describe key characteristics of Canada between 1885 and 1914,including social and economic conditions, the roles and contributionsof various people and groups, internal and external pressures forchange, and the political responses to these pressures;• use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, andcommunicate information about the factors that shaped Canada as itwas entering the twentieth century;• compare living and working conditions, technological developments,and social roles near the beginning of the twentieth century withsimilar aspects of life in present-day Canada.
An unprecedented age of prosperity and massiveimmigration transform Canada at the turn of the 20thcentury. Canadas first francophone leader, Prime MinisterWilfrid Laurier, leads a country marked by Prairie boomtimes and massive industrialization. Those who shape thenew society include peasants from Eastern Europe, insearch of free land; socialists who try to mobilize anemerging urban working class; and campaigners fortemperance and womens suffrage. The dizzying pace ofchange also brings ethnic intolerance and racism,particularly against Asian immigrants. As well, growingtensions over Canadas role in the British Empire,foreshadow divisive times to come as the First World Warlooms on the horizon.
At the start of the 20th century, Canada was a young country trying to define itself at home and on the world stage.Under the Dominion Lands Policy,land is cheap and plentiful forimmigrants and pioneers willing tofarm it. 160 acres cost only $10.Homesteaders are given 3 years tobuild a house - often out of sod orlogs - and cultivate a set amount of
Population (Total) : 5,301,000 in 1900By Province:Ontario 2,182,000Québec 1,648,000Nova Scotia 459,000New Brunswick 331,120Manitoba 255,000British Columbia 178,000Prince Edward Island 103,000Territories and Districts 400,000 Males 2,752,000 Females 2,620,000 Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 - 1,140,000 (21%) People per square mile - 1.55 The average number of people per household in 1900 - 5. In 1976 - 3.1
By Origin:European 5,105,000 (96.3%)Aboriginal 127,000 (2.0%)Asian 23,000 (.004%)African 17,000 (.003%)1 British 2,075,7002 French 1,649,0003 Irish 988,0004 German 310,0005 Aboriginal 127,0006 Misc Europeans 47,0007 Dutch 33,0008 Scandinavian 31,0009 Asian* 23,00010 Russian 19,00011 Africa 17,000
Canada was a class-based society, withclear racial and economic distinctionsseparating the rich and the workingclass.The average yearly wage for productionworkers is $375.For office and supervisory employees,the annual income is $846.On average, women earn about half ofwhat men do .In most cases, services are availablebased on money, not need.A new emphasis on capitalism iscreating a small but growing middleclass of office workers and managers.
Montreal is the largest city inthe country, with 267,730inhabitants in 1901.
Dominating the political scene was Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, Canada first francophone leader. He was a charming, shrewd politician who believed he could smooth over Canadas many divisive issues with a spirit of diplomacy. Laurier had opposed Confederation as a young man but now he was the greatest advocate of a united CanadaNicknamed the "Great Conciliator," Laurierled the country from 1896 to 1911. He rarelystrayed from the middle ground in dealingwith issues that ranged from the ManitobaSchool Crisis to the question of free tradewith the United States.
"I do not pretend to be animperialist. Neither do Ipretend to be an anti-imperialist. I am Canadianfirst, last and all the time."- Wilfrid Laurier
The Klondike GoldRush symbolicallyushered in an era ofprosperity markedby Prairie boomtimes, rapidindustrializationand technologicalinnovation
ImmigrationNewcomers flock to Canada andchange the cultural landscape ofthe country. But not everyone iswelcome, as prejudice and hategrows in the land of promise.
French and EnglishdivideBut even Lauriers spirit ofdiplomacy was sorelytested when it came toFrench and Englishrelations. During this era, ayoung French Canadianpolitician named HenriBourassa emerged as theprime minister’s greatestadversary.Bourassa came to embody anew French nationalism,which maintained thatFrench culture should be onequal footing with English
Ties to BritainCanadas relationship with the mother country was akey issue during Lauriers tenure. In 1899, young Canadian men marched off to war inSouth Africa in aid of Britain. And a few years later,Britain came calling again for assistance prompting thecreation of the Canadian navy. Canadas support ofBritain imbued a sense of pride and confidence inEnglish Canada. But in French Canada, the ties to Britainunderscored Quebec’s feelings of isolation from therest of the country.In 1910, Henri Bourassa quit politics, founded thenewspaper Le Devoir and led a fierce struggle againstLauriers naval bill, blaming him for Canadasinvolvement in all imperialist wars to come. In 1911, thereign of the "Great Conciliator" ended. Laurier hadbeen unable to mend the great divide but Canadasidentity was stronger. French Canada and English
technology analyse the impact on society of new technologies e.g., prospecting, radio, the telephone, the automobile, electricityShubham
Canada was home to invention and innovation in the emerging age of technology
In the early 1900s,technology wastransforming Canada andthe world. And some ofthe early innovations ofthe century were beingdevised right at home.
No theory of relativity. No quantum physics.No TV. No radio. No traffic jams. No atomicenergy. No black holes. No Play Station® orcomputers. No electric refrigerators or airconditioners. No quantum physics. Nosatellites. No airplanes. Only a handful ofautomobiles. No motorized tractors foragriculture. No central heating. No indoorplumbing outside of most urban centres.Electric lights were invented in 1877, butmost Canadian homes still use oil lamps forlight.
About 1880 they had begun installing lighting on some Montréal streets.Electric-powered tramcars have been circulating in city streets in 1892.In 1889, Quebec City boasted it was "the best lit city in the country".Telephones began to be popular:Bell leases its phones for $5 a year. In Montreal, the Compagnie de téléphone desMarchands is likewise providing service to merchants.Casavant organs, manufactured in Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, are renowned world-wide.The Hollerith Punch Card, Tabulating Machine and Sorter compiles the results ofthe 1890 census, in 2 ½ years, rather than the usual 10 year period. The inventor,Herman Hollerith, a Census Bureau statistician, forms the Tabulating MachineCompany in 1896. A few mergers and name changes later, the company becomesknown as IBM.
The RadioThe Roots of RadioDuring the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwellpredicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886,German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstratedthat rapid variations of electric current could be projectedinto space in the form of radio waves similar to those oflight and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an Americandentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy."Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kitecause another one to move, marking the first knowninstance of wireless aerial communication.Guglielmo MarconiGuglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, proved thefeasibility of radio communication. He sent and receivedhis first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899 he flashedthe first wireless signal across the English Channel andtwo years later received the letter "S", telegraphed fromEngland to Newfoundland. This was the first successfultransatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902.
Growth of Radio - Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap TransmittersRadio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message(morse code) used in a telegraph. Transmitters at that time were calledspark-gap machines. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication. This was a way of communicating between two points,however, it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today. Wirelesssignals proved effective in communication for rescue work when a seadisaster occurred. A number of ocean liners installed wireless equipment. In1899 the United States Army established wireless communications with alightship off Fire Island, New York. Two years later the Navy adopted awireless system. Up to then, the Navy had been using visual signaling andhoming pigeons for communication.In 1901, radiotelegraph service was instituted between five Hawaiian Islands.By 1903, a Marconi station located in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, carried anexchange or greetings between President Theodore Roosevelt and KingEdward VII. In 1905 the naval battle of Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese warwas reported by wireless, and in 1906 the U.S. Weather Bureau experimentedwith radiotelegraphy to speed notice of weather conditions.
Cape Breton was a magnet for technological development in the firstdecade of the century. In 1902, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconijourneyed to the island to try and convince the world that he couldconnect Europe and North America with nothing but radio waves.He had had success the previous year, when he transmitted theMorse signal for "s" from Cornwall, England to St. Johns,Newfoundland, but his success had been publicly doubted.In Cape Breton, anticipation grew as Marconi worked on hisinvention."Excitement around town is intense and all kinds of news is goingthe rounds concerning events the future will unfold," wrote areporter with the Sydney Record.On December 15, 1902, Marconi sent the first full wireless messageacross the Atlantic. It was a short greeting to the Times newspaperof London from its correspondent, a Dr. Parkin, in Glace Bay.Marconis success gained international attention. He alsorevolutionized communication, opening the door to thedevelopment of the wireless industry.
The Automobile Daimler of 1899 The Rolls Royce Silver Ghost of 1906 Cadillac roadster Driving an automobile required a high degree to technical dexterity, mechanical skill, special clothing including hat, gloves, duster coat, goggles and boots. Tires were notoriously unreliable and changing one was an excruciating experience. Fuel was a problem, since gasoline was in short supply.
A few years later, Cape Breton was again the home of innovation. Alexander Graham Bell, a communication pioneer himself, owned a summer estate on Bras dOr Lakes. Bell had patented the telephone in the early 1880s but now he turned his attention to flight. The Wright brothers had beaten Bell off the ground in 1903 with the first manned airplane flight but the inventor was determined to go farther, faster - and higher. On a February afternoon in 1909, Bells Silver Dart airplane was ready for testing on the frozen lake of Bras dOr. A reporter looked on. "Before some people realized what was taking place, the buzz of the engine could be heard and the machine was seen advancing rapidly. She had gone about 90 feet along the ice when she rose gracefully into the air ... Everyone seemed dumbfounded." The Dart, piloted by a local man named J.A.D. McCurdy, flew about half a mile, higher and longer than the Wright Brothers plane. It was the first manned flight in the British Empire.
Alexander Graham Bell If the telephone wasnt born in Canada, it was certainly conceived here. In 1874, in Brantford, Ont., inventor Alexander Graham Bell first described the scientific principle that would convey the human voice over wires. By the Second World War, Canadians led the world in talking by telephone. Later they reached out to each other and around the globe with long distance calling, transatlantic connections and predictions for the future.
Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in1847, and emigrated to Canada with his parents in 1870.Bell began his career as a teacher of the deaf in Boston in 1871. Using a method calledvisible speech, developed by his father, Bell successfully taught his students how to speak.• Through his work, Bell met his two primary financiers: Thomas Sanders, a studentsfather; and Gardiner Greene Hubbard, president of the Clarke School for the Deaf.• Bell was fascinated by sound and how it travelled, and often tinkered with new ways toteach his students. In the summer of 1874 he constructed a device he called the"phonautograph": a dead mans ear attached to a lever. Speaking into the ear caused itsmembrane to vibrate, moving the lever, which then drew a wavelike pattern on a piece ofsmoked glass. Bell noted how the miniscule vibrations of the membrane moved the heavylever.• Bell speculated that a similar system could work with a wire attached to a membrane oneither end. Speaking into one membrane would vary the intensity of the electrical current,which would vibrate the membrane at the other end of the wire.• This was the theory of variable resistance, which makes electrically transmitted speech —and thus the telephone — possible
Bell was good with blueprints and theory, but he was not mechanicallyinclined. Hubbard and Sanders backed his idea for the harmonic telegraph, and Bell enlisted Watsons help.• One evening as they worked on the harmonic telegraph, Bell described his concept ofvariable resistance to Thomas Watson. Watson was enthusiastic and the pair beganexperimenting with metal diaphragms, magnetized reeds, currents and springs toproduce a working telephone.• A telegraph works by interrupting an electrical current with a series of short and longtaps ("dots" and "dashes") known as Morse code.• By comparison, the telephone works with a continuous electrical current that varies inintensity according to the sounds of the voice.• Bell and Watson discovered this by accident one day when a contact screw was attachedtoo tightly, allowing a constant current that transmitted a "twang" as Watson tweaked aspring.• On Feb. 14, 1876, Bell filed a patent on his invention, just hours before that of hisnearest competitor, Elisha Gray. The theory of variable resistance was scribbled in themargins of Bells application. This led to speculation that Bell had later been allowed toamend his application.• In the following years Bells patent was challenged in court over 600 times but he alwayswon.
The Bell Telephone Company was founded by Bell, Hubbard and Sanders on July 9, 1877. Watson was granted ten per cent of the company. • Years later, Bell remarked on his discovery: "I now realize that I should never have invented the telephone if I had been an electrician. What electrician would have been so foolish as to try any such thing? The advantage I had was that sound had been the study of my life — the study of vibrations." • In 1915 Bell and Watson re-enacted their famous telephone call to usher in the first cross-continent telephone line. Bell, in New York, called Watson in San Francisco. "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you!" he said. Watson replied that it would take him a week to get there. • All his life, Bell answered the telephone with "Ahoy!" — a greeting he advocated for everyone. Thomas Edison, a fellow inventor, is thought to be the first to introduce and popularize "Hello" as a telephone greeting.http://archives.cbc.ca/science_technology/technology/topics/1139/
The question, whoinvented electricity?does not have a one wordanswer. The invention ofelectricity was rather achain of inventions thatpaved a path for use ofelectricity in moderntimes.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847– October 18, 1931) was an American inventor, scientist, andbusinessman who developed many devices that greatlyinfluenced life around the world, including the phonograph, themotion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric lightbulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" (now Edison, NewJersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the firstinventors to apply the principles of mass production and largeteamwork to the process of invention, and therefore is oftencredited with the creation of the first industrial researchlaboratory.Edison is the third most prolific inventor in history, holding 1,093US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the UnitedKingdom, France, and Germany. He is credited with numerousinventions that contributed to mass communication and, inparticular, telecommunications. These included a stock ticker, amechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electricalpower, recorded music and motion pictures. His advanced workin these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as atelegraph operator. Edison originated the concept andimplementation of electric-power generation and distribution tohomes, businesses, and factories – a crucial development in themodern industrialized world. His first power station was onManhattan Island, New York.
Electricity - A Brief History of Discovery1780 – Italy -Italian anatomist Luigi Galvani while experimenting with static ‘electricity’and dissected frogs stumbled upon what is today known as ‘electric current’ 1791 – Italy -Luigi Galvani published a paper regarding the presence of a continuous flow of electricity,at the time referring to it as ‘animal electricity’1800 – Italy - Italian Alessandro Guiseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta’s experiments lead tothe first version of the battery1807 – London - Sir Humphrey Davy’s discovery of the ‘electric arc’ during experimentswith a 2,000-cell battery, was the beginning stage towards incandescent lighting1820 – Copenhagen - Hans Christian Orstead experiments during a class at the Universityof Copenhagen led to the discovery of ‘electromagnetism’1827 – Albany New York – Joseph Henry – discovered the lifting power of ordinary magnetscould be intensified with electricity thus developing ‘electromagnets’. Penfield Iron Works;NY used Henry’s electromagnets to separate iron ore from rock. This was one of the firstuses of electric technology in industry.1830’s – London - Michael Faraday’s experiments lead to the discovery of the first electricgenerator1831 – Albany, New York – Joseph Henry experiments with an electromagnet, wire and aclosed circuit revealed an electric current could cause a mechanical action at some distantpoint. This was the beginning of the electromagnetic telegraph.1837 – London – William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone obtained a patent for a galvanicand electromagnetic telegraph.1839 – London - The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph ran along the Great Western Railwayfor 18 miles from London to Slough.
1839 – French physicist – Edmund Bequerel discovered the photoelectric effect (certainmaterials when exposed to light produced a small electric current)1843 – Washington – Samuel F. B. Morse who discovered the dots and dash communicationsystem laid a 41-mile long telegraph line in glass insulators from Washington to Baltimore1844 – Washington – Samuel F. B. Morse sends his first coded message.By 1855 – telegraphs transmitted printed words.By 1861 – the telegraph lines of Western Union spanned from coast to coast.By 1866 – a telegraph cable was laid across the Atlantic Ocean.1876 – Ontario – Alexander Graham Bell working with electrician named Thomas Watsondeveloped a device to transmit human voice. The first telephone took shape.1877 – New Jersey – Thomas Alva Edison failed experiment with the telephone results in thephonograph. The first recorded sound.1879 – New Jersey – Edison and his team create the first electrically powered glass lamp.Edison further went on to design the system and circuitry to power the electric light.1880 – Europe – Nikola Telsa, Galileo Ferraris, and Michael von Dolivo–Dobrowolski had alldeveloped motors using ‘alternating current’1882 – New York – Edison establishes his first commercial power station and provided‘direct current’ to approx. 85 local consumers1886 – US – Approx. 60 local Edison companies all supplying ‘direct current’1887 – New York – Nikola Telsa (now in the US) applied for patents for his two-phase andthree-phase AC motors1888-1896 – Pittsburgh – George Westinghouse bought the patents and hired Telsa to workwith his engineers to develop a long-range productive AC system for commercial anddomestic use.
1891 – Colorado – The first commercial AC power transmission system in America wasinstalled in a mine1893 – Chicago – World’s Fair – Westinghouse demonstrated that use of AC generators,transformers, and rotary converters changed AC to DC. He showed how a single ACgenerating plant could deliver both AC and DC power1893 – Niagara Falls, US – J.P. Morgan and William K. Vanderbilt formed the CataractConstruction Company and with a two-phase AC system started to generate severalthousand-horse powers of electricity which later developed into a more powerfulsystem.1897 – Britain – J. J. Thomson identifies the ‘electron’. It is the particle of energy thatflows through wires and creates the electric current.1905 – Albert Einstein – defined the essence of light and the photoelectric effect (thebasis for photovoltaic technology)1954 – United States – Bell Laboratories developed the first photovoltaic cell (solar cell)and module1960’s – United States - Space industry (NASA) began to experiment with photovoltaictechnology (solar power) as a power source for spacecrafts1970’s – Research by various companies began into using photovoltaic technology(solar power) as a source of electricity for everyday applications
Adam Beck: "Power for the People." Further afield in Canada, Adam Beck was powering his own contribution to the age of technology. The cigar box maker from London Ontario - turned provincial politician - dreamed of harnessing the power of Niagara Falls to produce cheap and bountiful electricity. Becks slogan was "Power for the People." "The poorest working man will have electric light in his home ... Nothing is too big for us. Nothing is too expensive to imagine." In 1906, he introduced a bill in the provincial legislature to create the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. Beck became head of the new power commission and led the movement to develop electricity from Niagara Falls. Beck created the worlds largest electrical company and helped ignite an industrial boom in Canada.
In Ontario, politician Adam Beck created the largest hydro- electric company in the world in 1906. The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario helped ignite an industrial boom in the province, providing cheap and available electricity for everyone. It was people like Beck, who helped define the Canada of the new century. A country where it seemed all people had a chance to make their dreams could true. At the time it was hard to deny "that the twentieth century shall be the century of Canada."
In 1900…There are less than 200 automobilesregistered in all of Canada - and every one ofthem is in Ontario. The first automobile inCanada, however, was on the road inRustico, Prince Edward Island, 34 yearsearlier; at the wheel was the local priest,Father Georges-Antoine Belcourt, originallyfrom Quebec. The first one had been built inCanada 3 years earlier.
PoliticsThe Parliament of Canada is the legislativebranch of the federal government inCanada and makes the laws of Canada.Parliament is made up of three parts: theCrown or Queen, represented by theGovernor General of Canada, the House ofCommons and the Senate. The original Parliament Buildings were built between 1859 and 1866, just in time to be used as the seat of government for the new Dominion of Canada in 1867.
The First 11 Prime Ministers of CanadaWilliam Lyon Mackenzie King (1921 to 1926)Arthur Meighen (1920 to 1921)Sir Robert Borden (1911 to 1920)Sir Wilfrid Laurier (1896 to 1911)Sir Charles Tupper (1896)Sir Mackenzie Bowell (1894 to 1896)Sir John Thompson (1892 to 1894)Sir John Abbott (1891 to 1892)Sir John A Macdonald (1878 to 1891)Alexander Mackenzie (1873 to 1878)Sir John A Macdonald (1867 to 1873)
Sir John A Macdonald (1867 to 1873)Highlights as Prime Minister:*building a trans-continental railway, the CanadianPacific Railway*building a nation with the entry into Confederation of PrimePrince Edward Island, the Northwest Territories Minister(including Alberta and Saskatchewan), Manitoba, and ofBritish Columbia*opening the West for settlement Canada:*creation of the North-West Mounted Police 1867-73,*the Northwest Rebellion and the hanging of Louis Riel 1878-91*the National Policy of tariffs against imports to protectCanadian industry
Alexander MackenzieAlexander Mackenzie was the firstLiberal prime minister of Canada. Asevere economic depression was amajor problem for AlexanderMackenzie, but his governmentimplemented some major reforms,including: Prime Minister*the secret ballot of*Supreme Court of Canada Canada:*Office of Auditor General 1873-78*Royal Military College of Canada*Department of Militia and Defence
Sir John Abbott Sir John Abbott was Prime Minister of Canada for only 17 months and saw himself as a caretaker prime minister, stepping in on the death of Sir John A. Macdonald in 1891.Prime Minister Sir John Abbott has a few notable firsts toof Canada: his name:1891-92 *Sir John Abbott was the first Canadian prime minister to be born on Canadian soil. *Sir John Abbott was the first Senator to become Prime Minister of Canada. *Sir John Abbott was the first Canadian prime minister to be a member of both the House of Commons and the Senate.
Sir John ThompsonSir John Thompson was the firstprovincial premier to becomeprime minister of Canada andthe first Roman Catholic primeminister of Canada. Sir JohnThompson died suddenly afterjust two years as Canadian prime Prime Ministerminister. of Canada:His major contribution was the 1892-94Canadian Criminal Code of 1892.
Sir Mackenzie Bowell Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie Bowell was anti- Catholic and anti-Liberal and in over his depth on the divisive Manitoba Schools Question on minority education rights.Prime Minister of Mackenzie Bowell was the only Canada: prime minister of Canada to be 1894-96 forced to resign by his own cabinet, which he called a "nest of traitors."
Sir Charles TupperWith an impressive career in Canadian politics,Sir Charles Tupper was 75 when he finallybecame Prime Minister of Canada, andthen served for only 10 weeks. His Conservative government was defeated by Sir Wilfrid Lauriers Liberals on the Manitoba Schools Question on minority education rights.As well as Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Charles Tupper was:*a Father of Confederation*the first president of the Canadian Medical Association*a premier of Nova Scotia largely responsible for Nova Scotiajoining Confederation in 1867 Prime Minister of Canada: 1896
politics Why did Canadians support Laurier’s leadership for fifteen years?.......Highlights of Sir Wilfred Laurier as Prime Minister:*established the Departments of Labour and External Affairs*recruited immigrants to the West provinces of Alberta andSaskatchewan created in 1905*two new transcontinental railways begun, although theprojects were riddled with scandal*reciprocity deal with the United States for lower rates onnatural products, but Liberals were defeated on free trade in 1911*stand against conscription split the Liberal party
Sir Wilfrid Laurier Sir Wilfrid Laurier had the longest unbroken term of office of any Canadian prime minister. Laurier was Prime Minister of Canada for 15 years and a member of the House of Commons for 45 years. Sir Wilfrid Laurier was the first francophone Prime Minister of Canada, fluently bilingual, and spent much of his time in office trying to balance the interests of the French and English inPrime Minister of Canada: Canada. Laurier was a moderate 1896-1911 and known for his ability to compromise.
Political Career of Sir Wilfrid Laurier:Wilfrid Laurier was first elected to the Legislative Assembly ofQuebec in 1871.He was first elected to the House of Commons in 1874, andserved as Minister of Inland Revenue from 1877 to 1878.Wilfrid Laurier was elected Leader of the Liberal Party in 1887.He was Leader of the Official Opposition from 1887 to 1896.With the election of the Liberal Party in the 1896 generalelection, Wilfrid Laurier became Prime Minister of Canada.The Liberals lost the 1911 general election over the issue of"unrestricted reciprocity" or free trade with the United States.Sir Robert Borden became Prime Minister.Wilfrid Laurier was Opposition Leader from 1911 to 1919.Sir Wilfrid Laurier died in 1919 while still a member ofparliament.
Sir Robert Borden Prime Minister Robert Borden led Canada through World War I, eventually committing 500,000 troops to the war effort. Robert Borden formed a Union Government of Liberals and Conservatives to implement conscription, but the conscription issue splitPrime Minister ofCanada: the country bitterly - with the English1911-20 supporting sending troops to help Britain and the French adamantly opposed. Robert Borden also led in achieving Dominion status for Canada and was instrumental in the transition from the British Empire to the British Commonwealth of Nations. At the end of World War I, Canada ratified the Treaty of Versailles and joined the League of Nations as an independent nation.
Sir Robert Borden Highlights as Prime Minister: Emergency War Measures Act of 1914 Wartime Business Profits Tax of 1917 and the "temporary" Income Tax, the first direct taxation by the Canadian federal government Veterans benefits Nationalization of bankrupt railways Introduction of a professional public service
People found riches in the golden wheat of the prairies. By thebeginning of the 20th century, the discovery of a new variety of climate-resistant wheat, as well as mechanization of agriculture, contributed tothriving wheat harvests.Strong demand in the United States, Britain and Europe, made wheatCanadas main export.From 1896 to 1911, annual exports of wheat went from 8 million to 75million bushels, which made the Prairies the breadbasket of the BritishEmpire.
The Growth of the Wheat Industry Millions of Bushels807060504030 Millions of Bushels2010 0 1904 1899 1906 1900 1901 1902 1908 1905 1911 1903 1909 1896 1907 1898 1910 1897
From 1867-1891, Canada was open for business, from an immigrants point ofview. There werent many restrictions on who could enter the country, exceptfor a head tax on Chinese immigrants, which was introduced in 1885. Eastern and Central Canada was the destination of choice, with British Columbia attracting many people from Asia. By 1900, Minister of the Interior Clifford Siftons immigration policy is more restrictive.
Clifford Sifton and Canada’s Immigration Policy In 1896, Sifton was elected a Member of Parliament and served as Minister of the Interior under Laurier. As Minister of the Interior he started a vigorous immigration policy to get people to settle and populate the West. Sifton established colonial offices in Europe and the United States. He enticed people to come to western Canada. While many of the immigrants came from Britain and the United States, Canada also had a large influx of Ukrainians, Doukhobors, and other groups from the Austro- Hungarian Empire. Between 1891 and 1914, more than three million people came to Canada, largely from continental Europe, following the path of the newly constructed continental railway. In the same period, mining operations were begun in the Klondike and the Canadian Shield.
Clifford Sifton In 1897, Canadas Minister of the Interior, Clifford Sifton implemented an immigration policy that encouraged millions of Europeans to settle in the West and cultivate the agricultural gold.
One of the principal factors contributing to theincrease in immigration to Canada was theimmigration policy of the Liberal government ofPrime Minister Sir Wilfred Laurier.Only Farmers Need ApplyLaurier’s Minister of the Interior from 1896-1905, Clifford Sifton, desired to populatewestern Canada with farmers in order to add tothe production of the country, solve the “railwayproblem” and help pay the national debt. Thegovernment offered free homesteads toapplicants who qualified.To settle the prairies, Sifton vigorously wooedAmerican farmers, people from Scotland and theNorth of England, and Eastern and Central
Herds of the ProletariatStephen Leacock, writing in 1911, althoughreferring to immigrants fromEurope, comments: “The wholemovement of the population has beenmade easy, automatic, effortless.Steamship companies vie in cheaptransportation. Immigration aid societiesextend a temporary welcome and the co-operation of national brotherhood.” Andthese conditions contribute to the arrivalof “…herds of the proletariat ofEurope, the lowest classes of industrialsociety, without home and work…”
Canada’s 1901 census put our population at 5,371,315. Fifty-seven percent of those countedclaimed British origins.In 1902 the greatest influx of immigrants in Canada’s history began and continued until thebeginning of World War 1 in 1914.
After an emigration office was established in Trafalgar House, TrafalgarSquare, London, in 1903 the number of Britons enticed to emigrate to Canada increasedto 42,198 (30% of the total) from 17,275 (just 19% of the total) the previous year.The number of immigrants to Canada reached its peak in the years 1912 and1913.(Knowles 2000)Between 1902 and 1914, of the approximately 2.85 million newcomers who arrived onCanadian soil, 1.18 million had English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh or other British roots.These newcomers came from every British class from paupers to upper-class. Year Total British Percentage Immigrants Immigrants of total 1912 375,756 147,619 39% 1913 400,870 158,398 39%
Factors in Europe contributing to emigration:*Collapse of the social structure;*Transformation of agriculture andindustry;*Precipitous increase in population.
Factors leading to increase in immigration inCanada, late 1890s to 1914:1. Yukon gold rush (1897-1899);2. Completion of the first continental railway(CPR 1885) and building of other lines;3. Closing of the American frontier;4. New developments in dry land farming;5. Canadian government’s first concentratedpolicy to promote immigration. http://www.british-immigrants-in-montreal.com/index.html
Town Dwellers Not DesirableSifton felt strongly that town dwellers, artisans, shopkeepers and labourers were notdesirable immigrants as they didn’t make good pioneers and would increase thepopulation of the major cities, add to unemployment, create slum areas and become a“festering sore…which…will remain as long as Canada endures.”“When I speak of quality I have in mind, I think, something that is quite different fromwhat is in the mind of the average writer or speaker upon the question of Immigration. Ithink a stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers havebeen farmers for ten generations, with a stout wife and a half-dozen children, is goodquality. A Trades Union artisan who will not work more than eight hours a day and willnot work that long if he can help it, will not work on a farm at all and has to be fed by thepublic when his work is slack is, in my judgement, quantity and very bad quantity. I amindifferent as to whether or not he is British-born. It matters not what his nationalityis; such men are not wanted in Canada, and the more of them we get the more troublewe shall have.” From: Only Farmers Need Apply: Sir Clifford Sifton, “TheImmigrants Canada Wants,” Maclean’s magazine, April 1, 1922, pp. 16, 32-4.
Immigration is funnelled to the West in order to settle and farm the wide tracts ofPrairie land. The profile of the preferred immigrant is white and British; as stated byMinister Clifford Sifton, "stalwart peasants in sheepskin coats". If British immigrantsare not available, other white immigrants will do. White immigrants from EasternEurope are reluctantly accepted in large numbers, but black and Asian immigration isdiscouraged. Chinese immigrants are subject to a head tax, which requires everyChinese immigrant to pay a special $50 tax upon entering the country. Althoughrelatively few in number - there are only 23,000 Chinese people in Canada in 1900 -arrivals from Asian countries are resented by the white majority. Originally, maleChinese labourers were allowed into Canada to work for low wages in BritishColumbias gold mines and on the trans-Canada railroad. They sent most of theirearnings back to China to help support their families. Chinese workers will acceptlower wages than white workers, and this causes resentment in the whitepopulation, especially when jobs are scarce. The populace generally perceives Chinesepeople to be immoral opium addicts. There is no official policy restricting Blacks fromentering Canada, but the unofficial policy is to discourage it whenever possible. As aresult, there are far fewer black immigrants than there may have been otherwise.
In 1899, Canada admitted 44,543immigrants. Between 1894 and 1899, 154,613immigrants came to call Canada home. Inthe five year period between 1991 and1996, well over 1,000,000 immigrants willarrive. Between 1896 and 1907, Canadaadmitted 1.3 million European andAmerican immigrants. Less than 900 Blackswere included in that number. In fact, theblack population of Canada decreased from50,000 in 1860 to 17,000 in 1911. In thelumber industry, Chinese workers are paidonly between 25% and 50% of the wagespaid to white labourers for the same work.
Rating the ImmigrantsEager to develop the West, Canadian immigration authorities rate immigrants according to theirrace, perceived hardiness and farming ability: Rating the Immigrants Eager to develop the West, Canadian immigration authorities rate immigrants according to their race, perceived hardiness and farming ability: Most Wanted English French white American farmers Acceptable Belgians Dutch Scandinavians Swiss Finns Russians Germans Austro-Hungarians Ukrainians Poles Need Not Apply Italians South Slavs Greeks Syrians Jews Blacks Asians Gypsies
From 1988 until his death in 1925, Jean Gaire, a priest born inLorraine, France and landed in Saint-Boniface, Manitoba, worked to attract Frenchmen to WesternCanada. He founded Grande-Clairière in 1888. In July 1889, thesettlement had 150 inhabitants; it grew to 400 by 1891, and to600 in 1892. Gaire went on to found Cantal, Bellegarde andWauchope, contributing to the development of what laterbecame Saskatchewan. "Sir, I am to say to you in answer to yourletter... that it is not desired that any negro immigrants shouldarrive in western Canada."From an 1899 letter written by a Canadian immigrationofficial, and quoted in "How they kept Canada almost lily white:The previously untold story of the Canadian immigrationofficials who stopped American blacks from coming to Canada"by Trevor W. Sissin
Organized HateThe San Francisco-based Asiatic ExclusionLeague, dedicated to preventing Asianimmigration to America, opens up a numberof new chapters in Canadian cities such asVancouver. Victoria has its own Anti-Chinese Association.
The development of the West encouraged the federalgovernment to take on the construction of a secondtranscontinental railroad in order to better serve thisvast territory. Railroad construction became, at thebeginning of the 20th century, the most importantsector of investment. It stimulated in turn, theoperation of iron and coal mines, heavy industry andthe deployment of other transportation networks onthe ground and in the water.
At the turn of the century, the industrial age enveloped. Natural resources such as wheat still anchored the country’s economy but now manufactured goods were in big demand. Factories sprung up to produce such goods as rubber products, leather goods and farm machinery. As the demand for manufactured goods increased so did the size of Canada’s working class. From sea tosea, Canadian cities developed at a frantic rate. More of the population left the countryside to settle in cities, with thehopes of finding factory work. Residential and commercial construction was increasing, new roads were being laid out, and tramway and streetcar networks were developed
Childhood in 1900 didnt really exist; until the mid-1800s, therewasnt a distinction between childhood and adulthood.Most people lived on farms and the household was the centraleconomic unit, not an office or factory. Children were expected towork from an early age, to contribute to the familys success, andto keep their opinions to themselves.The father ruled the family without challenge, and motherslooked after the childrens religious and moral education.Child mortality was high, as a result of infectious diseases likediphtheria, tuberculosis and typhus, and from infections.In the decades before 1900, all that has begun to change. Theinfant mortality rate has started to improve. Children are seen asmore than little workers - they are seen as emotionally andpsychologically dependent beings. They have becomesentimentalized, and have been labeled weak, innocent, andvulnerable. Laws have been passed to protect them.
Juvenile courts have recently set up a newcriminal system for youth. Previously, formost crimes, children were dealt with asadults. Now, wayward youth are givenspecial consideration.Recently, many churches have set up youthgroups to keep children interested inreligion and out of trouble.
children only make up about 3.6% of the workforce - down from about 10% in themid-1800s. Church organizations and secular groups are created just for theirwelfare, and the courts treat them differently.Yet, by today’s standards, their lives are difficult. They work harder and at a youngerage, and are much less pampered. They are expected to contribute more andcomplain less. They are subject to corporal punishment for "discipline and moralcorrection." Candy is a treat, not a constant. Consumerism, as we know it in the year2011, just doesnt exist.If you are a male teenager, you are probably up at 4 a.m. to milk the cows and do yourchores on the farm before school, if you make it there. School is strictly a winteractivity, and you have to trudge through the snow to the outhouse. If you live in thecity and your family isnt well off, you are up at dawn to work long hours in a factoryunder really lousy conditions. Complaining will get you fired or a shot in the chops.If you are a female teenager, odds are youre milking those cows too, and then helpingyour mother sew and make butter before the sun rises. In the cities, you are a live-indomestic servant, working for negligible wages 29 days a month. Book learning isnt apriority for you. On the bright side, you can sleep in until dawn.In the 1870s, kids younger than 10 were still working in the coal mines, but minimumage laws have changed that. In Ontario, the minimum age to work in a factory is now14 years. School is compulsory in most provinces until the age of 14 or 16.
A system of common public schools financed with public funds has been operating in Quebec for close to 60 years. The Montréal Catholic School Board has existed since 1845 and Laval University, the first French-speaking university in North America, for close to 50 years.
Womens RightsJanuary 1, 1900The weaker sex but the more virtuous one; thats how women are seen as the 20thcentury dawns.Canadian society recognizes the role of women as important, especially when it comesto education and family, but secondary to the role of men. Women are believed to needprotection.The laws of the country reflect this.Although women can vote in municipal elections in 4 provinces, they cannot voteanywhere in Canada federally or provincially, and cannot run for office.With the exception of British Columbia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario, inmost provinces, when a woman marries she loses her right to hold property. All herwealth and goods pass to her husband. A married woman cant make legal contracts orgo into business on her own. The reforms that changed that in the provinces mentionedabove are as recent as two years ago.Divorce laws make it difficult, if not often impossible, to escape an abusive marriage.Women who claim to have been sexually assaulted are given little support by the courts.Women work, but they hold lower paying jobs, such as domestic servants. A womansaverage income is likely to be about half of a mans. Until 1880, no woman had practicedmedicine in Canada. In 1897, Clara Brett Martin became the first woman lawyer inCanada despite intense opposition from members of the profession.
Thanks to the intervention of the Grey Nunswho, as early as 1893, opened free "shelters"to care for children, Francophone women inMontreal can work outside of the homemore readily than their Anglophonecompatriots, who lack access to similar"childcare" services.
So what can women do? Volunteer! Theyorganize numerous charities, political andsocial groups, and lead the fight againstalcohol use. They fight for the vote andtackle issues like child welfare, prostitution,and Canadas ethnic and cultural purity. Toavoid subservience to men, they formseparate groups, like the Womens ChristianTemperance Movement, Womens Institutesand Local Councils of Women.
Women make up about 13% of the workforce in Canada. 40% of these are employedin domestic service.
By 1900, women have won the right to votemunicipally in the provinces of NewBrunswick, Nova ScotiaOntario and Prince Edward Island but not inprovincial and federal elections?
Women make up more than 80% of theCatholic teaching personnel in Quebec.They are paid two to three times less thanmale teachers and do not have access to thesame training; moreover, lay teachers sufferthe competition of the nuns, who hold 35%of the elementary school positions and arenot required to undergo an admissionsexaminationThe nursing profession is monopolized bynuns. Girls had been admitted as students atthe Notre-Dame hospital in Montréal onlythree years earlier.A French-speaking woman in Quebec whowishes to exercise her talents is best advisedto join a religious community. They have avirtual stranglehold oneducation, nursing, and charitable works(orphanages, childcare, hospices, etc.). Theyemploy hundreds of people and managesubstantial funds.
A Working Womans Life (1889) $Average hours worked per week 54Average number of days 359worked/yearAverage income 216.71Cost of clothing 67.31Cost of room and board 126.28Total cost of living 214.28Surplus 2.43
Domestic service is the most common paidemployment for women in 1900. In the1890s, up to 40% of female employment wasin this area. Many secretaries and officesupport staff are male. By 1921, thepercentage of employed women in domesticservice will be down to 17%, as women movein non-traditional jobs. A good ladies streetskirt will set you back $6.00, a pound ofMocha-Java coffee costs 35 cents, and a pairof skate blades cost between 25 cents and$5, depending on the quality.
Nellie McClung, born Nellie LetitiaMooney (20 October 1873 – 1September 1951) was a Canadianfeminist, politician, and social activist.She was a part of the social and moralreform movements prevalent inWestern Canada in the early 1900s. In1927, McClung and four other women:Henrietta Muir Edwards, EmilyMurphy, Louise McKinney and IreneParlby, who together came to beknown as "The Famous Five" (alsocalled "The Valiant Five"), launchedthe "Persons Case," contending thatwomen could be "qualified persons"eligible to sit in the Senate. TheSupreme Court of Canada ruled thatcurrent law did not recognize them assuch. However, the case was won uponappeal to the Judicial Committee ofthe British Privy Council—the court oflast resort for Canada at that time.
Nellie McClung "It was uproariously funny," says Manitoban Beatrice Brigden, recalling Nellie McClungs famous mock parliament of 1914. McClung was an instrumental figure in the fight for womens votes in Canada. In her groundbreaking mock parliament speech, McClung port http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/clips/ 9553/ rayed a world in which gender roles were reversed.
Lucy Maud Montgomery (1874-1942),Isnt it splendid to think of all the things there are to find outabout? It just makes me feel glad to be alive—its such aninteresting world. It wouldnt be half so interesting if we knowall about everything, would it? Thered be no scope forimagination then, would there? But am I talking too much?People are always telling me I do. Would you rather I didnttalk? If you say so Ill stop. I can stop when I make up my mindto it, although its difficult.” Matthew Cuthbert has gone to the train station to pick up the little boy he and his kind-hearted sister Marilla Cuthbert, owners of Green Gables farm, adopted from the Halifax orphanage. But what he finds is a precocious little red-haired girl named Anne Shirley, with a cheery disposition and some profound thoughts to share. Anne soon becomes best friends with Diana Wright, and although Gilbert Blythe can be a pest at times, he too becomes a loyal friend. Anne wins the hearts of many and has continued to attract readers of all ages and touch the hearts of millions of fans world-wide.
Pauline JohnsonEmily Pauline Johnson (Mohawk:Tekahionwake –pronounced: dageh-eeon-wageh, literally: double-life) (10 March 1861 –7 March 1913), commonly known as E. PaulineJohnson or just Pauline Johnson, was aCanadian writer and performer popular in thelate 19th century. Johnson was notable for herpoems and performances that celebrated herFirst Nations heritage; she also had half Englishancestry. One such poem is the frequentlyanthologized "The Song My Paddle Sings". Herpoetry was published in Canada, the UnitedStates and Great Britain. Johnson was one of ageneration of widely read writers who began todefine a Canadian literature
Canadian actor Donald Sutherland narrated the following quote from her poem"Autumns Orchestra", at the opening ceremonies of the 2010 Winter Olympicsin Vancouver. Know by the music woven through This fragile web of cadences I spin, That I have only caught these songs Since you voiced them upon your haunting violin.
It may seem that without television, radio, movies, video games or cars, people have very little to do for fun. Not true! In 1900, people make their own fun with social gatherings, live theatre, singers, reading and especially sports. Live theatre is big business across Canada. American and other foreign stars regularly tour Canada in a variety of productions from Shakespeare to more modern comedies. Winnipegs 2,000-seat WalkerTheatre put on a performance 7 days a week every week of the year. The companies of the Marks Brothers - not those Marx Brothers - tour constantly across the country. Canadian actors often trek south to wow audiences in the United States.
In Quebec, local professional theatre companies have just beenformed. The Monument national and Théâtre des variétiésboast Francophone stars like Blanche de la Sablonnière andJuliette Béliveau. Felix-Gabriel Marchands comedies draw fullhouses. The great Sarah Bernardt has performed for a 4th time inMontreal.However, entertainment is definitely a class-oriented pursuit.Only the rich, and the small but growing middle-class, canafford many of the diversions available in Canada at the start ofthe 20th century.Snowshoer clubs organized races, skating rinks proliferated andslides were erected throughout those towns and cities wherenatural slopes were not sufficient. During the summer, bicyclesbecame so popular that in 1898, the city of Montréal had toadopt a by-law to control cyclists behaviour.
Baseball is the most popular spectator sport across the country, and it attracts allclasses to both play and watch. At urban commercial rinks, there are carnivals and iceshows to draw crowds. Boxing and lacrosse enjoy strong popularity.Hockey is gaining in popularity, but its real popularity is only with the upper andmiddle classes. The NHL wont be founded for another 17 years. Still, the Stanley Cuphas been around for 8 years, and has been won by a variety of amateur teams. Thisyear, the Winnipeg Victorias are the champs.Now that school is compulsory, more and more Canadians can read. Newspapers arestarting to flourish. Serious and politically-oriented papers are being joined by"gossipy" rags like the Montreal Star.Literature occupies a large part of the cultivated Francophone population. Les Soiréesdu Château de Ramezay had just been published, with works by such members of theÉcole littéraire de Montréal as the poet Émile Nelligan, the painter and poet CharlesGill, the writer Jean Charbonneau and many others.For most people, though, community events and homemade fun help them relax:church picnics, making ice cream, barn dances and poetry recitals. These kinds ofdiversions brought people together as friends and neighbours.
The first football game was played 16 yearsago between Harvard University andMontreals McGill. The first Canadianfootball championship was won by OsgoodeHall just 8 years ago.Taverns are common but not everywhere.Drinking is blamed for many of the ills ofsociety, and anti-alcohol sentiments are onthe rise. A national referendum ontemperance held just two years ago found amajority voting to ban alcohol in Canada.Because the margin was so narrow, PrimeMinister Laurier has left it to localgovernments to decide whether to allowliquor to be served.
Just 4 years earlier, in 1896, Ottawans paid 10cents to become the first Canadians to watcha new technology developed by ThomasEdison called the Vitascope. Featured onthis new moving picture machine [graphicof Ottawa Citizen coverage of the event]were short shots, including "four colouredboys eating watermelons, ... a bathing sceneat Atlantic City and a coloured film of Lo LoFullers Serpentine Dance." The showingprovoked both excitement and moraloutrage in some quarters.In 1902, Vancouvers Schulbergs Electric willcharge a nickel to customers to watch thesenew silent movies. These movie theatresbecame known as nickelodeons.In the last 10 years, newspapers have startedto add a new feature called the Sports Page.That helps fuel the growing interest inamateur and professional sports.
Canada’srole within the British Empire The Naval Question, Canada’s participation in Imperial Conferences
The Boer Wars(known in Afrikaans asVryheidsoorlog(lit. "freedom wars")) weretwo wars fought betweenthe British Empire and thetwo independent Boerrepublics, the Orange FreeState and the South AfricanRepublic (TransvaalRepublic).
Canada getsits firsttaste ofbattle whenit fights withBritain inSouth Africa
The Boer War has been sputteringalong since October 11, 1899. Itsbeing fought by Britain against theBoers of South Africa, and due topopular demand in some quarters,Canadian troops are in the thick of it.But its causing a devil of a problemfor Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier.
care. Yet, because her mother was one of the "undesirables" due to the fact that her father neither surrendered nor betrayed his people, Lizzie was placed on the lowest rations and so perished with hunger that, after a month in the camp, she was transferred to the new small hospital. Here she was treated harshly. The English disposed doctor and his nurses did not understand her language and, as she could not speak English, labeled her an idiot although she was mentally fit and normal. One day she dejectedly started calling for her mother, when a Mrs Botha walked over to her to console her. She was just telling the child that she would soon see her mother again, when she was brusquely interrupted by one of the nurses who told her not to interfere with the child as she was a nuisance". Quote from Stemme uit die Verlede ("Voices from the Past") - a collection of sworn statements by women whoBoer women and children in detained in the concentration camps during the Second Boer were a Britishconcentration camp War (1899-1902). (http://www.boer.co.za/boerwar/hellkamp.htm)
the native vote "I felt it was so unjust that they didnt have the vote," says John Diefenbaker. "I brought it about as soon as I could after becoming prime minister." Diefenbaker is talking about native Canadians, who couldnt vote in Canadian elections without giving up their treaty rights until 1960. http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/topics /1450/
Voting Age "Why is the voting age not lowered to 18?" asks a young woman in this radio report from 1948. Its a highly debated issue in the 40s. At the 1948 Hansard Society youth conference, Agnes Macphail — Canadas first female member of Parliament — says the voting age should be lowered. "I think a person at age 18 is as mature as a great many people ever are," she answers, and the audience of young people laughs. MP John Diefenbaker is reluctant to say he supports the other side of the debate, but does suggest a few important points to think about. When Saskatchewan lowered the voting age to 18, he says, "a very small proportion" of those young people actually voted. http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/topics/145 0/
Voting rights for Canadianimmigrants Chinese- and Indo-Canadians were denied the right to vote until 1947. Japanese-Canadians were finally allowed to vote a year later, in 1948. http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/clips/ 9555/
RCMP v. NWMP compare the image and duties of the North-West Mounted Police to the image and duties of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police today;
The British immigrants living in the Dominion ofCanada at the outbreak of World War 1 were largelystaunch supporters of the British Empire as were otherBritish-born elsewhere . These British-bornimmigrants would be quick to volunteer to fight whenwar was declared in August, 1914. Those who couldntfight would support their soldiers from the homefront. They were ready to sacrifice for the cause.
Build-up to World Warit1 to war withBritain had agreed in 1907 to support the French if came Germany. The British had become uncomfortable with the growth of Germany’s Navy and had brought their ships back from the Mediterranean to defend the English Channel. Meanwhile, after 1907, military training, organization and equipment had been standardized throughout Britain’s colonies. By 1909, most Canadian provinces, including Quebec, had started cadet training in the schools. Leading up to outbreak of World War 1, the Minister of Militia (1911- 1916), Colonel Sam Hughes, had been working at preparing the populace in the event of war. He foresaw the eventuality of a war with Germany. In 1913, 55,000 militia men and 44,000 cadets drilled in militia camps. Valcartier camp, a site 20 miles north of Quebec City, had been designated a future militia camp early in 1914. On July 29th, 1914, Canada received a warning from Britain to take precautions in case of a surprise attack. Armed militia men were posted to guard tunnels, bridges, canals and railway stations.(Morton & Granatstein, 1989)
War Declared When Britain declared war on Germany August 4th, 1914, thousands of men were ready and willing to offer their lives as soldiers of the Empire. From Montreal, just one of two battalions, The Royal Highlanders of Canada, headed to Valcartier on August 24th with 1,017 soldiers.
British Reservists Immediately after the war that would be known as World War 1 was declared, some 10,000 British reservists living in Canada prepared themselves to return to Britain. Thousands more from France and Belgium headed home to defend their countries against the German invasion
Canadian Patriotic Fund: With the reservists heading back to the home countries, it became immediately apparent that any dependants they left behind would be in need. Within two weeks, a Montreal M.P., Herbert Brown Ames, was promoting The Montreal Patriotic Fund, an association intended to raise money for the care and support of these dependants. He petitioned the Governor-General of Canada, His Royal Highness, The Duke of Connaught, to create a national fund for this purpose: The Canadian Patriotic Fund. One centralized organization would provide a uniform system for collecting voluntary contributions from the populace and determining who would be eligible for support. By September 1st, the Canadian Patriotic Fund was in operation based in Ottawa.
British-born soldiers: Of the first 30,000 who joined up, two-thirds were British-born immigrants. These soldiers of the first Division sent over in October, 1914, came mostly from three cities: Toronto, Winnipeg and Montreal. Each city sent two full regiments. Montreal contributed the 13th and 14th Battalions, two of four battalions in the 3rd Brigade.
The Home Front 1914-1918 Volunteerism – with many men gone and the special needs of a country at war, most people wanted to “do their bit” . “Give til it hurts” – The Canadian Patriotic Fund depended on the populace to fund their charity. People were told that if they couldn’t fight, they could pay. Local Militia – Some men were needed on the home front to protect the country. If you weren’t quite fit for overseas duty, you might be suitable for tasks at home. Opportunity for women – The needs for volunteers and shortage of workers opened the doors for new experiences for women. Certainly, to not have their husbands questioning their movements, women would be freer to do what they saw fit. Additionally, in many cases, the income from the soldier who was away could fund schooling for a child who otherwise wouldn’t be able to afford it.
Canadian Immigration and WorldWar 1 Immigration during the war years, 1914-1918, decreased dramatically from its height immediately before. Throughout the war, not only did the total number of immigrants decrease, the percentage of British immigrants became minimal. After the end of the war, between 1919 and 1924, immigration again increased and the percentage of immigrants from Britain varied between 48% and 56% of the total.
Health If you took all the scientific and medical advances since the beginning of human history to the year 2000 and lined them up, the 20th century would have more than all the other time periods combined. Knowledge in science and medicine in 1900 is probably closer to that of the year 1700 than the year 2000. In many cases, if you are ill, there isnt much that medicine can do. The life expectancy of a 60 year old man in 1900 is greater than the life expectancy of a 60 year old man in 1971, and basically the same as a 60 year old man in the year 2000. What tends to be different is the cause of death. Whereas in 1900, a common cause of death is bacterial or viral infection, this will gradually be surpassed by death from "lifestyle" - cancer and heart disease.
Lister By 1900, thanks to Joseph Listers germ theory, doctors have learned not to put their scalpels in their mouths when they operate. But the "wonder drugs" that you have come to know and love - like antibiotics, vaccines and insulin - just dont exist. That means that a cut or a scratch can lead to a fatal infection, and juvenile diabetes is a death sentence.
Sir William Osler. The most famous doctor in the Western world was a Canadian - Sir William Osler. He has been called the "Father of modern medicine. Osler was a pathologist, physician, educator, bibliophile, historian, author, and renowned practical joker
If you needed a doctor, you had to pay for one yourself. Health insurance programs didn’texist in 1900, and a serious illness can mean financial disaster for most Canadians.If you are a Canadian born today, your life expectancy is about 57 years. Thats almostequivalent to the life expectancy of a Russian male born on January 1, 1998. However, if yousurvive childbirth and childhood and survive to the age of 40, your life expectancy isntmuch different than in 2011Your odds of dying from cancer or heart disease then were relatively low. "Lifestyle" andenvironmental diseases arent at the top of the mortality list.Your chances of dying from infection or of an infectious disease such as tuberculosis,diphtheria, influenza, whooping cough, measles or scarlet fever are relatively high,especially if you are a child. Women are at high risk of dying as a result of complicationsfrom childbirth, such as infection and bleeding.Smallpox still takes its toll, but is declining due to vaccination. The last big epidemic was inMontreal in 1885.Tuberculosis (also known as consumption) is Canadas leading killer.Polio, a viral disease that can lead to paralysis, and to which children in particular arevulnerable, is also relatively common. This disease will devastate North America in thedecades to come.
The Scourge of Tuberculosis Imagine a serious disease that spreads through casual contact. Imagine that such a disease is incurable, wearing down its victims, causing them to lose weight, develop other complications, and eventually die. In 1900, such a disease exists. Known as TB, consumption and the "white plague", tuberculosis is ravaging the country. The death rate is about 200 per 100,000, which may not seem high, but makes it the leading cause of death in Canada. It is especially devastating for Aboriginal peoples and city dwellers. Medical treatment, such as rest and fresh air in a special TB hospital called a "sanatorium", is only effective in some cases, and is only available to the wealthy. There are no antibiotics or other drugs to fight the disease. Natural therapies, quack therapies and miracle cures that dont work, are advertised and sold everywhere. The poor are often left to suffer, and in many cases, to die. Their bodies must fight off the infection on their own. Doctors around the world have only recently come to understand that illnesses like TB are caused by germs and spread by breathing infected air. Better sanitation and living conditions are now seen as key parts of the battle. Doctors are beginning to avoid seeing healthy patients after treating patients with TB - one way the illness spread. The death rate for TB in 1900 is up to 200 per 100,000 persons. In some aboriginal communities, it is up to 10 times higher. The death rate from TB for newborn aboriginal babies is over 1,018 per 100,000. In 1996, the death rate from AIDS will be 4.2 per 100,000, and from cancer 185 per 100,000. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs, but can attack the glands of the neck, bone, kidneys and other organs. It is usually spread by breathing the air infected by the germ. Not everyone that becomes infected goes on to develop the disease. Symptoms of TB include: A cough that will not go away Feeling tired all the time Weight loss Loss of appetite Fever Coughing up blood Night sweats Canadas first TB sanatorium opened in Muskoka, Ontario in 1897. TB sufferers were sent to sanatoriums to be benefit from rest and fresh air and to avoid infecting others.
the Parliament Buildings Fire of 1916: While World War I was raging in Europe, the Canadian Parliament Buildings in Ottawa caught fire on a freezing February night in 1916. With the exception of the Library of Parliament, the Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings was destroyed and seven people died. Rumours were rife that the Parliament Building’s fire was caused by enemy sabotage, but a Royal Commission into the fire concluded that theSeven people died in the cause was accidental.Parliament Buildings fire