The most potent Biodeteriogen.Life Cycle , Effects and its Controls.. Presented by: Kamaljit Kshetrimayum
Introduction:Termites are social insects living in colonies. Eachcolony contains specialized castes, or types ofindividuals, such as reproductives, workers andsoldiers, that performs different jobs.
Reproductive caste Reproductives, king and queen can be winged (primary) or wingless (secondary). Each queen has the capability to lay eggs. Winged reproductives are called alates or swarmers and the wingless are de-alates. Alates are the only caste not living underground or within wood. Alates themselves neither cause damage to structures nor physical harm to people. Life span of a queen can be as much as 30 years.
Workers Sterile, wingless and blind males and females. They are soft-bodied, creamy-white wingless and make up the largest number of population within a colony. The workers and immatures are the only caste that damages wood and other materials. Workers build mud tubes and tunnels, forage for and obtain food to feed themselves and the entire colony, construct and maintain nests, and care for eggs and young. Worker’s life span is one to five years.
Soldiers Like workers, they are sterile, wingless and blind males and females. They defend their colony from intruders. They can’t feed themselves, they have to be fed by workers. Usually the number of the soldiers is much smaller than the number of workers. Their life span is one to two years.
Biodeterioration andBiodeteriogens Biodeterioration is a term that includes all types of damage caused by living entities like insects, fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes making the material unsuitable for its intended use. S.M. Nair (1972) defined Biodeterioration as “any undesirable change in the properties of the material caused by vital activities of organisms” The agents causing Biodeterioration is known as Biodeteriogens.
Taxonomy Termites are broadly grouped into nine families, namely2) Mastotermitidae3) Kalotermitidae4) Termopsidae5) Hodotermitidae6) Rhinotermitidae7) Stylotermitidae8) Serritermitidae9) Termitidae10) Indotermitidae
ClassificationTermites are classified into- Tree dwelling termites Damp wood termites Dry wood termites Subterranean termites In the conservation of buildings and monuments and in museums the dry-wood termites and the subterranean termites are of principal significance.
Separating Termites fromAnts The first step in managing any insects is to identify it correctly. People usually confuse termites and ants of their similar appearances. Termites are not ants and certainly not white ants. Ants do not eat wood, though some ants tunnel through wood and live in it.
Termite Vs Ants Ants TermitesAntennae Elbowed Straight and beadlike Waist Very narrow Broad (constricted) Wings Front wings larger Equal sized than the hind wings front and hind wings
Life Cycle Termites undergo an incomplete transformation (Hemi-metabolism)
Effects(Deterioration caused by termites) Termites are able to destroy almost all kinds of organic materials and so are also described as the most potent bio-deteriorating agent. Termites are cellulose-feeding insects.
The damages are largely done by the workers who are responsible for feeding the entire community. Besides all kinds of crops, they damage wood works, paper materials, textiles and also the building structures.
Controls In order to apply suitable protective and controlmethods or treatments, knowledge of occurrence andhabit are very important (Richardson 1993; Creffield1996). Apart from the general methods used for storage ofmaterials, the following special methods as suggestedby R.C.Gupta (1954) and others may be adopted forcontrolling termite damage.
Using ‘Hygienic’ storage, keeping materials above ground and allowing space all around for easy inspection. Not to dump books or other vulnerable materials on the floor and against walls.
Where books are stored in almirahs made of untreated wood, the legs should be stand in cups containing either coal-tar and creosate-kerosine oil mixture (1:2) or phenyl in strong water solution. Alternatively, the wood all over is brush-coated with either Chlorophenol- napthanol -petroleum mixture (1:1:40, 2 coats), or 20% water solution of zinc chloride (3 coats) or hot coal tar creosote (3 coats)
Fumigation is the most effective means of eliminating dry-wood termites. The floors and walls of libraries should be free of cracks as subterranean termites can enter through them. Fresh infection maybe eradicated by blowing dust insecticides such as B.H.C, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane etc.
Termites Toxicants Four termites toxicants are recognized in theUnited States as the most effective and long lastingof those tested to date for control of Subterraneantermites (Johnston, 1963, and personalcommunication, 1963). It is recommended by National Pest ControlAssociation,1965 that any of the four can be appliedas an emulsion in water.
Toxicants and recommended reference concentrations:Toxicants ConcentrationsAldrin(actual) 0.5% by weightChlordane(technical) 1.0% by weightDieldrin(actual) 0.5% by weightHeptachlor(actual) 0.5% by weightCombination of these toxicants is acceptable as longas proportioned to provide the equivalent of the fullreference concentration.
Conclusion Regardless of the refinement of the present techniques and sophistication of new principles of termite control, their efficient use requires a sound understanding of the biology of termites.