THE FUNDAMENTALS AND FUTURE OF ECOCRITICISM• As a field of literary study that addresses how human study to nonhuman nature or the environment in literature.• Prefixed “eco” are listed, among them “Ecofeminism” and “economics.”• “Eco,”from the Greek root oikos, means “house.”
Ecocriticism• “economy” - law of the house• “ecology” - relationships between living organisms and their environment.• Ecocriticism- the criticism of the “house,” i.e., the environment, as represented in literature.
VANDANA SHIVA“I think the combination offeminism and ecology createstwo potentials. First, I have seenfeminism that is not ecologicalbecome a new oppressor. Ihave seen environmentalismthat is not feminist enough alsobecome a new elitism.Ecofeminism prevents thosetwo new forms of elitism bysaying, No, it’s about societyand nature. It’s about otherways of thinking”
What is Ecofeminism ?• Ecofeminism, or ecological feminism, is a term coined in 1974 by Françoise dEaubonne.• Its advocates oftenemphasize a deepreverence for all life,and the importance ofinterrelationshipsbetween humans,non-human others
ECOFEMINISM• Ecofeminism is a social and political movement claiming a considerable common ground between environmentalism and feminism with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism.
FEATURESMale domination in the society To search for women rights On sisterhood women as nature and Men as culture
EXAMPLES• The novelFire on the Mountain byAnita Desai.• Outstanding examplesof Ecofeminism.• CharactersNanda Kaul, Iladas, Raka.
HUMAN CHAIN• Women formed human chains across roads to prevent contractors from reaching the forest area.
Result• Chipko inspired environmentalists both nationally and globally and contributed substantially to the emerging philosophies of eco- feminism and deep ecology and fields of community-based conservation and sustainable mountain development.
CONCLUSION• Another form of transcendentalism• Man is part of nature• Ethical responsibility of human beings