Human brain


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Human brain

  1. 1. The Human Master Watermark Image:
  2. 2. Part I:Lobes, the Cerebral Cortex, and Cortical Regions of the Brain
  3. 3. Objectives:• Students will be able to describe the general structure of the Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex.• Students will be able to identify the Cerebrum, the Lobes ofthe Brain, the Cerebral Cortex, and its major regions/divisions.• Students will be able to describe the primary functions ofthe Lobes and the Cortical Regions of the Brain.
  4. 4. Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. CerebrumCerebrum Cerebellum
  5. 5. Cerebral Cortex - The outermost layer of graymatter making up the superficial aspect of thecerebrum. Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex
  6. 6. Cerebral Features:• Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain.• Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri – Central Sulcus – Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe• Fissures – Deep grooves, generally dividing largeregions/lobes of the brain – Longitudinal Fissure – Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres – Transverse Fissure – Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum – Sylvian/Lateral Fissure – Divides the Temporal Lobe from the Frontal and Parietal Lobes
  7. 7. Gyri (ridge) Sulci (groove)Fissure(deep groove)
  8. 8. Specific Sulci/Fissures: Central Sulcus Longitudinal Fissure Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Transverse Fissure
  9. 9. Lobes of the Brain (4) • Frontal • Parietal • Occipital • Temporal* Note: Occasionally, the Insula is considered the fifth lobe. It is located deepto the Temporal Lobe.
  10. 10. Lobes of the Brain - Frontal• The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull.• It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions: - Memory Formation - Emotions - Decision Making/Reasoning - Personality Investigation Phineas Gage) (Investigation: (Phineas Gage) Modified from:
  11. 11. Frontal Lobe - Cortical Regions• Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus) – Cortical siteinvolved with controlling movements of the body.• Broca’s Area – Controls facial neurons, speech, and languagecomprehension. Located on Left Frontal Lobe.– Broca’s Aphasia – Results in the ability to comprehend speech, butthe decreased motor ability (or inability) to speak and form words.• Orbitofrontal Cortex – Site of Frontal Lobotomies * Desired Effects: * Possible Side Effects: - Diminished Rage - Epilepsy - Decreased Aggression - Poor Emotional Responses - Poor Emotional - Perseveration (Uncontrolled, repetitive Responses actions, gestures, or words)• Olfactory Bulb - Cranial Nerve I, Responsible for sensation of Smell
  12. 12. Investigation (Phineas Gage) Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus Broca’s Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory Bulb RegionsModified from:
  13. 13. Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe• The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull.• It plays a major role in the following functions/actions: - Senses and integrates sensation(s) - Spatial awareness and perception (Proprioception - Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other) Modified from:
  14. 14. Parietal Lobe - Cortical Regions• Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) – Site involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information.• Somatosensory Association Cortex - Assistswith the integration and interpretation ofsensations relative to body position and orientationin space. May assist with visuo-motor coordination.• Primary Gustatory Cortex – Primary siteinvolved with the interpretation of the sensation ofTaste.
  15. 15. PrimarySomatosensoryCortex/Postcentral GyrusSomatosensoryAssociation CortexPrimaryGustatory Cortex Modified from: Regions
  16. 16. Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe• The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull.• Its primary function is theprocessing, integration,interpretation, etc. of VISION andvisual stimuli. Modified from:
  17. 17. Occipital Lobe – Cortical Regions• Primary Visual Cortex – This is the primary area of the brain responsible for sight -recognition of size, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc.• Visual Association Area – Interpretsinformation acquired through the primary visualcortex.
  18. 18. Primary VisualCortexVisualAssociation Area Modified from: Regions
  19. 19. Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe• The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull.• They play an integral rolein the following functions: - Hearing - Organization/Comprehension of language - Information Retrieval (Memory and Memory Formation) Modified from:
  20. 20. Temporal Lobe – Cortical Regions• Primary Auditory Cortex – Responsible for hearing• Primary Olfactory Cortex – Interprets the sense ofsmell once it reaches the cortex via the olfactorybulbs. (Not visible on the superficial cortex)• Wernicke’s Area – Language comprehension.Located on the Left Temporal Lobe. - Wernicke’s Aphasia – Language comprehensionis inhibited. Words and sentences are not clearlyunderstood, and sentence formation may be inhibited ornon-sensical.
  21. 21. PrimaryAuditory CortexWernike’s AreaPrimary OlfactoryCortex (Deep)Conducted from Olfactory Bulb Modified from: Regions
  22. 22. • Arcuate Fasciculus - A white matter tract that connects Broca’s Area andWernicke’s Area through the Temporal, Parietal and Frontal Lobes. Allowsfor coordinated, comprehensible speech. Damage may result in:- Conduction Aphasia - Where auditory comprehension and speecharticulation are preserved, but people find it difficult to repeat heardspeech. Modified from:
  23. 23. Click the Region to see its NameKorbinian Broadmann - Learn about the man who divided the Cerebral Cortex into 52 distinct regions: Modified from:
  24. 24. Lobes and Structures of the Brain A. B. G. F.C. E. D.
  25. 25. Lobes and Structures of the BrainA. Central SulcusB. Frontal LobeC. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure A. (groove) G.D. Temporal Lobe B.E. Transverse Fissure F.F. Occipital LobeG. Parietal Lobe C. (groove) D. E. (groove)
  26. 26. A. K. J.Cortical Regions B. I. H. G.C. D. E. F.
  27. 27. A. Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral GyrusB. Broca’s AreaC. Orbitofrontal Cortex Cortical RegionsD. Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep)E. Primary Auditory Cortex K. A. J.F. Wernike’s Area I.G. Primary Visual CortexH. Visual B. H.Association AreaI. Primary Gustatory Cortex G.J. Somatosensory C.Association CortexK. Primary Somatosensory D.Cortex/ Postcentral Gyrus E. F.
  28. 28. Copyright: Gary LarsonQ: Assuming this comical situation was factuallyaccurate, what Cortical Region of the brain wouldthese doctors be stimulating?
  29. 29. A: Primary Motor Cortex* This graphic representation of the regions of the Primary Motor Cortex andPrimary Sensory Cortex is one example of a HOMUNCULUS: Homunculus
  30. 30. * Note: Homunculus literally means “little person,” and may refer to one whose body shape isgoverned by the cortical area devoted to that body region.Q: What do you notice about the proportions depicted in the aforementioned homunculus? A: They are not depicted in the same scale representative of the human body.Q: What is meant by depicting these body partsin such outrageous proportions? A: These outrageous proportions depict the cortical area devoted to each structure. - Ex: Your hands require many intricate movements and sensations to function properly. This requires a great deal of cortical surface area to control these detailed actions. Your back is quite the opposite, requiring limited cortical area to carry out its actions and functions, or detect sensation. Back-Hom.
  31. 31. Further InvestigationPhineas Gage: Phineas Gage was a railroad worker in the 19th century living inCavendish, Vermont. One of his jobs was to set off explosive charges in large rock inorder to break them into smaller pieces. On one of these instances, the detonationoccurred prior to his expectations, resulting in a 42 inch long, 1.2 inch wide, metal rodto be blown right up through his skull and out the top. The rod entered his skull belowhis left cheek bone and exited after passing through the anterior frontal lobe of hisbrain. Frontal
  32. 32. Remarkably, Gage never lost consciousness, or quickly regained it (there is still some debate), suffered little to no pain, and was awake and alert when he reached a doctor approximately 45 minutes later. He had a normal pulse and normal vision, and following a short period of rest, returned to work several days later. However, he was not unaffected by this accident. more about Phineas Gage: Frontal
  33. 33. Q: Recalling what you have just learned regarding the frontal lobe, whatpossible problems or abnormalities may Gage have presented withsubsequent to this type of injury (remember the precise location of the rodthrough his brain)?A: Gage’s personality, reasoning, and capacity to understand and follow socialnorms had been diminished or destroyed. He illustrated little to no interest inhobbies or other involvements that at one time he cared for greatly. ‘After theaccident, Gage became a nasty, vulgar, irresponsible vagrant. His formeremployer, who regarded him as "the most efficient and capable foreman intheir employ previous to his injury," refused to rehire him because he was sodifferent.’Q: It is suggested that Gage’s injury inspired the development of what at onetime was a widely used medical procedure. What might this procedure be,and how does it relate to Gage’s injury?A: The frontal lobotomy. This has been used with the intention to diminishaggression and rage in mental patients, but generally results in drasticpersonality changes, and an inability to relate socially. This procedure islargely frowned upon today, with the development of neurological drugs astreatments. Frontal
  34. 34. ResourcesImages:•••••• Larson, Gary. The Far Side.Phineas Gage:•••• /Gage/Broken_brain1.html
  35. 35. Suggested Supplementary Materials:1. Skeleton Outline for note-taking.2. Multiple Diagrams of the Human Brain. * Students will label features/lobes * Students will color-code cortical regions3. Worksheets (matching, short answer, etc.), centered around the functions of the lobes and regions of the cerebrum.4. A more in depth article on Phineas Gage. Read and discuss as a class - time permitting.Suggested Assessments:1. Class/individual questioning throughout (especially at the conclusion of) the presentation.2. Homework worksheets - discussed or collected in class.3. Students will take a test on the nervous system in which they will be responsible for the structures, lobes, regions, functions, etc.
  36. 36. Massachusetts State Biology StandardsBroad Concept: There is a relationship between structure andfunction in organ systems of humans. 4.1 Explain how major organ systems in humans (e.g., kidney, muscle, lung) have functional units (e.g., nephron, sarcome, alveoli) with specific anatomy that perform the function of that organ system. 4.2 Describe how the function of individual systems within humans are integrated to maintain a homeostatic balance in the body.* Note: This PowerPoint has been developed for Juniors andSeniors enrolled in Anatomy and Physiology Courses. Thus, thedetail of the concepts and information contained herein is fargreater than required by the state Biology standards listed above.
  37. 37. National Standards:THE BEHAVIOR OF ORGANISMS:• Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that make up nerves. The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals and enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around them.• Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli. Responses to external stimuli can result from interactions with the organisms own species and others, as well as environmental changes; these responses either can be innate or learned. The broad patterns of behavior exhibited by animals have evolved to ensure reproductive success. Animals often live in unpredictable environments, and so their behavior must be flexible enough to deal with uncertainty and change. Plants also respond to stimuli.• Like other aspects of an organisms biology, behaviors have evolved through natural selection. Behaviors often have an adaptive logic when viewed in terms of evolutionary principles.• Behavioral biology has implications for humans, as it provides links to psychology, sociology, and anthropology.