required for operating Vacuum TubeComputers.TRADIC (Transistor Digital Computer)
  • 19. William Shockley John Bardeen Walter BrattainTransistors
  • 20. Machine/Device Year InformationIBM 704 1956IBM 704 was one of the first computers that were commercially availablefor the incorporation of floating points arithmetics and indexing ,itsmagnetic core memory was reliable than the Cathode-ray-tube Memory .
  • 21. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (IC):-Integrated Circuit was invented by Jack Kilby in 1964,The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation ofcomputers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, calledsemiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.Jack Kilby Integrated Circuits (IC)
  • 22. The Microprocessor Era:-The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands ofintegrated circuits we rebuilt onto a single silicon chip. A silicon chip that contains a CPU.In the world of personal computers,the terms microprocessor and CPU are usedinterchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits amicroprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, fromclock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles.
  • 23. Artificial Intelligence Era:-While the microprocessor has revolutionized thecomputing industry, the fifth generation of computerlooks to turn the whole industry on its head once again.The fifth generation of computing is called"artificial intelligence," and it is the goal ofcomputer scientists and developers to eventually createcomputers than outsmart, outwit, and maybe even outlast their human inventors.Artificial intelligence can be broken into five distinct categories: games playing, robotics,expert systems, neural networks, and natural language. Each of these categories is beingdeveloped largely independent of one another; game playing, for instance, has seen greatsuccess over the course of the past 15 years, while natural language has taken longer tofull develop and perfect.
  • 24. Six Generation Micro CHIP Era in the History of Computer:-In the six Generation the ability to perform many complex tasks at one time wasexpanded and revolutionized with the introduction of the microprocessor in the early 70’s. Nowwhat took up a whole room could rest gently on a fingertip.Microprocessors were the beginning for a fury of technological advancements that includescomputerized cars, appliances and smart phones. Everything has become smarter, faster andsmaller. They have also become integrated. With the advent of the microprocessor came the abilityto link computers together in a network. The birth of the Internet and all of its wonders areattributed to the birth of the microchip.