Reg. No.: 13116003
Reg. No.: 13116005
Reg. No.: 1311609
Tasneem E Zannat
Reg. No.: 13116004
B.A. (Hons) in English
University of Asia Pacific
We are …
The Battle of Hastings
In 1066 at the Battle of Hastings, the Normans defeated the
English and start a century-long conquest of England. And
William (Duke of Normandy) crowns himself as the ruler of
Result of the Battle of Hastings
English children became bilingual
Materials written in English became very scarce
Royalties and government officials began speaking French
More people adapted French language.
The Loss of Normandy
King John "lost" Normandy in 1204 . And The loss of Normandy in 1204
started the reestablishment of English.
The separation of the French
and English Nobility
With the loss of Normandy, many nobles had
to decide where their allegiance lay . . .
France or England.
Philip, and later Louis, helped solve this
problem: he confiscated the land of many
nobles. Those who still had holdings in both
places were forced to give up one or the
By 1250 the holdings had been divided and
there was no real reason for using French.
Promotion of National Feeling
The favour of foreigners in the course
of Henry III led to the reaction against
foreigners and the national feeling is
reflected of having the knowledge of
English as an Englishman.
Provisions of Oxford
Provisions of Oxford, (1258), in English history, a plan of reform accepted
by Henry III, in return for the promise of financial aid from his barons. It can
be regarded as England’s first written constitution. When English is used as
a language of constitution, the importance of the English language is
The 100 Years’ War
The Hundred Years War (1337-1453).
It was between England and France,
and France defeated by England. And
England no longer had any reasons to
learn or use French.
The Black Death
The first of these events was the Black
Death (1348), one-third of the people in
England died of the Black Death
between 1348 and 1351. With the
decreasing of the population, the need
to labor was increased. The ruling
classes were had to respect the lower
classes because they needed them so
much. This respect leaded them to
respect English too.
Latin and French Teachers and
Hundreds of Latin and French
teachers and scholars died during
the Black Death plague. As a result
faced a lack of academicians
French as a Language of Culture
English was generally adopted in courts and schools in the 14th
at the end of 15th
century, French was out of use as a spoken language in
England and was restricted as a language of Culture and Fashion.
English in the Law Courts
Soon after the Norman Conquest, French was the language of all legal
proceedings. But in 1356 proceedings in the courts of London and
Middlesex were ordered to be in English. And in 1362 the Statute of
Pleading was enacted in the Parliament, and was to go into effect in the
following year. According to this statute all lawsuits were to be conducted in
English in England.
The Rise of the Middle Class
The Normans invaded England in
1066 and English became
language of middle class people.
But The Hundred Years’ War
(1337-1453) and the Black Death
in 1349 caused the serious lack of
labour and the rise of the middle
class, among whom English was
more commonly spoken, which
increases the importance of
The Use of English in Writing
The last step in the gradual ascent of
the English language was its
employment in writing. It was only in
the fifteenth century that English
succeeded in replacing both. The
earliest letters written in English
appeared in the latter part of the
fourteenth century, although there
were few before 1400. Eventually,
after 1450 English letters were used
An example of Middle
English by Chaucer.
The Status of English in the
The General Adoption of English, at the beginning of the fourteenth century
everyone in England knew English. At that time, both the learned and
unlearned understood English. And in 1362 the Parliament was opened
with a speech in English for the first time. Such instances show that in the
fourteenth century English was again the principal tongue of all England.
Middle English Literature
The separation of the English nobility
from France around the year 1250,
and the spread of English among the
upper class. Thus the hundred years
between 1250 and 1350 is labeled the
Period of Religious and Secular
literature in English literature. The
period from 1350 to 1400 is called the
Period of Great Individual Writers.
Baugh, C. Albert. Cable, Thomas. A History of English the Language, New
Delhi, Replika Press Pvt. Ltd. 2009.
Drout, D.C. A History of English the Language. London. Hodder
Provisions of Oxford. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2010 ed.
“English and Its Historical Development”. English-Word Information. 15
November 2013.31 January 2014. http://wordinfo.info/unit/4208/ip:5/il:E
Giddens, Anathony . Sociology, Malden, Polity Pres. 2006.845-858