Many Business Analysts do not believe that they perform enterprise analysis. Can you describe why the business analyst is probably among the most qualified in the organization to perform enterprise analysis? Why do you feel that it is important to be part of EA? Business requirements are identified and documented through EA, (page 81).
What are the implications of ignoring any of the inputs? Should organizational process assets be discounted at this stage? Answer: No, they provide important insight into the organization ’ s processes, procedures, and historical information. These help the project benefit from past experience.
The definition of the business need is frequently the most critical step in any business analysis effort. Can you explain why? Give an example of what has happened in your world when the business need was not clearly identified and defined.
New business needs can come from where? From the top down – the need to achieve a specific goal From the bottom up – a problem with the current state of a process, function or system From middle management – a manager needs additional information to make sound decisions or must perform additional functions to meet business objectives From external drivers – driven by customer demand or business competition in the marketplace
What is the definition of a goal? Section 5.1.4 of the BABOK ® defines them as longer term, ongoing, and qualitative statements of a state or condition that the organization is seeking to establish and maintain. Goals and objectives can relate to changes that the organization wants to accomplish, or current conditions that it wants to maintain. High-level goals can be decomposed to break down the general strategy into distinct focus areas that may lead to desired results, such as increased customer satisfaction, operational excellence and/or business growth. How can goals eventually be linked to specific measures? (page 83) As goals are analyzed, they are converted into more descriptive, granular, and SPECIFIC (remember the S in SMART!) objectives, and linked to measures that make it possible to objectively assess if the objective has been achieved.
Can you explain what the desired outcome should do, if it isn’t a solution ? (page 84) In reality, desired outcomes should address a problem or opportunity, and support the business goals and objectives. Proposed solutions must be evaluated against desired outcomes to ensure they can deliver those outcomes.
Why should all stakeholders be identified early in the process? Beware the false SME! What can happen when a false SME provides input into the project?
The deliverable is a statement of the business need.
Name some of the components of the enterprise that may need change as a result of assessing capability gaps: Business processes, functions, lines of business, organization structures, staff competencies, knowledge and skills, training, facilities, desktop tools, organization locations, data and information, application systems, and/or technology infrastructure, (page 86).
Define Solution Performance Assessment: (page 87): identifies shortcomings, problems, or limitations of an existing solution. Also consider if the organization is maybe not using all capabilities that are not being used.
.1 Once you describe the current capabilities, assess them against the desired objectives to determine if your organization currently has the capability to meet the business need as described in section 5.1. .2 If you discover you currently don’t have the capability to meet the business need, what needs to be added? .3 Remember that assumptions are just that – and can be later proved invalid.
SWOT Analysis: Identify how current capabilities and limitations (Strengths and Weaknesses) match up against the influencing factors (Opportunities and Threats).
Give an example (if you have one) of a customer being able to support a capability themselves – and your organization did not have to make a change.
5.3.2 Some possible approaches include: Utilizing additional capabilities that are already available within the organization (is there an unused portion of a solution you don’t use?) Purchase or lease a COTS application Design and develop custom software Add resources to the business or make organizational changes Change the business procedure or process Partner with other organizations (including your customer or supplier) or outsource the work.
The organizational process assets once again play an important role. Your organization may require specific approaches be taken to solutions of a given type.
.1 Alternative Generation While there is no hard and fast rule that can be used to determine when enough alternatives have been investigated, some indicators are: At least one of the alternative approaches is acceptable to key stakeholders; At least some of the approaches are distinctly different from one another; The effort to investigate alternatives is producing diminishing returns. What are some other indicators you have used? .2 Assumptions and Constraints Assumptions that may affect the chosen solution should be identified. Certain solutions may be ruled out because they are believed not to be viable technically or for cost reasons, while other approaches may be believed to be easier to execute than they really are. Similarly, the organization may be constrained from pursuing certain solution options for contractual reasons or because they do not &t with the infrastructure of the organization. Assumptions and constraints should be questioned to ensure that they are valid. .3 Ranking and Selection of Approaches In order to assess an approach, record available information and analyze the operational, economic, technical, schedule-based, organizational, cultural, legal and marketing feasibility. Capture consistent information for each option to make it easier to compare them and review results to ensure accuracy and completeness. In some cases, a particular solution approach may prove to be self-evidently superior to the alternatives. If this is not the case, solution approaches must be assessed and ranked. If there are only a few critical differences between solution options, it may be possible to make a qualitative assessment of those differences in order to make a selection. For more complex decision problems, a scoring system must be used, with sets of related requirements assigned a weighting to reflect their relative importance to the organization. Each solution is scored and the top-rated solution or solutions are then investigated in greater detail.
Feasibility analysis is an integral part of formulating a major business transformation .
We have talked a lot about stakeholders and stakeholder identification. What about negative stakeholders – the ones who may benefit if the project fails? How do they impact your analysis?
5.4.2 (page 91) Why might the solution scope change throughout the project? ANSWER: The solution scope will change throughout a project, based on changes in the business environment, or as the project scope is changed to meet budget, time, quality, or other constraints.
Notice we are adding each of the outputs of the tasks we have previously worked through (Business Need, Required Capabilities, and the Solution Approach) into our inputs.
.1 State in and out of scope components of the solution (why state the out of scope?) Also state the business units involved, business processes to be improved or redesigned, process owners and IT systems affected. .2 May describe phases or iteration, and what functionality is delivered in each one. .3 These may include dependencies that may exist between the iterations or phases
Functional Decomposition - used to understand the scope of the work and to break the solution scope into smaller work products or deliverables. Interface Analysis - depict the scope of work required to integrate the new solution into the business and technical environments. Scope Modeling - identify appropriate boundaries for the solution scope. User Stories - describe stakeholders and the goals the system supports and as such can also be used to define the solution scope.
Remember – any changes to the scope need to be approved by the sponsor!
What kind of benefits and estimates do you think would be included here? (pp. 94-95) The business case may also include qualitative and quantitative benefits, estimates of cost and time to break even, profit expectations, and follow on opportunities. The business case may present expected cash flow consequences of the action over time, and the methods and rationale that were used for quantifying benefits and costs. This provides a framework to demonstrate how the initiative is expected to achieve business objectives. In addition, the business case lists the constraints associated with the proposed project, along with the estimated budget, and alignment with strategies established by the organization.
There’s a new input here– Stakeholder Concerns – but is it really “new”? Stakeholder concerns may include risks or issues that must be accounted for in the business case. What happens when the stakeholder’s concerns are ignored or discounted?
.1 Benefits Measure the benefits of the recommended solution in terms of both qualitative and quantitative gains to the enterprise. Where possible, benefits should be quantified. Benefits of a non-financial nature (such as improved morale, increased flexibility to respond to change, improved customer satisfaction, or reduced exposure to risk) are also important and add significant value to the organization, even if they must be assessed qualitatively. Benefit estimates should relate back to strategic goals and objectives. .2 Costs Estimate the total net cost of the solution. #is requires estimates to be made of capital expenditures for the new investment, costs of developing and implementing the change, opportunity costs of not investing in other options, costs related to changing the work and practices of the organization, total cost of ownership to support the new solution and consequential costs borne by others. .3 Risk Assessment The purpose of the initial risk assessment is to determine if the proposed initiative carries more risk than the organization is willing to bear. This initial risk assessment focuses mainly on solution feasibility risks, and is revisited throughout the project. The risk assessment should consider technical risks (whether the chosen technology and suppliers can deliver the required functionality), financial risks (whether costs may exceed levels that make the solution viable or potential benefits may disappear) and business change and organizational risks (whether the organization will make the changes necessary to benefit from the new solution). .4 Results Measurement The business case articulates not only the projected costs and benefits to be realized, but also how those costs and benefits will be assessed and evaluated.
Decision Analysis: Cost-benefit analysis compares the cost of implementing a solution against the benefits to be gained. Estimation: Forecast the size of the investment required to deploy and operate the proposed solution Metric and Key Performance Indicators: Assessed to support benefit management, measurement, and reporting, including where realignment of internal measures or systems is needed to ensure that behaviors we are seeking can be seen, evaluated, and realized. Risk Analysis: Used to assess potential risks that may impact the solution and the costs and benefits associated with it SWOT Analysis: How will the solution maximize strengths and minimize weaknesses Vendor Assessment: If purchasing or outsourcing is an option, different vendors may need to be assessed.
Babok2 chapter5 final
BABOK® v2.0 Chapter 5: Enterprise Analysis Outline: 5.1 Define Business Need 5.2 Assess Capability Gaps Enterprise Analysis 5.3 Determine Solution Approach 5.4 Define Solution Scope 5.5 Define Business Case 1
Enterprise Analysis Describes the business analysis activities that take place for organizations to: Analyze Business situation Assess Capabilities of the enterprise Determine Most feasible business approach Define Solution scope (and document) business requirements 2
Enterprise Analysis Provides context to requirements analysis and solution identification Often the starting point for initiating a new project Business requirements are identified and documented through enterprise analysis activities 3
Enterprise Analysis Activities are derived from Inputs, (information) relating to specific Tasks (activities), that create specific Outputs (deliverables) 4
5.1 Define Business Need Purpose: Why define the business need? Identify why a change to the organizational systems is required Define why a change to the organizational systems is required Description Defines the problem that the business analyst is trying to find a solution for. Critical Step in the business analyst effort! The way the business need is defined determines which alternative solutions will be considered, which stakeholders will be consulted, and which solution approaches will be evaluated. 5
5.1 Define Business Need Inputs Business Goals and Objectives Requirements [Stated] Task Define Business Need Outputs A fully defined business need is used by many tasks 6
5.1.4 Elements .2 Business Problem or Opportunity Make sure that there is in fact an opportunity for improvement if the issue is resolved .3 Desired outcome NOT a solution! Describes the business benefits that will result from meeting the business need and the desired end state 8
5.1.5 Techniques General Techniques Benchmarking (9.2) Brainstorming (9.3) Business Rules Analysis (9.4) Focus Groups (9.11) Functional Decomposition (9.12) Root Cause Analysis (9.25) 9
5.1.6 Stakeholders Customer or Supplier Domain SME and End User Implementation SME Regulator Sponsor 10
5.1.7 OutputBusiness Need: A business need describes aproblem that the organization is or is likely to face,or an opportunity that it has not taken, and thedesired outcome. The business need will guide theidentification and definition of possible solutions. 11
5.2 Assess Capability Gaps Purpose Identify new capabilities required by the enterprise to meet the previously defined business need. Description Assess the current capabilities of the enterprise and find the gaps that prevent the organization from doing what it wants to be doing. Is it even possible? How big will the change be? 12
5.2 Assess Capability Gaps Inputs Business Need Enterprise Architecture Solution Performance Assessment Task Assess Capability Gaps Outputs Capability requirements are used by many tasks 13
5.2.4 Elements .1 Current Capability Analysis Gather as much information as possible about the current state of the areas of the enterprise affected by the business need. Goal: Understand the business and how the business and technology architectures support it. .2 Assessment of New Capability Requirements Compare future and desired business states What, if anything, needs to be added? .3 Assumptions Must be identified and clearly understood 14
5.2.6 Stakeholders Customer and Supplier May be impacted May be able to support the new capabilities themselves Domain SME, End User, Implementation SME, and Sponsor Will provide information on the strengths and weaknesses of current capabilities. 16
5.2.7 Output Required Capabilities: An understanding of the current capabilities of the organization and the new capabilities (processes, staff, features in an application, etc.) that may be required to meet the business need. 17
5.3 Determine Solution Approach Purpose To determine the most viable solution approach to meet the business need in enough detail to allow for definition of solution scope and prepare the business case Description Describes the general approach to create or acquire the new capabilities to meet the business need Consider: Possible approaches Means of delivery Organizational capabilities to implement and use 18
5.3 Determine Solution Approach Inputs Business Need Organizational Process Assets Required Capabilities Task Determine Solution Approach Outputs The Solution Approach is used in defining the Solution Scope 19
5.3 Elements .1 Alternative Generation Identify as many potential options as possible to meet the business objectives and fill in the capability gaps .2 Assumptions and Constraints Should always be questioned to ensure they are valid .3 Ranking and Selection of Approaches Analyze the operational, economic, technical, schedule- based, organizational, cultural, legal and marketing feasibility. 20
5.3.5 Techniques General Techniques Benchmarking (9.2) Brainstorming (9.3) Decision Analysis (9.8) Estimation (9.10) SWOT Analysis (9.23) Feasibility Analysis Preliminary analysis of solution alternatives or options to determine whether and how each option can provide an expected business benefit to meet the business need. 21
5.3.6 Stakeholders Customer, Domain SME, End User, and Supplier May be able to provide suggested approaches May be able to identify assumptions and constraints Implementation SME Will be needed to assess the feasibility of possible approaches Sponsor May be the source of constraints! Most likely be required to approve the recommended approach 22
5.3.7 Output Solution Approach: A description of the approach that will be taken to implement a new set of capabilities. Solution approaches describe the types of solution components that will be delivered (new processes, a new software application, etc.) and may also describe the methodology that will be used to deliver those components. 23
5.4 Define Solution Scope Purpose To define which capabilities a project or iteration will deliver Description Conceptualize the recommended solution in enough detail to so stakeholders understand the business capabilities to be delivered Solution scope includes: The scope of analysis The capabilities supported The capabilities that will be supported by future iterations The enabling capabilities that are required in order for the organization to develop the capabilities required to meet the business need 24
5.4 Define Solution Scope Inputs Assumptions and Constraints Business Need Required Capabilities Solution Approach Task Define Solution Scope Outputs Many other task use the fully defined Solution Scope 25
5.4.4 Elements .1 Solution Scope Definition Describes solution in terms of major features and functions as well as interactions with outside people and systems .2 Implementation Approach Describes how the chose solution approach will deliver the solution scope .3 Dependencies Define major business and technical dependencies that will impose constraints on the effort to deploy the solution 26
5.4.5 Techniques Problem or Vision Statement States the business need, identifies key stakeholders, and briefly describes the positive impact that meeting the business need will have on those stakeholders 28
5.4.6 Stakeholders Domain SME Will participate in identifying the affected organizational units, modeling the scope of possible solutions, and determining the relative priorities of the required capabilities Implementation SME Will participate in the allocation of capabilities to solution components and in determining the time and effort required to deliver new capabilities 29
5.4.6 Stakeholders Project Manager May assist with the development of the overall solution scope, which will be used as an input to the project charter Responsible for the definition of the project scope Play a major role in allocating capabilities to components and primarily responsible for determining the time and effort required to deliver a capability Sponsor Will participate in setting priorities and approving the solution scope 30
5.4.7 Output Solution Scope: Defines what must be delivered in order to meet the business need, and the effect of the proposed change initiative on the business and technology operations and infrastructure. 31
5.5 Define Business Case Purpose To determine if an organization can justify the investment required to deliver a proposed solution Description Describes the justification for the project in terms of the value to be added to the business as a result of the deployed solution, as compared to the cost to develop and operate the solution 32
5.5 Define Business Case Inputs Assumptions and Constraints Business Need Solution Scope Stakeholder Concerns Task Define Business Case Output Many tasks use the business case 33
5.5.4 Elements .1 Benefits Qualitative and quantitative gains .2 Costs Estimate the total net cost of the solution Total cost of ownership Opportunity costs .3 Risk Assessment Determine if the proposed initiative carries more risk than the organization is willing to bear .4 Results Measurement How the costs and benefits will be assessed and evaluated 34
5.5.6 Stakeholders Sponsor Approves the business case and authorizes funding Domain SME Assists in estimating business benefits expected from the new initiative Implementation SME Assists in estimating cost projections for the technology needed to support the new solution Project Manager Participates in developing time and cost estimates May develop preliminary project plan and WBS 36
5.5.7 Output Business Case: Presents the information necessary to support a go/no go decision to invest and move forward with a proposed project. 37