Citation Styles in Academic Researches at AUE
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Citation Styles in Academic Researches at American University in Emirates

Citation Styles in Academic Researches at American University in Emirates

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  • Journal ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName FN, SecondAuthorLastName FN. Title of the article. Abbreviated Journal Title [serial online]. PublicationYear;VolumeNumber:StartPage-EndPage. Available from: Database Name, Ipswich, MA. Accessed Month Day, Year.Example:Crainer S, Dearlove D. Windfall economics. Business Strategy Review. 2003;14(4):68-72. Business Source Premier [serial online]. Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 5, 2005.Magazine ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName FN, SecondAuthorLastName FN. Title of the article. Magazine Title [serial online]. FullPublicationDate;VolumeOrIssueNumber:StartPage-EndPage. Available from: Database Name, Ipswich, MA. Accessed Month Day, Year.Example:Grossman L. The geek shall inherit the earth. Time [serial online]. October 3, 2005;166(14):98-98. Available from: Business Source Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 5, 2005.Newspaper ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName FN, SecondAuthorLastName FN. Title of the article. Newspaper Title [serial online]. FullPublicationDate;SectionTitleOrNumber:StartPage-EndPage. Available from: Database Name, Ipswich, MA. Accessed Month Day, Year.Example:Kolata G. Experts unlock clues to spread of 1918 flu virus. New York Times [serial online]. October 6, 2005;155(53359):A1-A20. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 5, 2005.Book ChapterPattern:FirstAuthorLastName FN, SecondAuthorLastName FN. Title of the chapter. Book Title[e-book]. PublishersCity, PublishersState: PublisherName; PublicationYear:StartPage-EndPage. Available from: Database Name, Ipswich, MA. Accessed Month Day, Year.You can get the publisher's name and location from the Publication Details page, found by clicking the Source field in the citation.Example:Freedman MJ. Libraries in today's world. World Almanac & Book of Facts [e-book]. New York, NY: World Almanac Education Group Inc.; 2004:16-17. Available from: MasterFILE Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 5, 2005.E BookPattern:[Author Last Name] [Author First Name Initials [E Book Title] [Publisher location]: [Publisher]. [E Book host site]. Accessed [Date].Example:Randall, C. Water Economics. Boston Publications: Boston, MA. www.netlibrary.com. Accessed 12 November 2009.E Book - chapterPattern:[Author Last Name] [Author First Name Initials]. [ Chapter Title]. In: [Editor Last Name] [editor First Name Initials], ed. [E Book Title] [Publisher location]: [Publisher]. [E Book host site]. Accessed [Date]: [pages-pages].Example:Randall, C. Chapter 12: Water and Sewage. Water Economics. Boston Publications: Boston, MA. www.netlibrary.com. Accessed 12 November 2009.WebsitePattern:[Website or Webpage Title]. [Organization Name] Web site. [URL]. Accessed [Date].Example:Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment. REACT. Web site. Available at: http://www.epi.umn.edu/react/. Accessed July 19, 2008.Conference PaperPattern:[Author Last Name] [Author first and middle Name Initials]. [Title of paper]. Paper presented at: [Name of Conference]; [Date of conference]; [Conference Location]Example:Kohout, J. B. Can APA be a Peppered Moth? Evolving in Response to Environmental Change and Prospects for the Association. Paper presented at APA Center for Workforce Studies; 2 November 2010; Washington, District of Columbia, US.
  • Journal ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of article]. [Title of journal], [Volume number]([Issue number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Document Object Identifier]Example:Silva, L. (2007). Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems. Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 165-183. [Document Object Identifier]Journal Article w/ No AuthorPattern:[Title of article]. ([Publication year]). [Title of journal], [Volume number]([Issue number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Document Object Identifier]Example:Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems. (2007). Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 165-183. [Document Object Identifier]Online Magazine ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [First initial]. ([Year], [Month]). [Article Title] [Title of magazine], [Volume number] ([Issue Number]).Example:Wood, L. (2007, February). Curiously strong teamwork. Business Week, 4023.Magazine Article w/ No AuthorPattern:[Title of article]. ([Year], [Month]). [Title of magazine], [Volume number] ([Issue Number]).Example:Curiously strong teamwork. (2007, February). Business Week, 4023, 90-92.Online Newspaper ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year], [Month] [Day]). [Title of article]. [Title of newspaper].Example:Bodipo-Memba, A. (2007, February 21). AT&T, GM agrees to $1-billion telecommunications pact. Detroit Free Press.Online Newspaper Article w/ No AuthorPattern:[Title of article]. ([Year], [Month] [Day])] [Title of newspaper].Example:AT&T, GM agrees to $1-billion telecommunications pact. (2007, February 21). Detroit Free Press.BookPattern:[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of work]. [Location]: [Publisher].Example:Melkman, A. (2006). Strategic customer planning. London, UK: Thorogood.Online Book ChapterPattern:[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of chapter]. In, [Title of book] (pp. [Page number starts]-[ends]). [Location]: [Publisher].Example:Melkman, A. (2006). Introduction, summary and how to get the most out of this book. In,Strategic customer planning (pp. 1-18). London, UK: Thorogood.ERIC DocumentPattern:[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. [Publication year]. [Title of Document]([Document or Report number]). [Place of Publication]: [Publishing Agency Name] (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. [ED# or EJ#]).Example:Naples, N. A. (2000). Economic restructuring and racialization: Incorporation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans in the rural midwest. Working Paper. (Report WP-7). California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED466345).ImagePattern:[Title of image]. ([Date of creation]).Example:Bush meets Italian president in Rome. (2005).Video / AudioPattern:[Title of video / audio]. ([Date of creation]).Example:Presidential and Vice Presidential debates - 1988. (1988).PodcastPattern:[Producer last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. (Producer) & [Presenter last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. (Presenter). ([Publication Year], [Month] [Day]). [Title of Podcast] [Type of podcast]. [Country of publication]: [Distributor].Example:Alper, B. (Producer) & Hayden, E. (Presenter). (2007, March 6). Prevention of HIV infection. Treatment of COPD. [DynaMed Podcast Program]. Ipswich, Massachusetts: EBSCO Publishing.Conference PaperPattern:[Author]. ([Year],). [Title of paper]. In Editor ([First initial, Last name]) (Ed.) [Title of conference proceedings] ([page numbers]). [Place of publication]: [Publisher]. [doi:xxx.xxxxxxx]Example:Kohout, J., Finno, A., & Hart, B. (2010). In Editor E. Fromm (Ed.) Can APA be a Peppered Moth? Evolving in Response to Environmental Change and Prospects for the Association (10-24). Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association, Center for Workforce Studies.Electronic booksPattern:[Author Last Name]’ [Author first name initials]. ([Date]). [Book Title] Retrieved from [URL]Example:Seaward, B. L. (1999). Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. Retrieved from www.netlibrary.comElectronic Book-ChapterPattern:[Author Last Name]’ [Author first name initials]. ([Date]). [Title of Chapter] In [Book Title] (Chapter or Section number) Retrieved from [URL]Example:Seaward, B. L. (1999). “Managing Stress.” In Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. (Chapter 1) Retrieved from www.netlibrary.comWebsitePattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name Initial]. ([Date of publication[). [Title of document]. Retrieved from [http://Web address]Example:IBM. (n.d.). Green electronics: designing for a smarter planet. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/green_and_sustainability/article/green_electroni cs.html?re=ussph1.1
  • Journal ArticlePattern:Journal Title VolumeNumber, no. IssueNumber:StartPage-EndPage. Database Name, EBSCOhost (accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Crainer, Stuart, and Des Dearlove. 2003. "Windfall economics." Business Strategy Review 14, no. 4: 68-72. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Magazine ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. PublicationYear. "Title of the article." Magazine Title, PublicationMonth Day, StartPage-EndPage. Database Name, EBSCOhost(accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Grossman, Lev. 2005. "The geek shall inherit the earth." Time, October 3: 98-98.Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Newspaper ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. PublicationYear. "Title of the article." Newspaper Title, PublicationMonth Day, Edition. Database Name, EBSCOhost (accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Kolata, Gina. 2005. "Experts unlock clues to spread of 1918 flu virus." New York Times, October 6: A1-A20. Academic Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Book ChapterPattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. PublicationYear. "Title of the chapter." In Book title, StartPage-EndPage. PublishersLocation: PublisherName. Database Name, EBSCOhost (accessed Month Day Year).You can get the publisher's name and location from the Publication Details page, found by clicking the Source field in the citation.Example:Freedman, Maurice J. 2004. "Libraries in today's world." In World almanac & book of facts, 16-17. New York: World Almanac Education Group Inc. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Website or PagePattern:[Year] “[Website or Webpage Document Title],” [Website Organization Name], last modified [date], accessed [Date], [URL].Example:2010 “Domestic Violence Homicides in Massachusetts Tracking Analysis 2003-2010,” Jane Doe, Inc., last modified 23 November 2010, accessed 4 December 2010, http://www.janedoe.org/know/2003-2010_YTD_DV_Homicides_MA.pdf.E BookPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name]. [Year] [E book Title]. [Publisher Location]: [Publisher]. [doi or URL].Example:Randall, Chris. 2008. Water Economics. Boston Publications: Boston, MA. www.netlibrary.com.Conference PaperPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name and Middle Initial.]. [Year]. “[Conference Paper Title].” Paper presented at [Conference Title], [Conference Location], [Conference Date].Example:Kohout, J. B. 2010. “Can APA be a Peppered Moth? Evolving in Response to Environmental Change and Prospects for the Association.” Paper presented at APA Center for Workforce Studies, Washington, District of Columbia, US, 2 November 2010.
  • Journal ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the article." Journal Title VolumeNumber, no. IssueNumber (PublicationYear): StartPage-EndPage. Database Name, EBSCOhost(accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Crainer, Stuart, and Des Dearlove. "Windfall economics." Business Strategy Review 14, no. 4 (2003): 68-72. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Magazine ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the article." Magazine Title, FullPublicationDate, StartPage-EndPage. Database Name, EBSCOhost (accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Grossman, Lev. "The Geek Shall Inherit the Earth." Time, October 3, 2005, 98-98.Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Newspaper ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the article." Newspaper Title, FullPublicationDate, Edition. Database Name, EBSCOhost (accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Kolata, Gina. "Experts unlock clues to spread of 1918 flu virus." New York Times, October 6, 2005, late edition. Academic Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Book ChapterPattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the chapter." In Book title, StartPage-EndPage. PublishersLocation: PublisherName, PublicationYear. Database Name, EBSCOhost(accessed Month Day, Year).You can get the publisher's name and location from the Publication Details page, found by clicking the Source field in the citation.Example:Freedman, Maurice J. "Libraries in today's world." In World almanac & book of facts, 16-17. New York: World Almanac Education Group Inc., 2004. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Website or PagePattern:“[Website or Webpage Document Title],” [Website Organization Name], last modified [date], accessed [Date], [URL].Example:“Domestic Violence Homicides in Massachusetts Tracking Analysis 2003-2010,” Jane Doe, Inc., last modified 23 November 2010, accessed 4 December 2010, http://www.janedoe.org/know/2003-2010_YTD_DV_Homicides_MA.pdf.E BookPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name]. [E book Title]. [Publisher Location]: [Publisher], [Year]. [doi or URL].Example:Seaward, Brian. Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. Boston: Jones & Bartlett, 1999. www.netlibrary.com.Conference PaperPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name and Middle Initial.], “[Conference Paper Title].” Paper presented at [Conference Title], [Conference Location], [Conference Date].Example:Kohout, J. B. (2010). “Can APA be a Peppered Moth? Evolving in Response to Environmental Change and Prospects for the Association.” Paper presented at APA Center for Workforce Studies, Washington, District of Columbia, US, 2 November 2010.
  • Journal or Magazine ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [Author first initial] [Year], ‘[Title of article]’, [Journal Name], [Volume number], [issue number], pp. [page number start]-[end], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:Maynard, W 1999 'Thoreau's House at Walden', Art Bulletin, 81, 2, pp. 303, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viiewed 6 December 2010Journal or Magazine Article w/No AuthorPattern:‘[Title of article]’ [Year], [Journal Name], [Volume number], [issue number], pp. [page number start]-end], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:'Royal Dogfight' 2004, People, 61, 1, p. 28, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.Online Newspaper ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [Author first initial] [Year], ‘[Title of article]’ [Newspaper Name], [Day month of publication], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:Lacey, M 2007, 'A Communist He Was, but Today, Che Sells', New York Times, 9 October, Newspaper Source Select, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.Online Newspaper Article w/No AuthorPattern:‘[Title of article]’ [Year], [Newspaper Name], [Day month of publication], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:'Metro Briefing | Connecticut: Hartford: Domestic Violence Proposal', 2005, New York Times, 10 January, Newspaper Source Select, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.BookPattern:[Author last name] [Author first name initial] [Year], [Title of Work], [Publisher], [Location].Example:Nugent, P, & Vitale, B 2008, 'Chapter 11: Practice Questions with Answers and Rationales', Test Success: Test-Taking Techniques for Beginning Nursing Students (5th Edition) pp. 159-294 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F.A. Davis Company CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.Online Book ChapterPattern:[Author last name] [Author first name initial] [Year], ‘[Title of chapter]’, in [Title of work], [Publisher], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:Legge, J 1871, 'The She King, or, The Book of Poetry', in She King, or, the Book of Poetry , American Theological Library Association (ATLA) Historical Monographs Collection: Series 1, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.Conference PaperPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Initial] [Published Year], [‘Title of Conference Paper’], [Conference Title], [Conference Organization Name], [Conference City Location], [Conference State or Country Location], [pp. xx-xx].Example:Johnson, G 2008, ‘The Issue of Domestic Violence and Society Acceptance’, Domestic Violence, Governors for Change, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, pp.1-26.EBookPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name Initial] [Year], [E book Title], [Publisher], [Publisher Location], accessed [Date Month Year], from [E Book Host Site or URL].Example:Clarke, R 2007, Time Can Never Destroy, Little Bear, Littleton, Colorado, accessed 1 October 2009, from www.netlibrary.com.E Book ChapterPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name Initial] [Year], ‘[Chapter Title]’, in [Editor last Name] Editor First Name initial] (ed), [E book Title], [Publisher], [Publisher Location], pp. [xx-xx], accessed [Date Month Year], from [E Book Host Site or URL].Example:Smith, J 2008, ‘Quantum Solutions’, in Wilber, K (ed), Quantum Physics and Holography in Psychological Context, Wilber Communications, Denver, Colorado, pp. 240-245, accessed 12 September 2008, from www.wilbercomm.com.WebsitePattern:[Website Page Name] [Year]. [Website Organization], [Website Organization Location], viewed [Date Month Year], <[URL]>.Example:Tommy Bolin Archives 2010. The Official Tommy Bolin Archives, USA, viewed 9 December 2010, http://www.tbolin.com/index.html.
  • Journal ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. "[Title of work]." [Periodical name] [Volume number].[Issue number] ([Published Year]): [Page number starts]. [Title of database]. Web. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year].Example:Maynard, W. Barksdale. "Thoreau's House at Walden." Art Bulletin 81.2 (1999): 303.Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Nov. 2002.Journal Article w/ No AuthorPattern:"[Title of work]." [Periodical name] [Volume number].[Issue number] ([Published year]): [Page number starts]. [Title of database]. Web. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year].Example:"Thoreau's House at Walden." Art Bulletin 81.2 (1999): 303. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Nov. 2002.Magazine ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. "[Title of article]." [Title of magazine] [Published day] [Month abbreviation] [Year]: [Page number starts]-[ends] [Title of database]. Web. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year].Example:Keith, Amy Elisa, et al. "Debi Mazar's...DINNER FOR FOUR UNDER $10." People 19 Oct. 2009: 157. Academic Search Complete. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.Newspaper ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. "[Article title]." [Title of newspaper] [Published day] [Month abbreviation] [Year]: [Title of database]. Web. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year].Example:Howe, Peter J. "Ski Resorts Hop onto the Trail of Environmentalism." Boston Globe (MA) 26 Jan. 2007: Newspaper Source. Web. 30 Jan. 2007.BookPattern:[Author last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. [Title of book]. [Place of publication]: [Publisher], [Publication year]. [Title of database]. Web. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year].Example:Vitale, Ann. Regional Folklore. Pennsylvania: Mason Crest Publishers, 2003. Literary Reference Center. Web. 29 Jan. 2007.Book ChapterPattern:[Author last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. "[Title of chapter/essay]." [Title of work]. [Publication year]. [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Title of database]. Web. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year].Example:Ellmann, Richard, and Harold Bloom. "Bloom Unbound." Bloom's Major Literary Characters: Leopold Bloom (2004): 21-25. Literary Reference Center. Web. 29 Jan. 2007.Image and VideoPattern:"[Title of work]." [Copyright holder]. [Title of database]. Web. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year].Example:"Clown Fish." Getty Images. Points of View. Web. 30 Jan. 2007.PodcastsPattern:"[Title of Podcast]." [Topic of podcast]. [Podcast relay day] [Month abbreviation] [Year]. [Accessed day] [Month abbreviation] [Year]. <[URL]>.Example:"Prevention of HIV infection. Treatment of COPD." EBSCO: DynaMed Podcasts. 6 Mar. 2007. 22 Mar. 2007. <http://support.epnet.com/support_news/podcasts/3.6.07_DynaMed_Update.mp3>.E BookPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name]. [EBook Title]. [Publication Location]: [Publisher], [Year]. [Ebook Host]. Web. [Date Month Year].Example:Seaward, Brian Luke. Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. Boston: Jones & Bartlett, 1999. NetLibrary. Web. 16 August 2006.E Book – one page or chapterPattern:[Author Last Name], [Author First Name]. “ [Chapter or Page Title].” [EBook Title]. [Publication Location]: [Publisher], [Year]. [Ebook Host]. Web. [Date Month Year].Example:Seaward, Brian Luke. “Managing Stress.” Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. Boston: Jones & Bartlett, 1999. NetLibrary. Web. 16 August 2006.WebsitePattern:[Author Last Name, Author First Name or Organization Name]. [Website or Page Title]. ([Year]). Web. [Date Month Year].Example:IBM. Green electronics: designing for a smarter planet. (n.d.). Web. 2 December 2010.Conference paperPattern:[Author Last Name] [Author First Name]. “[Conference Paper Title].” [Conference Proceeding Title] – [Organization/Association Name] ([Conference Type] [Year]): [Conference Numbering Information]. [Database]. Web. [Date Month Year].Example:Clark, Naeemah, Shu-Yueh Lee, and Lori Boyer. "A Place of Their Own: An Exploratory Study of College Students' Uses of Facebook." Conference Papers -- International Communication Association (Annual Meeting 2007): 1-1. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 02 August 2010.
  • Journal ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the Article."Title of the Journal VolumeNumber, no. IssueNumber (PublicationYear): StartPage-EndPage. Database Name, EBSCOhost(accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Crainer, Stuart, and Des Dearlove. "Windfall economics." Business Strategy Review 14, no. 4 (2003): 68-72. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Magazine ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the Article."Magazine Title, FullPublicationDate, StartPage-EndPage. Database Name, EBSCOhost (accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Grossman, Lev. "The Geek Shall Inherit the Earth." Time, October 3, 2005, 98-98. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost(accessed November 5, 2005).Newspaper ArticlePattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the Article."Title of the Newspaper, FullPublicationDate, Edition. Database Name, EBSCOhost (accessed Month Day, Year).Example:Kolata, Gina. "Experts Unlock Clues To Spread Of 1918 Flu Virus." New York Times, October 6, 2005, late edition.Academic Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Book ChapterPattern:FirstAuthorLastName, FirstAuthorFirstName, and SecondAuthorFirstNameSecondAuthorLastName. "Title of the Chapter." In Book Title, StartPage-EndPage. PublishersLocation: PublisherName, PublicationYear. Database Name, EBSCOhost(accessed Month Day, Year).You can get the publisher's name and location from the Publication Details page, found by clicking the Source field in the citation.Example:Freedman, Maurice J. "Libraries in Today's World." In World Almanac & Book of Facts, 16-17. New York: World Almanac Education Group Inc., 2004. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 5, 2005).Conference paperPattern:[Author last name][Author First Name Initials]. [Title of paper]. In: [Editor Last Name] [Editor First Name Initials], editor. [Title of the Conference]; [Date of conference]; [Place of publication]: [Publisher]; [Year of Publication]. p.[xx-xx].Example:Kohout, J. Can APA be a Peppered Moth? Evolving in Response to Environmental Change and Prospects for the Association. In: Fromm, E., editor. Center for Workforce Studies; 2 November 2010; Washington, DC; American Psychological Association; 2010. p. 10-24.Web sitePattern:[Author/Editor/Organization's name] . [Title of the page] [[homepage on the Internet]]. [Place of publication]: [Publisher]; [[updated yr month day]; [cited yr month day]]. Available from: ([URL])Example:Jane Doe, Inc. [homepage on the Internet]. Boston, MA: Jane Doe, Inc.; [updated 23 November 2010; cited 9 December 2010]. Available from: http://www.janedoe.orgE BookPattern:[Author Last Name] [Author First Name Initial]. [E Book Title]. [Publisher Location]: [Publisher]; [Publication Year] [[cited] [Date]]. Available from: [E Book site]Example:Donaldson M. Measuring the quality of health care. Washington: National Academy Press; 1999 [cited 8 October 2004]. Available from: http://www.netlibrary.com/.E Book-ChapterPattern:[Author Last Name] [Author First Name Initial]. [E Book Title]. [Publisher Location]: [Publisher]; [Publication Year]. [Chapter Number], [Chapter Title]. [[cited] [Date]]. Available from: [E Book site or URL]Example:Donaldson M. Measuring the quality of health care. Washington: National Academy Press; 1999. Chapter 1, Quality health care. [cited 8 October 2004]. Available from: http://www.netlibrary.com/.

Transcript

  • 1. CITATION STYLES IN ACADEMIC RESEARCHES Kamal ElGazzar, PhD Candidate Library Consultant Ministry of Foreign Affairs - UAE
  • 2. ! Before you write your list of references, check with your lecturer or tutor for the bibliographic style preferred by the School. There may be differences in the style recommended by the School. 2
  • 3.  What is referencing?  Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignments. This allows the sources to be identified.  Why reference?  Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to identify and follow up works you have referred to. 3
  • 4. What ?  Citing/Citation o The way that (you) the writer refer to texts that you wish to include in your work – example to follow. o Can also be all of the information retrieved from a bibliographical database search.  References o An alphabetical list describing each source that you have used.  Bibliography o A list of material you have used for information or inspiration but have not referred to directly in the text. 4
  • 5.  Record the full bibliographic details and relevant page numbers of the source from which information is taken.  Insert the citation at the appropriate place in the text of your document.  Include a reference list that includes all in-text citations at the end of your document. 5
  • 6. I) Numeric type  Allusion to every reference is assigned a number in Arabic Numerals (either in round brackets or as a superscript)in a serial manner in the manuscript. The reference list is numbered in the same manner correspondingly. If the same source is subsequently quoted again in the manuscript, it bears the previously assigned number. eg Vancouver, NLM,MLA.  This method of numbering of references is reader-friendly, as it permits easy location of the citation in the reference list by it’s serial number. However, any revision of the manuscript with inclusion of additional references is a bane for the author, as it involves the tedious task of re-numbering all the references in the new serial order. II) Author-date type o The name of author and the year are mentioned in the manuscript itself in parenthesis. o The references are listed in alphabetical order based on the author surname.eg Harvard, APA. 6
  • 7. AMA Style The largest physician group in the United States, the American Medical Association (AMA) has been publishing a style manual for its scientific journals since the early 1960s. Instructions  Number references and list them in the same order they were first cited in the text.  Names: Use initials (without periods or spaces) for first and middle names.  Titles: For articles and parts of books, capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized. For publications and books, capitalize the first letter of every major word. Abbreviate journal titles according to Index Medicus.  Dates: Use the order: month day year, spelled out. 7
  • 8. APA Style  The main scholarly association for academic psychologists in the United States, the American Psychological Association (APA) has developed standardized methods for citing print and electronic sources used in research. Below are instructions according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) and http://www.apastyle.org/. Instructions  Alphabetize each entry in a works cited list by the first letter, ignoring the articles A, An, and The. Indent subsequent lines of entries one-half inch.  Names: Use initials for first and middle names.  Titles: For articles, chapters and books, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns. Fully capitalize periodical titles.  Dates: Publication dates use the order year, month day. The access date uses the order month day year. If no publication date is available, use "n.d." in place of date. 8
  • 9. Chicago: Author-Date Style  Begun in the 1890s as a simple list of style rules jotted down on a sheet of paper by a proofreader at the University of Chicago Press, this style guide was expanded and published in book format in 1906, as A Manual of Style. Since then, the Chicago Manual of Style has become a highly regarded and widely used resource for writers and editors in the publishing field.In 1937, Kate Turabian (a dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago) created a simplified guide to Chicago style intended for students. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is still regularly published as a separate book, and Turabian is often used as a synonym for Chicago style.  Chicago/Turabian actually offer two styles of documentation, each one favored by different groups of scholars. The humanities or documentary-note style is favored by those in literature, history and the arts, while the author-date style is widely used by those in the natural or social science fields. Instructions  Names: Author names should appear as they do on the title page, whether spelled out or using initials. The first author is listed last name first, but any other authors appear in normal order.  Titles: Use sentence-like capitalization: only the first word and proper nouns. Journal titles are fully capitalized.  Dates: Use the order: month day year, spelled out.  Indent: Indent subsequent lines of entries one-half inch. 9
  • 10. Chicago: Humanities Style  Begun in the 1890s as a simple list of style rules jotted down on a sheet of paper by a proofreader at the University of Chicago Press, this style guide was expanded and published in book format in 1906, as A Manual of Style. Since then, the Chicago Manual of Style has become a highly regarded and widely used resource for writers and editors in the publishing field.In 1937, Kate Turabian (a dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago) created a simplified guide to Chicago style intended for students. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is still regularly published as a separate book, and Turabian is often used as a synonym for Chicago style.  Chicago/Turabian actually offer two styles of documentation, each one favored by different groups of scholars. The author- date style is widely used by those in the natural or social science fields, while the humanities or documentary-note style is favored by those in literature, history and the arts. Instructions  Names: Author names should appear as they do on the title page, whether spelled out or using initials. The first author is listed last name first, but any other authors appear in normal order.  Titles: Titles of books, chapters and articles are capitalized sentence-style. Periodical titles are capitalized headline-style.  Dates: Use the order: month day year, spelled out.  Indent: Indent subsequent lines of entries one-half inch. 10
  • 11. Harvard: Author-Date Style Instructions  Names: Author’s initials are used for their first name. If an author has more than one initial do not put any spaces between initials. Where a resource has multiple authors, all authors are listed by last name and then first initial separated by commas.  Titles: Use sentence-like capitalization; only the first word and proper nouns. Include article or chapter titles in single quotation marks. Book and journal titles are fully capitalized.  Dates: Use on the year of the publication. For viewed dates use the format date month year with no punctuation between. 11
  • 12. MLA Style  The Modern Language Association (MLA) is an organization of teachers and scholars devoted to the study of language and literature. MLA style has been widely adopted by academic journals, schools, and instructors. Since its initial publication, the MLA Style Manual has become the predominant style guide for use in the Humanities in the United States, and is commonly used in Canada and other countries worldwide. Below are instructions according to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition), the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd edition) and http://www.mla.org/style. Instructions  Alphabetize each entry in a works cited list by the first letter, ignoring the articles A, An, and The. Indent subsequent lines of entries one-half inch.  Names: Author names should appear as they do on the title page, whether spelled out or using initials. The first author is listed last name first, but any other authors appear in normal order. Name of the editor, compiler, or translator of a book (if applicable and if not cited earlier), proceeded by any appropriate abbreviation, such as Ed.  Titles: Capitalize the first, last, and all principal words.  Dates: Use the order: day month year. Shorten the month to the standard 3- or 4- letter abbreviation. If no publication date is available, use "n.d." in place of date.  Spacing: Citations should be double-spaced 12
  • 13. Vancouver/ICMJE Style  A small group of editors of general medical journals met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. The group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the National Library of Medicine, were first published in 1979. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which has produced multiple editions of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Instructions  Number references and list them in the same order they were first mentioned in the text.  Names: Use initials (without periods or spaces) for first and middle names.  Titles: For articles, chapters and books, capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized. For publication names, capitalize the first letter of all significant words. Journal titles may be abbreviated according to Index Medicus.  Dates: Use the order year, month day. Shorten the month to the standard 3-letter abbreviation without a period. 13
  • 14. Practice at writing references 14
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  • 18.  Ms word >Title par> Click References 18
  • 19.  "Style" is under "References/Citations & Bibliography" 19
  • 20.  Click References > Click Manage Sources > Click New 20
  • 21.  Click References > Click Manage Sources > Click New > Click OK 21
  • 22.  Click References > click Insert Citation > click Add New Source. 22
  • 23.  Click References > click Bibliography > click Insert Bibliography 23
  • 24.  A reference list includes just the books, articles, and web pages … etc, that are cited in the text of the document.  A bibliography includes all sources consulted for background reading.  A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.  If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.  Each reference appears on a new line.  Each item in the reference list is required to have a hanging indent.  References should not be numbered. 24
  • 25. Kamal ElGazzar Library Consultant Ministry of Foreign Affairs – UAE Kamalelgazar@Hotmail.com 25