Free software: How does it
          work?


European Broadcasting Union Seminar
                                 Geneva,
...
Software: the object

10101010101111100101001110101010010101011
10001110101010010101011101010101010111110
0100011101010100...
Software: source code

// “hello world” program
// use standard input-output functions
#include <stdio.h>


void main () {...
Software: functionality




                      hello world!




 (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative ...
Free/Libre/Open Source Software

 Software which users have freedoms to:
    Use (the software's functionality)
    Study ...
Free as in Freedom

                        Free software
                                       =
                       ...
Free as in Freedom

              Proprietary software
                                      =
                       clos...
Source vs Standards

Open standards: easily implemented by any
 software, without legal, technical, financial
            ...
Source vs Standards

Open standards: easily implemented by any
 software, without legal, technical, financial
            ...
Source vs Standards

Open source uses open standards




  (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons c...
Source vs Standards

  Open source uses open standards
Proprietary software often uses closed
               standards



...
Source vs Standards

  Open source uses open standards
Proprietary software often uses closed
               standards
 Op...
Source vs Standards

  Open source uses open standards
Proprietary software often uses closed
               standards
 Op...
Source vs Standards

  Open source uses open standards
Proprietary software often uses closed
               standards
 Op...
Source vs Standards

Closed standards and broadcasting:


  Stream only in Windows Media
                                 ...
+

+ users have control




     (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa   16
+

+ users have control
   + adapt software to your needs




     (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative C...
+

+ users have control
   + adapt software to your needs
   + no need to change hardware




     (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer G...
+

+ users have control
   + adapt software to your needs
   + no need to change hardware
   + decide when and how to chan...
+

+ users have control
   + adapt software to your needs
   + no need to change hardware
   + decide when and how to chan...
+

+ users have control
   + adapt software to your needs
   + no need to change hardware
   + decide when and how to chan...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs




     (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa   22
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
   + in-house support (if skills exist)




     (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Lice...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
   + in-house support (if skills exist)
   + external support of your choice




  ...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
   + in-house support (if skills exist)
   + external support of your choice
   + a...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
   + in-house support (if skills exist)
   + external support of your choice
   + a...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards




     (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Com...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
   + no proprietary standards




     (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
   + no proprietary standards
   + give your customers choice




...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
   + no proprietary standards
   + give your customers choice
   +...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
+ sustainability




      (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed ...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
+ sustainability
   + code forever accessible




      (c) 2007 R...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
+ sustainability
+ skills development




      (c) 2007 Rishab Ai...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
+ sustainability
+ skills development
   + #1 reason for developer...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
+ sustainability
+ skills development
   + #1 reason for developer...
+

+ users have control
+ reduce costs
+ open standards
+ sustainability
+ skills development
+ security and quality


   ...
–/?

– smaller installed base




      (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa   37
–/?

– smaller installed base
   – fewer users = less support




      (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creat...
–/?

– smaller installed base
   – fewer users = less support
   ? but support increasing with users




      (c) 2007 Ri...
–/?

– smaller installed base
   – fewer users = less support
   ? but support increasing with users
   + niche areas have...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps




      (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps
   ? prop vendors want to lock you in




      (c) 20...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps
– who can i blame?




      (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Gho...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps
– who can i blame?
   ? not your proprietary vendor!
 ...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps
– who can i blame?
– legal issues?
   ? have you read ...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps
– who can i blame?
– legal issues?
– ease of use




 ...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps
– who can i blame?
– legal issues?
– ease of use
   – ...
–/?

– smaller installed base
– compatibility with proprietary apps
– who can i blame?
– legal issues?
– ease of use




 ...
Outlook

    < 20% of software is bought as a product
●


    Rest of software – custom, in-house – has
●

    an economic...
Thank you

           Rishab Aiyer Ghosh
        ghosh@merit.unu.edu
 UNU-MERIT / FLOSS Project


European Commission repo...
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Free software: How does it work?

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This talk was the second talk at the EBU's Seminar on Open Source Oct 1st, 2nd 2007. http://www.ebu.ch/en/technical/opensource/
This is an introduction to the concepts behind free software.

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Free software: How does it work?

  1. 1. Free software: How does it work? European Broadcasting Union Seminar Geneva, October 1, 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh (ghosh@merit.unu.edu) United Nations University / MERIT, Maastricht (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 1
  2. 2. Software: the object 10101010101111100101001110101010010101011 10001110101010010101011101010101010111110 01000111010101001010101110101010101011111 00101001110101010010101011101010101010111 11001010011101010100101010111010101010101 11110010100111010101001010101110101010101 01111100101001110101010010101011101010101 01011111001010011101010100101010111010101 01010111110010100111010101001010101110101 01010101111100101001110101010010101011101 01010101011111001010011101010100101010111 01010101010111110010100111010101001010101 11010101010101111100101001110101010010111 (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 2
  3. 3. Software: source code // “hello world” program // use standard input-output functions #include <stdio.h> void main () { printf(“hello, world!n”); // print it! } (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 3
  4. 4. Software: functionality hello world! (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 4
  5. 5. Free/Libre/Open Source Software Software which users have freedoms to: Use (the software's functionality) Study (the software source code) Distribute (at any or no price) Change (and distribute changes) (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 5
  6. 6. Free as in Freedom Free software = Libre software = Open source software (different terms for the same software) (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 6
  7. 7. Free as in Freedom Proprietary software = closed source software without the freedom to use, study, share and modify (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 7
  8. 8. Source vs Standards Open standards: easily implemented by any software, without legal, technical, financial barriers (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 8
  9. 9. Source vs Standards Open standards: easily implemented by any software, without legal, technical, financial barriers Other standards (not open!): proprietary standards, or standards which different producers may be prevented from implementing for legal, technical or financial reasons (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 9
  10. 10. Source vs Standards Open source uses open standards (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 10
  11. 11. Source vs Standards Open source uses open standards Proprietary software often uses closed standards (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 11
  12. 12. Source vs Standards Open source uses open standards Proprietary software often uses closed standards Open standards limit vendor lock-in (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 12
  13. 13. Source vs Standards Open source uses open standards Proprietary software often uses closed standards Open standards limit vendor lock-in HTML – any software can read the web SMTP – any software can send email (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 13
  14. 14. Source vs Standards Open source uses open standards Proprietary software often uses closed standards Open standards limit vendor lock-in HTML – any software can read the web SMTP – any software can send email DOC – works best/only with Microsoft (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 14
  15. 15. Source vs Standards Closed standards and broadcasting: Stream only in Windows Media = force your audience to pay Microsoft (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 15
  16. 16. + + users have control (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 16
  17. 17. + + users have control + adapt software to your needs (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 17
  18. 18. + + users have control + adapt software to your needs + no need to change hardware (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 18
  19. 19. + + users have control + adapt software to your needs + no need to change hardware + decide when and how to change (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 19
  20. 20. + + users have control + adapt software to your needs + no need to change hardware + decide when and how to change + no forced software upgrades (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 20
  21. 21. + + users have control + adapt software to your needs + no need to change hardware + decide when and how to change + no forced software upgrades + no vendor lock-in (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 21
  22. 22. + + users have control + reduce costs (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 22
  23. 23. + + users have control + reduce costs + in-house support (if skills exist) (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 23
  24. 24. + + users have control + reduce costs + in-house support (if skills exist) + external support of your choice (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 24
  25. 25. + + users have control + reduce costs + in-house support (if skills exist) + external support of your choice + adaptable to cheaper hardware (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 25
  26. 26. + + users have control + reduce costs + in-house support (if skills exist) + external support of your choice + adaptable to cheaper hardware + can reduce running costs (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 26
  27. 27. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 27
  28. 28. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + no proprietary standards (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 28
  29. 29. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + no proprietary standards + give your customers choice (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 29
  30. 30. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + no proprietary standards + give your customers choice + increased interoperability (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 30
  31. 31. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + sustainability (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 31
  32. 32. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + sustainability + code forever accessible (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 32
  33. 33. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + sustainability + skills development (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 33
  34. 34. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + sustainability + skills development + #1 reason for developers (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 34
  35. 35. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + sustainability + skills development + #1 reason for developers + FLOSS is a training environment (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 35
  36. 36. + + users have control + reduce costs + open standards + sustainability + skills development + security and quality (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 36
  37. 37. –/? – smaller installed base (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 37
  38. 38. –/? – smaller installed base – fewer users = less support (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 38
  39. 39. –/? – smaller installed base – fewer users = less support ? but support increasing with users (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 39
  40. 40. –/? – smaller installed base – fewer users = less support ? but support increasing with users + niche areas have a lot of support (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 40
  41. 41. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 41
  42. 42. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps ? prop vendors want to lock you in (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 42
  43. 43. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps – who can i blame? (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 43
  44. 44. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps – who can i blame? ? not your proprietary vendor! ? service contracts for liability (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 44
  45. 45. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps – who can i blame? – legal issues? ? have you read your prop. licence? (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 45
  46. 46. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps – who can i blame? – legal issues? – ease of use (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 46
  47. 47. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps – who can i blame? – legal issues? – ease of use – mainly for end-user apps + rapidly improving (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 47
  48. 48. –/? – smaller installed base – compatibility with proprietary apps – who can i blame? – legal issues? – ease of use (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 48
  49. 49. Outlook < 20% of software is bought as a product ● Rest of software – custom, in-house – has ● an economics like open source “FLOSS-related” services could account for ● >30% of IT market by 2010 (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 49
  50. 50. Thank you Rishab Aiyer Ghosh ghosh@merit.unu.edu UNU-MERIT / FLOSS Project European Commission report: www.flossimpact.eu (c) 2007 Rishab Aiyer Ghosh - Licensed under Creative Commons cc-by-sa 50

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