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Ramasetustrategicsecurity

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  • 1. Rama Setu to Cochi: strategic security zone National security imperative is that coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi should be declared as Strategic Security Zone; under the direct control of India’s armed forces. The coastal sands of this coast contains (1) 32% of the world’s thorium reserves vital for nuclear energy program and (2) also titanium, a space age metal. Setusamudram channel project has internationalized the historic waters (recognized under UN Law of the Sea, 1958) in Gulf of Mannar and jeopardised rights commonly, historically enjoyed by India and Srilanka with serious consequences to national sovereignty and integrity. (USA refuses to recognize the ‘historic waters’ declaration of India and Srilanka and operationally asserted the refusal by sending warships to Gulf of Mannar in 1994, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002). The recent reports of export of coastal sands containing strategic minerals have highlighted the strategic security implications if the coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi is not immediately protected by India’s Defence forces. This coastal zone contains in just three villages (Manavalakurichi of Tamil Nadu and Aluva, Chavara of Kerala) 32% of the world’s thorium reserves. The urgent demand, in view of the present and imminent danger to India’s national security and reported exports of sands containing strategic minerals, is that: • An immediate notification be issued by the President of India, banning the private leases of coastal sands and declaring these as national treasure to be protected and used only indigenously to support the nation’s strategic nuclear and space programs. • Considering the national security imperative, the entire coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi with titanium-containing sands and the world’s largest reserves of thorium containing sands (called ilmenite, monazite, rutile, garnet, zircon) should be declared as Strategic Security zone and brought under the direct security control of the Joint Command of the Indian Army, Navy and Airforce. See court papers related to alleged export of the coastal sands from this coastal zone at http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ There are four places on earth which are the target for exploitation of the richest mineral resources on earth: Manavalakurichi, Tamil Nadu Chavara, Kerala Chatrapur, Orissa Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka These four locations have coastal sands containing ilmenite and monazite among other minerals. Ilmenite and Monazite sands yield Titanium and Thorium. In his speech to the Parliament in March 2007, the President of India said that the current electricity generation capacity in India is 120000 MW and is expected to increase to 400000 MW by the year 2030. Bhaba Atomic Research Center (BARC) estimates that about 30 % of world's thorium deposits, or about 225000 tons of thorium, are found on the beaches of Kerala. This will support about 387 years of electricity generation at 2030 capacity levels! http://www.ivarta.com/columns/OL_070508.htm Ilmenite Sand export from Tuticorin port increased from 0.21 lakh tonnes in 2000-01 to 0.62 lakh tonnes in 2001-02 registering an increase of 195.24%. http://www.tamilnadunri.com/docs/tn/infrastructure/TuticorinPort.doc 1 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 2. Similar exports of strategic mineral sands occur from Pulmoddai (near Trincomalee) in Srilanka which is now under LTTE control. This leads to a possibility that the Setu channel as a mid-ocean passage is likely to be used such export operatives, particularly after it gets recognized as international waters under pressure from USA. Annex 1 Protect Rama Setu, the historic and holy monument: Statement issued by Shri. V.R.Krishna Iyer former Supreme Court Judge on 14 August 2007 Annex 2 Rama Setu in richest thorium coast of the world Annex 3 Geological and Mineral map of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, 1995 Scale 1: 500,000 (Published by Director General, Geological Survey of India) Annex 4 Needed: Mines and minerals regulatory authority of India Annex 5 Why Thorium? Annex 6 Notice sent to Secy., DAE, Govt. of India and Hon’ble PM of India Annex 7 First Information Report and related court papers (19 pages) may be downloaded from: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ Annex 8 Failure to protect thorium and Ramsetu (intertwined earth science phenomena) Annex 9 Former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: thorium for energy independence Annex 10 1st thorium unit in India soon Annex 11 India's importance in global nuclear renaissance up: Chidambaram Annex 12 RSS for use of thorium deposits Annex 13 A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India Annex 14 Foreign firms interested in India’s thorium deposits Annex 15 Fast-breeder reactors more important for India Annex 16 Design and development of the AHWR—the Indian thorium fuelled innovative nuclear reactor Annex 17 Thorium: UIC Briefing Paper # 67 Annex 18 Sensitivity analysis for AHWR fuel cluster parameters using different WIMS Annex 19 Role of small and medium-sized reactors Annex 20 India's nuclear power programme moves ahead Annex 21 Nuclear power using thorium Annex 22 SLN ship under siege off Pulmoddai coast Annex 23 An overview of world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration and forecast for thorium requirements in the near future (KMV Jayaram) S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D. Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank, Director, Sarasvati Research Centre, 3 Temple Avenue, Chennai 600015 kalyan97@gmail.com 4 September 2007 2 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 3. Annex 1 Protect Rama Setu, the historic and holy monument: Statement issued by Shri. V.R.Krishna Iyer former Supreme Court Judge on 14 August 2007 According to Mr.Cardoze, famous U.S legal luminary, ''Means un lawful in their inception do not become lawful by relation when suspicion turns in to discovery.'' These words come to me when I talk of the Sethusamudaram Canel Project. The callousness with which such a big project is conceptualized and implemented is an unpardonable act. First of all I would like to state that neither I nor any patriotic citizen could support this project. It is a serious fault that neither scientists, technocrats nor Indian Navy had been consulted and sought their opinions before this project was conceptualized. More over the project is an open challenge to age old Hindu beliefs. At least the opinion that the implementation of this project as envisaged now may lead to oceanic eruptions like Tsunami should be considered and studied. According Shri Kalyanaraman, the reputed researcher, this project would invite disasters like Tsunami to our southern coast and pose as a threat to the valuable mineral sand deposits along this coast. Unlike in the case of Suez Canal, this canal penetrates deep in to the seabed. All this testifies that the construction of the canal is unwarranted. I suspect that the haste with which the project is proposed to be completed, ignoring the welfare and progress of he people of India may be to further the interests of countries like America. About this I had send an emergency message to our Hon. Prime Minister. What ever it maybe, it is the duty of every Indian to see that this historic and holy monument is protected. With out succumbing to the pressures from foreign forces all should strongly oppose this project. I call upon each Indian to come forward and fight for such an important cause with out compromise. Malayalam original; Sd. VR Krishna Iyer Letter of Hon'ble V.R . Krishna Iyer (Former Judge, Supreme Court) to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India. http://hinduthought.googlepages.com/krishnaiyer13april2007.jpg/krishnaiyer13april 2007-full.jpg Paper attached to Hon'ble VR Krishna Iyer's letter http://rapidshare.com/files/26060268/pilsupremecourtramsethu1.doc.html 3 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 4. Annex 2 Rama Setu in richest thorium coast of the world http://kalyan97.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/monazitemap1.jpg http://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/08/29/581/ Resources map: Geology and minerals, Geological Survey of India (Based upon Survey of India toposheet No. 58H First Edition 1969) Explanatory note: Mineral resources (heavy minerals – beach placers) Heavy mineral concentrations (including ilmenite, rutile, garnet and monazite) occur in beach sands as localized pockets along the east coast and between Kolachel and Kanniyakumari on the west coast over a distance of nearly 75 km. Significant concentration occurs between Vattakottai and Lipuram and the famous Manavalakurichi deposit, which extends over a length of 5 to 6 km. With a width of 3 to 5 m from the mouth of Valliyur River. The beach placers on an average contain 45 to 55% ilmenite, 7 to 14% garnet, 4 to 5% zircon, 3 to 4% monazite. 2 to 3% sillimanite, 2 to 3% rutile, 0.5 to 1% leucoxene and 10 to 25% others, including silica. (Database 1984) 4 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 5. Annex 3 Geological and Mineral map of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, 1995 Scale 1: 500,000 (Published by Director General, Geological Survey of India) 5 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 6. Annex 4 Needed: Mines and minerals regulatory authority of India With the privatisation of mines in 2002, there is an urgency to create a Mines and Minerals Regulatory Authority of India, particularly for strategic minerals. Strategic minerals are monazite, ilmenite and rutile sands which contain thorium and titanium. Titanium is a space age mineral; thorium is the mainstay of the nation’s nuclear program with the potential to make the nation energy independent. Minerals policy is coming up for discussion in the Parliament in the current session (from August 2007). This issue of national security and sovereignty and the imperative of attaining a developed nation status will necessitate the conservation of the mineral wealth of the nation and NOT allow it to be looted for temporary gains. For example, instead of merely producing titanium oxide in the Tata plants at Sattankulam (Tamilnadu) or Chattarpur (Orissa) using the mineral placer deposit sands, there should be plants to produce thorium and titanium metals and reserve them for the nation’s strategic development imperatives. Some notes follow which will have an impact on development of SEZs ensuring sustainable development for an essentially agrarian nation living in over 6 lakh villages. Thorium has been extracted chiefly from monazite through a multi-stage process. In the first stage, the monazite sand is dissolved in an inorganic acid such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4). In the second, the Thorium is extracted into an organic phase containing an amine. Next it is separated or quot;strippedquot; using an anion such as nitrate, chloride, hydroxide, or carbonate, returning the thorium to an aqueous phase. Finally, the thorium is precipitated and collected. Source: Crouse, David; Brown, Keith (December 1959). quot;The Amex Process for Extracting Thorium Ores with Alkyl Aminesquot;.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 51 (12): 1461. Retrieved on 2007- 03-09 K.M.V. Jayaram. An Overview of World Thorium Resources, Incentives for Further Exploration and Forecast for Thorium Requirements in the Near Future Mirror: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/thoriumdeposits/ Under the prevailing estimate, Australia and India have particularly large reserves of thorium. Thorium reserves: Australia 300,000 India 290,000 Norway 170,000 United States 160,000 Canada 100,000 South Africa 35,000 Brazil 16,000 Malaysia 4,500 Other Countries 95,000 1,200,000 World Total 6 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 7. Source: US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries (1997-2006); ^ U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries - Thorium. Information and Issue Briefs - Thorium. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved on 2006-11-01. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Vanishing thorium and nuke deal; are they interlinked? Of course, according to scientists, the accumulation of placer deposits is substantially contributed by Rama Setu acting as a sieve and the unique pattern of ocean currents in Hindumahaasaagar. Who will take care of the nation's wealth so essential to the nation's nuke programme? 7 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 8. Annex 5 Why Thorium? -India has 1/3 of the world's reserves of Thorium Thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium or plutonium reactors. Thorium comes out of the ground as a 100% pure, usable isotope, which does not require enrichment, whereas natural uranium contains only 0.7% fissionable U235. http://www.indembassyathens.gr/India- nuclear%20energy/India_nuclear%20energy_thorium.htm http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/scripts98/9820/thoriumscpt.htm A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that consumes fissile and fertile material at the same time as it creates new fissile material. Production of fissile material in a reactor occurs by neutron irradiation of fertile material, particularly Uranium-238 and Thorium-232. In a breeder reactor, these materials are deliberately provided, either in the fuel or in a breeder blanket surrounding the core, or most commonly in both. Production of fissile material takes place to some extent in the fuel of all current commercial nuclear power reactors. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breeder_reactor The present status of various fuel-resources in India is given in the table 1. The domestic mineable coal (about 38 BT) and the estimated hydrocarbon reserves (about 12 BT) together may provide about 1200 EJ of energy. The electricity potential from thorium-metal in breeders is shown as 155,502 GWe- yr. This metal alone has the potential to ensure energy independence for India. Thus, the conservation and safeguarding of the thorium reserves becomes a strategic responsibility. Table 1: Primary energy & electricity resources Electricity Amount Thermal energy potential EJ TWh GWYr GWe-Yr Fossil Coal 38 -BT 667 185,279 21,151 7,614 Hydrocarbon 12 -BT 511 141,946 16,204 5,833 Non-Fossil Nuclear Uranium-Metal 61,000 -T In PHWRs 28.9 7,992 913 328 In Fast breeders 3,699 1,027,616 117,308 42,231 Thorium-Metal 2,25,000 -T In Breeders 13,622 3,783,886 431,950 155,502 Renewable Hydro 150 -GWe 6.0 1,679 192 69 Non-conventional renewable 100 -GWe 2.9 803 92 33 Assumptions for Potential Calculations 8 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 9. Fossil 1. Complete Source is used for calculating electricity potential with a thermal efficiency of 0.36. 2. Calorific Values: Coal: 4,200 kcal/kg, Hydrocarbon: 10,200 kcal/kg. 3. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas [7]has set strategic goals for the next two decades (2001-2020) of ‘doubling reserve accretion’ to 12 BT (Oil + Oil equivalent gas) and “improving recovery factor’ to the order of 40%. Considering the fact that exploration is a dynamic process and India is one of the les explored countries, reference [3] assumes that cumulative availability of hydrocarbons up to 2052 will be 12 BT. Non-Fossil Thermal energy is the equivalent fossil energy required to produce electricity with a thermal efficiency of 0.36. Nuclear 1. PHWR burn-up = 6,700 MWd/T of U-oxide, thermal efficiency 0.29 2. It has been assumed that complete fission of 1kg. of fissile material gives 1000 MWd of thermal energy. Fast reactor thermal efficiency is assumed to be 42%. Fast breeders can use 60% of the Uranium. This is an indicative number. Actual value will be determined as one proceeds with the programme and gets some experience. Even if it is half of this value the scenario presented does not change. 3. Breeders can use 60% Thorium with thermal efficiency 42%. At this stage, type of reactors wherein thorium will be used are yet to be decided. The numbers are only indicative. Hydro 1. Name plate capacity is 150 GWe. 2. Estimated hydro- potential of 600 billion kWh and name plate capacity of 150,000 MWe gives a capacity factor of 0.46. Non-conventional renewable 1. Includes: Wind 45 GWe, Small Hydro 15 GWe, Biomass Power/ Co-generation 19.5 GWe and Waste to Energy 1.7 GWe etc. 2. Capacity factor of 0.33 has been assumed for potential calculations. http://www.dae.gov.in/iaea/ak-paris0305.doc 9 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 10. Annex 6 Notice sent to Secy., DAE, Govt. of India and Hon’ble PM of India http://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/08/31/ Chennai, 31 August 2007 To: Secretary, DAE, Govt. of India, New Delhi Dr. Anil Kakodkar Fax. 02222048476 Cc: Prime Minister of India, Hon’ble Dr. Manmohan Singh 01123019545 Fax. 01123016857 cc: Principal Scientific Adviser, 01123022113 Re: Alleged export of sands containing thorium from the richest nuclear material coastline of the world The coastline between Rama Setu (Rameshwaram) and Cochin constitutes the richest nuclear material coastline of the world yielding thorium (nuclear mineral) and titanium (space age mineral). Both these are strategic for the nation’s development and to achieve India Vision 2020 with energy independence (avoidance of dependence upon imported uranium by developing thorium-based breeder reactors) and autonomous space development programmes. In India, both Kakrapar-1 and - 2 units are loaded with 500 kg of thorium fuel in order to improve their operation when newly-started. Thorium occurs in several minerals, the most common being the rare earth-thorium-phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium oxide, but average 6-7%...There are also reports of loss of thorium from Indian Rare Earths Limited stocks. Destruction of Rama Setu will severely impact the accumulation of such placer deposits of rare earths and next tsunami through the mid-ocean channel will devastate the placer deposits and move them, almost irretrievably, into the depths of the ocean. I am bringing this to the notice of Govt. of India under Section 26 of the Atomic Energy Act 1962 and other sections detailed below, a cognizable offence related to stockpiling/trading in nuclear minerals containing monazite and ilmenite/rutile/garnet placer deposits along Tamilnadu and Kerala coast (Manavalakurichi, Aluva, Chavara and other places such as Sattankulam where titanium dioxide plant is sought to be set up using sands which also contain thorium 233/urainin 233). Uranium-233 is a fissile artificial isotope of uranium, which is proposed as a nuclear fuel. It has a half-life of 160,000 years. Uranium-233 is produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium-232. When thorium-232 absorbs a neutron, it becomes thorium-233, which has a half-life of only 22 minutes. Thorium-233 decays into protactinium-233 through beta decay. Protactinium-233 has a half life of 27 days and beta decays into uranium-233. Hence, thorium in monazite, ilmenite and other coastal placer deposits is a mineral as defined in the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. Since thorium is vital for the nation’s atomic energy program and for achieving energy independence, Govt. of India should advice on the steps proposed to be taken to conserve and protect these stockpiles of nuclear deposits. Yours sincerely, S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D., Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank, Director, Sarasvati Research Centre, Chennai 600015 kalyan97@gmail.com 31 August 2007 10 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 11. http://justsamachar.com/local/7/vaikundarajan-gets-preventive-bail/ Brief summary in English of Tamil news report: Vaikundarajan, owner of VV Minerals gets and his two brothers Jegadeesan and Chandresan, were granted anticipatory bail by Madurai Bench of Madras HC (Justice Rajasuria). He is exporting, without Govrnment permission, nuclear deposits in coastal sands of Tuticorin, Kanyakkumari coasts. }, ”z }  ி ¶t” «} ீ }!! ˆy 28, 2007 http://thatstamil.oneindia.in/Pictures/images_02/vaikundarajasn.jpg ¢ : œ ி ி} u”  ”z } „ ிy 3  ீ¢   t y{} … ~y t ƒ «} ீ} u ~ yž„ ¢. £{¢t”œ y , t }y v | ி. ி. ƒ } ¾  ”z }.  ƒ , £{¢t”œ, } ி ”¾ yt ‚ ிƒ § ிƒ ƒ „ ி ¯|¢   t t ¢ ~ ி¾{¢ ி ž ¶t” ‚² €¢ | . ƒ  tƒ y ƒ« „ ி ´ t . | « y ிƒ ƒ t ž | €¢ | ”z §t”, « y |º} ž ‚ y ¢.  ீ ¢, ƒ , £{¢t”œ, } ி ”¾ yt ‚ ிƒ } § ிƒ ƒ ¢ ž{¢ ி¾{¢ ி‚ ி {¢ ¢ t”  ” ¾ y { ”‚ ~ ி¾º ீ ƒ©  ž{ . } ¾ƒ   t y{} … ”z }, ¢ „ ீ} ‚² | }  ீ¢ t”~ º € ~ y ¢. ¢ ² u ிƒ { ¢ }, ிœ{¢ ி ¾t º «œº € ¢. ž{¢ ¢2 ி¶}  ”z . «} ீ} ¾ „ ¢ ீ }t ிƒ § tƒ € . 11 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 12. | § ி ¾{ ீ }t ீ ™ ,3 ¯t” «} ீ} ி{¢ { ிy . ´ } ீ¢ ~y t „¶ œ € zž }² ”z } ‚ § tƒ € ¯| . | § ­ ி ¾{ ீ ™ }” u ¶t”{ „ ி {¢ , { ிy . http://justsamachar.com/local/7/vaikundarajan-gets-preventive-bail/ News report in the New Indian Express of August 11, 2007 Vaikundarajan directed to surrender in court Friday August 10 2007 09:18 IST MADURAI: Vaikundarajan, owner of V V Minerals and a shareholder of Jaya TV, was on Thursday, directed by the Madurai Bench of the High Court to surrender at Eraniel court. The bench also allowed the police to question him for two days. Vaikundarajan had filed 20 petitions seeking anticipatory bail. The petitions came up for hearing before Justice G Rajasuria. The judge observed that the police had doubts as to where the sand was sent as it contained nuclear deposits. Vaikundarajan has claimed that he was not aware of the fact that the sand he mined contained nuclear particles. The judge said that the case was significant because of the nuclear content in the sand. http://tinyurl.com/33nc8t Vaikundarajan’s office premises raided Staff Reporter (The Hindu, August 20, 2007) He is facing the charge of having quarried thorium-rich sand — Photo: A. Shaikmohideen http://www.thehindu.com/2007/08/20/images/2007082057461001.jpg C. Sridar, Superintendent of Police, Tirunelveli (left) and Additional Superintendent Muthusamy conducting a raid in the office of V.V. Minerals at Keeraikkaranthattu in Tirunelveli district on Sunday. TIRUNELVELI: The police raided the factory and office premises of Subbiah Vaikundarajan at Keeraikaaranthattu near Thisaiyanvilai on Sunday in a case of alleged export of sand rich in thorium, a radioactive material, to foreign countries. 12 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 13. Revenue Department officials of Kanyakumari district seized six sand-laden lorries at Meignanapuram. After analyzing the sample, they found that the sand contained “considerable quantity” of thorium, which cannot be exported by individuals to foreign countries. As export of thorium in any form is punishable under the Atomic Energy Commission Act, Deputy Director (Mines) Manimaran registered a case against Mr. Vaikundarajan, a leading garnet exporter. When the officials filed case against Mr. Vaikundarajan for allegedly quarrying the thorium-rich sand, he challenged it in the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court, contending that the Tamil Nadu police could not register a case relating to supposed violation of the Atomic Energy Commission Act. Dismissing his plea on August 9, the court told Mr. Vaikundarajan to surrender before a court and that the police would be free to take him into custody for interrogation. However, there was no progress in the case, as the garnet exporter failed to surrender before any court, and the police has spread a dragnet for him. The team, led C. Sridar, Superintendent of Police, Tirunelveli, and Additional Superintendent of Police Muthusamy, sifted through documents and other files in the office of V.V. Minerals at Keeraikaaranthattu, and seized some files and computers. When the police came out of the office premises, factory workers tried to block their vehicles. Some workers pelted the vehicles with stones. P. Kannappan, Deputy Inspector General of Police, Tirunelveli Range, came to Thisaiyanvilai shortly before 3.30 p.m. and held discussions with the officials who conducted the raid, examined the documents seized and the data stored in the computers. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/08/20/stories/2007082057461000.htm I am not an enemy of DMK: Vaikundarajan (The Hindu, August 23, 2007) CHENNAI: S. Vaikundarajan of V.V. Minerals, facing charges in several cases, on Wednesday said he was neither against the ruling Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party nor an “enemy” of Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi. He was well aware that as a businessman it would be difficult to work against the Government and appealed to his well wishers not to politicise the case against him. Mr. Vaikundarajan is a shareholder of Jaya TV. — Special Correspondent http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/23/stories/2007082353620400.htm Police raid Jaya TV partner’s office 13 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 14. Madurai, August 20: Police have carried out raids at the factory and office premises of V V Minerals, owned by Jaya TV shareholder R Vaikundarajan, facing charges of illegal mining of thorium, in Tirunelveli district, about 200 km from here. Police today said they had seized several documents and computer hard discs during the raid at Keeraikaranthattu yesterday, but declined to give more details, adding the materials needed to be analysed. An official of the V V Minerals claimed that the police had seized only some of the award certificates won by the company and described the raid as an abuse of power. The police team faced some resistance from employees of the company when they came out of the office after the raid. A police vehicle was pelted with stones and slogans were raised against police for filing quot;false case against Vaikundarajanquot;. They also heckled police for quot;trying to trace proof after filing the casequot;. A case was registered in June last under the Atomic Energy Act against Vaikundarajan and his company after Kanyakumari district revenue officials found that sand transported by the company contained thorium and monosite. On August 9 last, the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court, directing Vaikundarajan to surrender in the case while dismissing his plea to quash the FIR, had posed a series of questions about the nature of exports done by V V Minerals and whether they were actually usable in atomic energy production. The court also asked whether the police had any proof that the company exported sand to an atomic firm and whether the sand actually contained thorium. It had said police could take Vaikundarajan into custody for further investigations. However, Vaikundarajan has so far not surrendered before any court and the police had spread a dragnet for him. V V Minerals had contended they exported only sand for extraction of garnet and they were innocent. They alleged that police were harassing them because Vaikundarajan was a Jaya TV partner. (Agencies) Published: Monday, August 20, 2007 http://tinyurl.com/2uxng7 ATOMIC ENERGY ACT 1962 NO. 33 OF 1962 26. Cognizance of offences (1) All offences under this Act shall be cognizable under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, but no action shall be taken in respect of any person for any offence under this Act except on the basis of a written complaint made - 14 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 15. (a) in respect of contravention of section 8, 14 or 17 or any rule or order made thereunder, by the person authorised to exercise powers of entry and inspection; (b) in respect of any other contravention, by a person duly authorised to make such complaints by the Central Government. 2. Definition and Interpretation (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) quot;atomic energyquot; means energy released from atomic nuclei as a result of any process, including the fission and fusion processes; (b) quot;fissile materialquot; means uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium or any material containing these substances or any other material that may be declared as such by notification by the Central Government; (c) quot;mineralsquot; include all substances obtained or obtaining from the soil (including alluvium or rocks) by underground or surface working… 8. Power of entry and inspection (1) Any person authorised by the Central Government may, on producing, if so required, a duly authenticated document showing his authority, enter any mine, premises or land - (a) where he has reason to believe that work is being carried out for the purpose of or in connection with production and processing of any prescribed substances or substances from which a prescribed substance can be obtained or production, development or use of atomic energy or research into matters connected therewith, or (b) where any such plant as is mentioned in clause (b) of section 7 is situated, and may inspect the mine, premises or land and any articles contained therein. (2) The person carrying out the inspection may make copies of or extracts from any drawing, plan or other document found in the mine, premises or land and for the purpose of making such copies or extracts, may remove any such drawing, plan or other document after giving a duly signed receipt for the same and retain possession thereof for a period not exceeding seven days… 10. Compulsory aquisition of rights to work minerals (1) Where it appears to the Central Government that any minerals from which in its opinion any of the prescribed substances can be obtained are present inor any land, either in a natural state or in a deposit of waste material obtained from any underground or surface working, it may be order provide for compulsorily vesting in the Central Government the exclusive right, so long as the order remains in force, to work those minerals and any other minerals which it appears to the Central Government to be necessary to work with those minerals, and may also provide, by 15 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 16. that order or a subsequent order, for compulsorily vesting in the Central Government any other ancillary rights which appear to the Central Government to be necessary for the purpose of working the minerals aforesaid including (without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions)- (a) rights to withdraw support; (b) rights necessary for the purpose of access to or conveyance of the minerals aforesaid or the ventilation or drainage of the working; (c) rights to use and occupy the surface of any land for the purpose of erecting any necessary buildings and installing any necessary plant in connection with the working of the minerals aforesaid; (d) rights to use and occupy for the purpose of working the minerals aforesaid any land forming part of or used in connection with an existing mine or quarry, and to use or acquire any plant used in connection with any such mine or quarry, and (e) rights to obtain a supply of water for any of the pur-poses connected with the working of the minerals aforesaid, or to dispose of water or other liquid matter obtained in consequence of working such minerals. (2) Notice of any order proposed to be made under this section shall be served by the Central Government - (a) on all persons who, but for the order, would be entitled to work the minerals affected; and (b) on every owner, lessee and occupier (except tenants for a month or for less than a month) of any land in respect of which rights are proposed to be acquired under the order… 14. Control over production and use of atomic energy (1) The Central Government may, subject to such rules as may be made in this behalf, by order prohibit except under a license granted by it - (i) the working of any mine or minerals specified in the order, being a mine or minerals from which in the opinion of the Central Government any of the prescribed substances can be obtained; (ii) the acquisition, production, possession, use disposal, export or import- (a) of any of the prescribed substances; or (b) of any minerals or other substances specified in the rules, from which in the opinion of the Central Government any of the prescribed substances can be obtained; or (c) of any plant designed or adopted or manufactured for the production, development and use of atomic energy or for research into matters connected therewith; or (d) of any prescribed equipment. 16 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 17. Annex 7 First Information Report and related court papers (19 pages) may be downloaded from: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ 17 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 18. Annex 8 Failure to protect thorium and Ramsetu (intertwined earth science phenomena) The extraordinary fact that the largest reserves of thorium in the world occur on Kerala sands should force a pause in studying, examining, exploring and evaluating the geological forces and ocean currents at work in accumulating these placer deposits which are vital for the nation's nuclear programme. Any project in the region should be subjected first to this imperative study and evaluation. http://maritime.haifa.ac.il/departm/lessons/ocean/wwr205.gif This map shows the unique phenomenon of two ocean currents in two opposing direcions operating like a cyclotron/sieve to isolate heavier minerals with heavy atomic weights such as Thorium 232 and Titanium. Strategic importance of Ramasetu: thorium Ramasetu and Indian ocean currents contribute to the accumulation of placer deposits of thorium minerals in Tamilnadu, Kerala beaches. Tsunami protection measures are required in the belt between Nagore (Tamilnadu) and Kayamkulam (Kerala) since the last tsunami impacted the mouth of kayamkulam canal. As Prof. Tad Murthy (an expert on tsunami who was engaged by Govt. of India to set up a tsunami warning system) apprehends, if the present Sethusamudram 18 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 19. channel project alignment is implemented, the next tsunami will destroy this part of Kerala since the channel pointing to the epicenter of the tsunami will absorb the tsunami energy and funnel into the channel which will move in a narrow arc to destroy the coastline of Tamilnadu and Kerala. The accumulation of thorium reserves of India is party attributed to the reworking of beachsands by seawaves (almost like a cyclotron or sieving operation to remove small stones from fresh husked paddy by women in India) given the nature of the ocean currents and the Ramasetu (Adam’s bridge) acting as a barrier to the ocean currents inducing countercurrents. Views of Prof. Rajamanickam, geomorphologist and mineralogist: “The coast between Nagapattinam to Nagore, Nagore to Poompuhar, Colachal and Madras were the places where the strong impact from the Tsunami was noticed. These were also the places where a high order of ilmenites was found soon after the Tsunami. For example in the Nagore coast, the pre-Tsunami heavy mineral content of 14 per cent jumped to 70 per cent of ilmenites after the Tsunami.” http://soma-fish.net/stories.php?story=05/08/14/4004215 Monazite, a radioactive material, contains 3 to 7% thorium by weight. Ilmenite less radioactive, contains .05% thorium. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3186552 Chavara mineral division, India Rare Earths Limited. Corporate office: Plot No.1207,Veer Savakar Marg, Near Siddhi Vinayak Temple, Prabhadevi,Mumbai - 400 028 +91 22 24382042/ 24211630/ 24211851, 24220230 FAX +91 22 24220236 Major Activity : Mining and separation of Heavy Minerals like, Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Sillimanite, Garnet and Monazite from beach sand. Also engaged in chemical processing of Monazite to yield Thorium compounds, Rare Earth Chlorides and Tri-Sodium Phosphate. Dr. S. Suresh Kumar, Head Tel. No: (0476) 268 0701 – 05 Located 10 Km north of Kollam, 85 Km from Thiruvananthapuram capital of Kerala and 135 Km by road from Kochi is perhaps blessed with the best mineral sand deposit of the country.The plant operates on a mining area containing as high as 40% heavy minerals and extending over a length of 23 Km in the belt of Neendakara and Kayamkulam. The deposit is quite rich with respect to ilmenite, rutile and zircon and the mineral-ilmenite happens to be of weathered variety analyzing 60% TiO2. The present annual production capacity of Chavara unit engaged in dry as well as wet (dredging/ up-gradation) mining and mineral separation stands at 1,54,000t of ilmenite, 9,500t of rutile, 14,000t of zircon and 7,000t of sillimanite. In addition the plant has facilities for annual production of ground zircon called zirflor (-45 micron) and microzir (1-3 micron) of the order of 6,000t and 500t respectively. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm MANAVALAKURICHI (MK) MINERAL DIVISION:Shri K.P.Sreenivasan, Head & General ManagerTel. No: (04651) 237 255- 57 E-mail: iremk@vsnl.com , ngc_iremk@sancharnet.in Plant is situated 25 Kms north of Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin), the southern most tip of the Indian sub-continent. All weather major seaport Tuticorin and the nearest airport at Thiruvananthapuram are equidistant, about 65 kms from the plant site. Nagercoil at a distance of about 18 kms from the plant, is the closest major Railway station. MK plant annually produces about 90,000t ilmenite of 55%. TiO2 grade, 3500t rutile and 10,000t zircon in addition to 3000t monazite and 10,000t garnet based primarily on beach washing supplied by fishermen of surrounding five villages. 19 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 20. IREL has also mining lease of mineral rich areas wherein raw sand can be made available in large quantities through dredging operation. In addition to mining and minerals separation, the unit has a chemical plant to add value to zircon in the form of zircon frit and other zirconium based chemicals in limited quantities. RARE EARTHS DIVISION (RED) Aluva: Shri L.N.Maharana, Chief General Manager Tel. No: (0484) 254 5062 - 65 E-mail: irered@vsnl.com Unlike the three units of IREL as described earlier, RED is an exclusively value adding chemical plant wherein the mineral monazite produced by MK, is chemically treated to separate thorium as hydroxide upgrade and rare earths in its composite chloride form. It is located on the banks of river Periyar at a distance of 12 Km by road from Kochi. This plant was made operational way back in 1952 to take on processing of 1400t of monazite every year. However over the years, the capacity of the plant was gradually augmented to treat about 3600t of monazite. Elaborate solvent extraction and ion exchange facilities were built up to produce individual R.E. oxides, like oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr and La in adequate purities. Today RED has built up large stock pile of impure thorium hydroxide upgrade associated with rare earths and unreacted materials. Henceforth, RED proposes to treat this hydroxide upgrade rather than fresh monazite to convert thorium into pure oxalate and rare earth as two major fractions namely Ce oxide and Ce oxide free rare earth chloride. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm#MK The total known world reservesof Thi nRA R category are estimated at about 1.16 million tonnes. About 31% of this (0.36 mt) is known to be available in the beach and inland placers of India…Prior to the second world war thorium was used widely in the manufacture of gas mantles, welding rods, refractories andin magnesium based alloys .Its use as fuel in nuclear energy, in spite of its limited demand as of now and low forecast, is gaining importance because of its transmutation to 233 u. Several countries like India, Russia, France and U.K. have shown considerable interest in the development of fast breeder reactors (FBR) anditisexpected thatbytheturnof this century someofthe countries would have started commissioning large capacity units… 20 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 21. Beach sands: Although monazite occurs associated with ilmenite and beach sands, skirting the entire Peninsular India, its economic concentration is confined to only some areas where suitable physiographic conditions exist.The west coast placers are essentially beachorbarrier deposits with development of dunes where aeolin action is prominent in dry months… Origin of West Coast deposits: …The deposits are formed in four successive stages:(i) lateritisation of gneissic complexes, (ii) successive mountain uplift and simultaneous seaward shift of strand line., (iii) reworking of the beach sands by sea waves, which rise often to a height of 3m.in 12s.period and (iv) littoral drift caused by the breaking of thewaves faraway from the shore and consequent northerly movement of lighter minerals along the reflected waves… In Manavalakurchi, Tamil Nadu, the depositis formed by the quot;southerly tilt of the tip of the peninsula [9] aided by seasonal variation of sea currents, both in direction and magnitude [Udas, G.R.,Jayaram, K.M.V., Ramachandran, M and Sankaran,R.,Beach sand placer deposits of the world vs. Indian deposits. Plant maintenance and import substitution.1978.35.] … The reasonably assured resources of thorium in India, form about 31% of the world's estimated deposits.The reserves could have been several times more if systematic surveys are carried out… http://www.iaea.org/inis/aws/fnss/fulltext/0412_1.pdf Mining of raw beach sand containing the six heavy minerals and separation of the later in adequate purities happen to be the common activity of all the three Mineral Division namely Chavara, MK (Manavalakurichi) and OSCOM (Orissa Sand Complex, Chatrapur, 150 kms. from Bhubaneswar). As per as mining practice is concerned, they do differ from one division to other. For example at MK, all the raw sand required to operate the plant at its full capacity is collected by the fisherman of surrounding villages from near by beaches and supplied to the unit at a cost. At Chavara also beach washing is available but not in adequate quantity to meet the full requirement of the plant. The heavy mineral rich sand feed either in the form of beach washings or dredge concentrate is subjected to final concentration in a facility provided with a host of spirals to enrich the feed with 97-98% heavy minerals. Such upgraded material is next dried in a fluid bed drier to take on the separation of individual minerals/ores by taking advantage of the difference in their electrical, magnetic properties as well as specific gravity. http://irel.gov.in/activity/Mineral.htm Strategic Value addition Recovery from thorium value Chemical processing of monazite to separate the contained thorium value (~8% ThO2) in the form of thorium hydroxide concentrate happen to be the most fundamental value addition activity of the company carried out for last 50 years or so. In the recent time thorium is separated as its pure oxalate form. A part of it is taken to OSCOM for its further processing by solvent 21 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 22. extraction to produce about 150-200 TPA of its thorium nitrate for its mantle application. A small part of the purified thorium nitrate is covered to nuclear grade thorium oxide powder to meet the requirement of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) for developing thorium based fuel for our nuclear reactors. Recovery of Uranium value. Recovery of Uranium value. In recent time IREL has got engaged through its Rare Earths Division, in activity involving recovery of uranium value present in Indian monazite in the form of Nuclear grade ammonium diuranate (ADU) to supplement the indigenous supply scenario for uranium as required in the Indian Nuclear Power programme. In addition to monazite, RED has developed facilities for recovering uranium value from other secondary resource as well. http://irel.gov.in/activity/Strategic.htm Indian ocean currents both east to west and counter currents result in a churning operation and consequent deposition of heavy minerals such as thorium or titanium. This is a colour version of Figure 11.3 of Regional Oceanography: an Introduction by M. Tomczak and S. J. Godfrey (Pergamon Press, New York 1994, 422 p.). http://www.lei.furg.br/ocfis/mattom/regoc/text/11circ.html 22 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 23. Major ocean currents of the world. On this illustration red arrows indicate warm currents, while cold currents are displayed in blue. (Source: PhysicalGeography.net) http://www.eoearth.org/article/Ocean_circulation Indian Ocean Tsunami Model, December 26, 2004 http://sos.noaa.gov/gallery/ Movie - Indian Ocean view (8 mb) Beaches of Kerala with thorium sands. http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/genetics/images/kerala_lowres.jpg The issue of thorium as the nuclear fuel which will unleash the nuclear potential of Bharatam has been underscored in the BARC website. One of the principal earth science reasons for the accumulation of thorium resources on Kerala beaches is the oscillating, sieving action of the ocean currents around Ramasetu. Incursive channel in an arbitrarily drawn medial line between Bharatam and Srilanka as a defacto boundary of international waters, discarding the age-old rights as 'historic waters' 23 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 24. under the UN Law of the Sea, is a serious dereliction of responsibility on the part of the Sethusamudram Channel Project designers. PM and UPA Chairperson have to explain to the nation for the undue haste and carelessness in choosing an alignment impacting on Ramsethu while five other alternative channels closer to the Bharatam coastline were available. Was the new, arbitrarily drawn medial line as the channel alignment influenced by US Navy Operational Directives of 23 June 2005? Is it mere coincidence that the inauguration of SSCP takes place within a week thereafter, on 2 July 2005 ignoring the imperative subjecting the impact of a future tsunami on the integrity of the coastline if the present chosen alignment is implemented? Together with the destruction of Kerala, will it impact on the harnessing of the thorium resource as the foundation fuel for the nuclear programme of Bharatam? As the trial for treason unravels, in case Bharatam succumbs to US geopolitical pressures, a lot of questions will have to be raised and answered. Was the PM satisfied by the answers (provided on 30 June 2005) to the 16 questions raised by PMO on 8 March 2005? Something is fishy in the state of Bharatam. Importance of Thorium for Bharat, f rom BARC website: Thorium deposits - ~ 3,60,000 tonnes •The currently known Indian thorium reserves amount to 358,000 GWe-yr of electrical energy and can easily meet the energy requirements during the next century and beyond. •India 's vast thorium deposits permit design and operation of U-233 fuelled breeder reactors. •These U-233/Th-232 based breeder reactors are under development and would serve as the mainstay of the final thorium utilization stage of the Indian nuclear programme. http://www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/about/anu1.htm The US study can be downloaded from www.carnegieendowment.org/publications: Tellis notes that India reserves f 78,000 metric tons of uranium. •eight reactors allocating a quarter of their cores for the production of weapons- grade material, uranium needed would be: 19,965 to 29,124 tons. T two research reactors will need 938 to 1,088 tons. • These would yield India 12,135 to 13,370 kilograms of weapons-grade plutonium. •Thorium blanket as fuel will be the nuclear fuel of the future for Bharatam, which has the largest reserves of thorium in the world. A team of scientists led by Dr. VJ Loveson of the CISR New Delhi, studying placer deposits in the area, says an estimated 40 million tonnes of Titanium alone has been deposited in the entire stretch of 500 km. coastline. Bye-bye to historic waters US Navy operational directive, 23 June 2005: Historic waters, intl. Waters; 30 June 2005, Chairman TCPT replies to PMO; 2 July 2005, inauguration. The haste is fishy. Aug 76 Act No. 80 Enables government to declare waters as historic. June 79 Law No. 41 Waters of Palk Bay between coast and boundary with Sri Lanka claimed as internal waters; waters of Gulf of Mannar between coast and maritime boundayr claimed as historic waters. This claim is not recognized by the United States. US conducted 24 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 25. operational assertions in 1993 and 1994, to Gulf of Mannar claim in 1999 (jiski laathi uski bhains; tadi eduttasvan tandalkaaran). UN Conf. on the Law of the Sea (1958), Convention of the Territorial Sea and and contiguous zone recognizes HISTORIC waters Agreement between Sri Lanka and India on the Maritime Boundary between the two countries in the Gulf of Mannar and the Bay of Bengal and Related Matters 23 March 1976 on Historic Waters. Implications of intrusive identification of 'international waters boundary' drawn as the Setu channel passage just 3 kms. west of the medial line recognized in ‘historic waters’ by an agreement of June 1974 between the late PM of India Smt. Indira Gandhi and President of India Smt. Sirimavo Bandaranaike has been stated succinctly by Arulanandam: http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2201/images/20050114005902402.jpg U. Arulanandam, President, Singaravelar Fishermen's Forum : the project is being implemented to enforce the international boundary line in the waters. Once the canal is a reality, it will become an unofficial boundary line on the sea between India and Sri Lanka. Fisherpeople are afraid: the catch is that it is in the Sri Lankan waters that fish thrive. The canal would seal their entry into those waters for fishing. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2201/stories/20050114005902400.htm 25 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 26. Annex 9 Former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: thorium for energy independence Chennai: July 27, 2007 India's former president A.P.J Abdul Kalam returned to a profession he likes the most a day after he demitted office on Thursday (July 26). Kalam interacted with the students and faculty members of southern Anna University in Chennai, capital city of Tamil Nadu state. Credited with substantial contribution to India's missile technology, Kalam on Thursday said the country should go for thorium-based nuclear reactors to feed the energy hungry economy. quot;India has to go nuclear generation in a big way using thorium-based research reactors. Thorium, of course, is a non-fissile material for research available in abundance in our country. Intensive research is essential for converting thorium for maximizing its utilization for electricity generation through thorium-based reactors,quot; Kalam said. India's nuclear power capacity of 14 reactors is presently 3900 MW. It is expected to go to 7400 MW by 2010 with the completion of nine reactors, which are now in progress. http://tvscripts.edt.reuters.com/2007-07-26/34a2b1ff.html http://www.andhranews.net/India/2007/July/27-Thorium-based-nuke-9527.asp 26 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 27. Annex 10 1st thorium unit in India soon Chennai, Aug 2: India is on the verge of setting up the world’s first Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) which uses thorium as fuel. “We have the design and the technology to install a 300 MW thorium based reactor. It is going through the process of regulatory clearance. We will start work on it in the eleventh plan period. And we hope to complete the work within seven years,” Dr Baldev Raj , director, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam said on Thursday. In an exclusive interview with this newspaper, Dr Baldev Raj, an internationally acclaimed metallurgist, said that the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay near Mumbai has been doing research into Thorium based reactors for the last 50 years. He explained that India was the only country with adequate reserves of thorium to make the use of the reactors based on it viable financially. “As of today, no other country in the world is doing any research on thorium based reactors as they do not have adequate thorium reserves,” Dr Raj added. This would be a major technological achievement for the country as thorium based reactors would see the completion of India’s nuclear fuel cycle, according to him. The first stage of India’s nuclear programme saw pressurized heavy water reactors which created plutonium. “The Fast Breeder Reactors coming up at Kalpakkam and other places will use this plutonium as fuel. This in turn will help us build up an inventory of Uranium- 233 which could be used along with Thorium-232 to run the thorium reactors,” Dr Raj explained. He said that within three decades the country’s thorium reactors would start generating power for the national grid. “I am sure by 2037 we will have thorium reactors in place,” he said. With its vast thorium resources along the Kerala and Tamil Nadu coast, the country would not need to worry about its fuel needs in the future, according to him. Former President Dr A P J Abdul Kalam, himself a scientist of international repute, had recently spoken about the neccessity to develop thorium based reactors to make the country energy independent. With the commissioning of the thorium based reactor, the country is expected to make a quantum leap towards economy and safety in power generation. Since thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium or plutonium reactors, chances of any radiation hazards are lesser in Thorium reactors, experts point out. According to Dr Raj work on the 500 MW Fast Breeder Reactor at Kalpakkam was progressing as per schedule. “ We are sure that the FBR will be commissioned by September 2010. It will start supplying power to the national grid by March 2011. We have almost finished the civil construction work. The reactor vault has been completed without any problems. The main vessel of the reactor, safety vessel, core structure, control rod drives, fuel-handling mechanism are all in various stages of completion. From the end of September, we will start loading all components into the building,” he added. He said that his team of scientists and engineers were working on a goal to produce power at the rate of Rs 2 per unit. “As of today the power from FBR costs Rs 3. 20 per unit. Our dream is to bring it down by a rupee,” he disclosed http://www.deccan.com/chennaichronicle/Home/HomeDetails.asp#1st thorium unit in India soon 27 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 28. Annex 11 India's importance in global nuclear renaissance up: Chidambaram Mumbai, Sept. 3 (PTI): The importance of India in global nuclear renaissance is increasing as the country will be needed by the international community in the long run, Principal Scientific Advisor to Government of India Dr R Chidambaram said here today. Although India wants the world in the short-term in nuclear energy the world is going to need India in the long term, he said while inaugurating a day-long seminar on `Recycling for Electronic and automotive Industry at the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education. quot;This is what I say in my lectures abroadquot;, he said talking about the closed fuel cycle which is adopted by India which helps in a comprehensive nuclear waste management. In many countries, nuclear technology has stagnated and when nuclear technology stagnates, knowledge management becomes a problem, Chidambaram said. Whereas India and China are the two main countries where nuclear industry growth is seen due to surging energy demand, he added. The knowledge management in nuclear energy is booming and young people still take a lot of interest in joining the field in India while there is slow R and D growth in other parts of the world, including where there is stagnation, he said. So for us, nuclear knowledge management is not a problem, Chidambaram said. While talking about nuclear waste management, he said India uses closed fuel cycle and this is also required because the same amount of uranium, when you recycle it through fast breeder reactors (FBRs), will give you 50 times more power and if you close the fuel cycle with thorium, maybe it will give you 600 times more power. quot;So if you want to optimally utilise nuclear fuel resources of the world uranium and thorium, you will have to close the nuclear fuel cycle. So, the importance of the three-stage programme goes beyond just building the first generation of reactorsquot;, Chidambaram said. Americans have access to cheaper uranium but now they are also looking at reprocessing but the plutonium stored over a period as waste disposal Yucca mountain is actually a plutonium mine and since the half-life of plutonium is over 24,000 years, it could be used later as other radioactive products in the spent fuel would have died down. On the automotive and electronic waste management, he said he was interested in evolving guidelines as an immediate step to handle these hazardous waste in an 28 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 29. organized and safe manner which could later on be recommended for country legislation. Since India has developed a throwing away culture recently and with the exponential growth of electronic and automotive production and consumption, if steps and precautions are not taken to manage them, India will end up facing a serious crisis, he added. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200709032044.htm See also: http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/sep/03india2.htm 29 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 30. Annex 12 RSS for use of thorium deposits Dipankar Chakraborty (Statesman, Kolkata, Sept. 4, 2007) NEW DELHI, Sept. 3: In a categorical rejection of the Indo-US nuclear deal and taking note of “apprehensions” in the BJP on the matter, the RSS has reminded the party of the need to strictly adhere to its 2006 national executive resolution in Nagpur which termed the deal as against national interest. The assertion of the RSS stand on the nuclear agreement and its apparent rejection of the opinion of Mr LK Advani in an interview on 26 August, has appeared in the 9 September issue of Panchajanya, the RSS mouthpiece. Mr Advani said in the interview that there was no problem with the 123 agreement if an amendment to the Indian Atomic Energy Act was brought about. The Sangh magazine, which published last year’s Nagpur resolution in its latest issue, said it had been done to ensure that “there is no misconception (brahm) or apprehension (shanka)” in anyone’s mind on the RSS stand on the nuclear deal. The RSS Nagpur Pratinidhi Sabha resolution last year while expressing concern over the serious ramifications of the Indo-US nuclear deal said it would scuttle India’s nuclear programme and put an end to all future nuclear tests by the country. It said the deal would bring India’s nuclear sector under total American control. As long as India is not officially recognised as a nuclear state opening up nuclear installations for international inspection would be a step fraught with dangerous consequences for the strategic and foreign policy of the country. The RSS resolution also expressed its opposition to the separation of the country’s civil and military nuclear programme and said it would be against national interest as more than three fourth of nuclear units would directly come under international inspection. The RSS advised the government to focus on huge deposits of thorium available within the country for the country’s nuclear fuel needs. The resolution paid rich tribute to the expertise of Indian nuclear scientists and congratulated them for raising their objections to the deal. Alongside the resolution, Panchajanya also carries an interview with senior BJP leader and an expert on nuclear issues Mr Murli Manohar Joshi. Reiterating the RSS stand on the nuclear agreement, Mr Joshi said the deal was not only against the country’s energy and nuclear sovereignty but would have a far reaching impact on the foreign policy. He said despite spending crores of rupees and becoming dependent on the USA for technical support and fuel for nuclear reactors, the country would not be able to make use of nuclear energy in at least next 10 years. He said even after making such a huge investment, the nuclear plants would not be able to meet more than 20 per cent of the country’s energy requirements. He said the country’s thorium cycle research work had reached a crucial stage and the deal would put a spanner in it. Pointing to the financial and other consequences of the deal, Mr Joshi said setting up 50 nuclear reactors would cost the country about Rs 25,000 crore. http://tinyurl.com/28uymf 30 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 31. Annex 13 A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India loc. cit. R. B. Grover and Subash Chandra, “A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India”, Document No 10, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai, India, August 2004 reproduced below: (Source: http://www.dae.gov.in/iaea/ak-paris0305.doc ) A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India introduction Abstract: Energy, particularly electricity, is a key input for accelerating economic growth. The present per capita electricity generation in India is about 600 kWh per year. Since 1990s, India’s gross domestic product (GDP) has been growing quite fast and it is forecast that it will continue to do so in the coming several decades. GDP growth has to be accompanied by growth in consumption of primary energy as well as electricity. India’s population continues to rise and could reach 1.5 billion by the middle of the century. Our estimate indicates that even after recognizing that energy intensity of GDP would continue to decline as in the past, the total electricity generation by the middle of the century would be an order of magnitude higher than the generation in the fiscal year 2002-03. This calls for developing a strategy for growth of electricity gener-ation based on a careful examination of all issues related to sustainability, particularly abundance of available energy resources, diversity of sources of energy supply and technologies, security of supplies, self sufficiency, security of energy infrastructure, effect on local, regional and global environment, health externalities and demand side management. Introduction: India, the largest democracy with an estimated population of about 1.04 billion, is on a road to rapid growth in economy. During the period 1981-2000, it has witnessed an impressive GDP growth rate of around 6%/yr . Policy initiatives of the Government of India during the past decade have resulted in a faster growth of GDP and forecasts by several agencies point towards continued growth of Indian economy. Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman of Goldman Sachs in their paper write, “India has the potential to show the fastest growth over the next 30 to 50 years. Growth could be higher than over the next 30 years and close to 5% as late as 2050 if development proceeds successfully.” To ensure that the development proceeds successfully, Government of India has been very proactive and several steps have been taken in the recent past. These include policy initiatives as well as planning and launching of projects aimed at improving energy, transport and communication infrastructure in the country. The Electricity Act – 2003, notified in June 2003, is one such important initiative. All these are the steps towards achieving an average annual growth of 8% in GDP during the ongoing 10th five year plan (April 2002 to March 2007). As elsewhere in the world, the energy and electricity growth in India is closely linked to growth in economy. One may notice this by comparing per capita electricity consumption and GDP in PPP US $ (purchasing power parity US $) of various countries in the neighbourhood as well as in other regions of the world. Key World Energy Statistics published by the International Energy Agency gives detailed information about electricity consumption in various countries and GDP in 1995 PPP US $. India’s electricity consumption based on data from utilities is given as 408 kWh per year per capita for the year 2001, while GDP per capita in PPP US $ is given as 31 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 32. 2138. Corresponding figures for Indonesia are 423 and 2684, for Thailand 1563 and 5833, for Malaysia 2824 and 7645, and for Singapore 7677 and 20426. For OECD countries these numbers are 7879 and 21785. Here one may note a correlation between per capita GDP and per capita electricity consumption. At the time of independence in the year 1947, total installed electricity generation capacity was 1,363 MWe. It rose to 30,214 MWe in the year 1980-81, to 66,086 MWe in the year 1990-91 and to 138,730 MWe on 31st March 2003 , the corresponding growth rates being 9.54%/yr, 8.14%/yr and 6.26%/yr. The average growth rate over the entire period, thus, has been an impressive 8.6%/yr. In spite of this impressive growth, per capita electricity as well as primary energy consumption are still very low. In addition, the share of non-commercial energy resources continues to be much higher than what it is in developed countries . Domestic production of commercial energy has registered an average growth of about 5.9%/yr during the period 1981-2000. Various constraints, particularly poor hydrocarbon resource base, have forced an increased reliance on energy imports, which have grown at the rate of about 7.1%/yr . The electricity sector also has experienced severe shortages during the above period despite an impressive growth. During the year 2000-01, there was an average electricity shortage of 7.8% and a peak power demand shortage of 13% . It has now increased to 10% and 15% respectively . The growth rate of electricity has been substantially higher than other forms of energy, the reason being convenience of use and cleanliness at the user end. Electricity generation in India during the fiscal year 2002-03 was about 532 billion kWh from electric utilities and about 104 billion kWh from captive power plants . On per capita basis it turns out to be about 610 kWh per year. As already mentioned, India’s GDP has been growing quite fast and it is forecast that it will continue to be so in the coming decades. GDP growth has to be accompanied by growth of primary energy consumption as well as electricity consumption. A number of organs of the Government of India (GOI) are engaged in energy production and we felt it desirable to look at all the fuel resources, the plans of all the organs of GOI and examine the energy scenario as it might emerge in the decades to come. Long-term forecast is always full of uncertainties; still it is necessary to build scenarios for the future so as to identify available alternatives. In case of energy technologies, electrical energy in particular, lead times for developing new technologies are very long and, therefore, scenario building is desirable to identify problem areas and initiate R&D on relevant topics. The present study has been carried out with this objective. In this study, after making brief remarks on the population projection, we review projections about India’s energy demand growth rates based on other studies and present our projection about electricity growth rate and a strategy to meet the projected demand. 1. 2. Statistical Outline of India, page 11, 2001- 2002, Tata Services Limited, Mumbai. Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman, “Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 3. 2050”,Global Economics Paper No: 99, Goldmann Sachs, 1st Oct. 2003 4. (http://www.gs.com/insight/research/reports/99.pdf). Key World Energy Statistics, 2003, International Energy Agency. 5. RKD Shah, “Strategies for Growth of Thermal Power”, Energy for Growth and Sustainability, Indian National Academy of Engineering, 1998. i) Power from Utilities: Thermal, Hydro, Nuclear and Wind: 107,972.8 MWe (http://cea.nic.in/exec_summ/chapters.htm#GENERATION%20INSTALLED%20 6. CAPACITY(MW)), accessed on 23.4.03 32 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 33. ii) Captive Power: 29,000 MWe PowerLine, November 2001 gives estimates of captive power installed capacity in India and these have been extrapolated based on data given in PowerLine, December 2002. 7. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear and hydro and other renewable forms of energy constitute commercial energy. Traditional or non-commercial energy 8. resources include biomass such as fuel wood, crop-residue and animal-waste. 9. Data about non-commercial energy usage is not so well documented as that 10.about the commercial energy. In the present study we are mainly concerned with the commercial form of energy and unless otherwise stated the term energy would mean the commercial form of energy. 11.Estimated from data given in ‘Energy’, published by the Centre for Monitoring 12.Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, page 4, April 2002,. TERI Energy Data Directory & Yearbook, 2000/2001, TERI, New Delhi, India. http://www.teriin.org/features/art195.htm accessed on 23.04.03 Throughout the report, we have preferred to talk about generation and not consumption as it is difficult to separate theft from technical losses. It is expected that by the middle of the century theft will be near zero and with technological inputs technical losses will also come to below 10%. Personal communication, Central Electricity Authority, May 2003. Using the data of captive power plants given in “Energy”, published by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, April 2002, a capacity factor of 41% has been estimated. At the same capacity factor and an estimated captive power base of 29,000 MWe the electric power generated is 104 billion kWh Population projection According to the recent census , India’s population has increased from 0.843 billion in the year 1991 to 1.027 billion in the year 2001. It represents an average annual growth rate of 1.99%/yr for the ten years. Although the population is increasing, the growth rate has been decreasing for the last many decades. According to a study published by the United Nations , depending on the population growth scenario, India’s population will cross 1.88 billion (high variant), 1.57 billion (medium variant) or 1.2 billion (Low variant) in the year 2050. For this to happen, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) will have to go down from the present 2.9 children per woman to 2.6 by the year 2020 for the high variant, to 2.1 by the year 2020 for the medium variant or to 1.6 by the period 2010-15 for the low variant. In the case of the low variant, the population will be passing through a peak of nearly 1.3 billion around the year 2040. The national population policy (NPP), 2000, recently adopted by the Government of India states that ‘the long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045’. The policy document assumes that the medium term objective of bringing down the total fertility rate (TFR) to the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman by the year 2010 will be achieved. In tune with the long term objective of the Government of India, the present study assumes that India’s population will stabilize by the year 2050 at a level of 1.50 billion. A decreasing growth rate of population (1.5%/yr till 2011, 1.1%/yr till 2021, 0.7%/yr till 2031, 0.4%/yr till 2041, 0.2%/yr till 2051 and then zero) has also been assumed (Table 1). Primary energy & its components 33 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 34. During the fiscal year 2002-03 the estimated total available energy was 18.96 EJ (Domestic 15 EJ, Imported 3.96 EJ). Out of the total, about 71% (13.46 EJ) was the commercial component and 29% (5.49 EJ) non-commercial . During the year 2001, the commercial primary energy consum-ption in the world was about 382 EJ. India’s consumption was merely 3.4% (U.S.A. 24.5%) of world’s commercial energy consumption, while its population stood at nearly 16.6% (U.S.A. 4.6%) of the world’s population. Per capita commercial energy consumption in India stood at nearly 1/5th of the world average and 1/26th of that of the U.S.A . Table 2 gives contribution of various fuels to primary commercial energy and to electrical generation during the year 2002-03. 3.1 Coal and Lignite India has large reserves of coal and is the third largest coal producing country of the world. As per the estimates of the Geological Survey of India, total gross in situ coal reserves in the country are 245.53 BT (Proven: 93.79, Indicated: 109.50 and Inferred: 42.24). Following the procedure assigning reserves with 90% confidence level to the proven category, 70% to the indicated category and 40% to the inferred category and then applying the criterion of reserve to mineable resource ratio of 4.7:1, the working group on coal & lignite for the 10th five year plan tentatively projected the extractable coal to be only 37.86 BT. India’s requirements of coking coal are almost entirely fulfilled by imports. Even the non-coking coal is being increasingly imported in order to blend it with Indian coal having high ash content and use in power plants at certain coastal locations due to commercial reasons. During 2001-02 domestic production of coal was about 323 MT, while the net import was at 22.8 MT. In view of the large dependence on coal and its stagnating production, it may be necessary to increase its import. Production of lignite was about 24.8 MT during the same period. The currently known lignite reserves in the country, much less than coal, are estimated to be 34.6 BT (Proven 3.69, Indicated 11.14 and Inferred 19.76). It is relatively a small quantity and cannot make a significant contribution towards long-term energy security. 3.2 Oil and Natural Gas During the year 2001-02, domestic crude oil production was 32.03 MT as compared to net import of 75.63 MT. In the same year, about 29.7 billion cubic metres of natural gas (NG) was produced domestically. To meet the increasing demand, the government has permitted private sector participation in this field. In November 2002, discovery of a large gas field in Karnataka estimated to contain about 0.2 trillion cubic metre gas was made by a private entrepreneur. There is a high potential for discoveries offshore, particularly in deep waters. Exploration has so far taken place in only about one-quarter of India’s 26 sedimentary basins. It is estimated that these basins may contain as much as 30 BT of hydrocarbon reserves , . India’s recoverable reserves of crude oil and natural gas were till recently considered to be about 600 MT and about 650 billion cubic metres respectively . The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has set strategic goals for the next two decades (2001-2020) of ‘Doubling Reserve Accretion’ to 12 BT (O+OEG)’ and ‘Improving Recovery Factor to the order of 40%’ . Exploration is a dynamic process and one could expect further growth in reserves in the years to come. Considering that India is one of the least explored countries for oil and gas and the present thrust by GOI in this area, it is assumed that cumulative availability of hydrocarbons up to the year 2052 would be nearly 12 BT of (O+OEG). 34 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 35. Coal Bed Methane (CBM), primarily a methane gas occurring in coal seams, is being harnessed in USA for more than a decade. Resource potential of CBM in our country has been conservatively estimated at 850 billion cubic metres . Exploration and exploitation of CBM is complex and exposure to this technology in India is limited. Efforts are being made to acquire technical know how to harness CBM from on-going mines as well as from virgin coal bearing areas. In near future this new source of energy is expected to come on stream from 8 CBM blocks . 3.3 Hydro Energy The hydro electric potential in India has been estimated to be 600 billion kWh annually, corresponding to a name-plate capacity of 150 GWe . It is mostly located in the northern and north-eastern regions of the country. As of March 2003, only about 27 GWe has either been developed or is being developed. A vision paper prepared by the Ministry of Power envisions harnessing of entire balance hydro power potential of India by the year 2025-26. It is proposed to add 16 GWe of new capacity in the Tenth Plan and 19.3 GWe in the Eleventh Plan . 3.4 Non-conventional Renewable Energy The estimated potential of non-conventional renewable energy resources in our country is about 100 GWe. Wind, small Hydro and Biomass Power/ Co-generation have potentials of 45 GWe, 15 GWe and 19.5 GWe respectively ; Solar PV, Solar Thermal and Waste-to-Energy being the other important components. All these resources will be increasingly used in future especially in remote areas. The medium term goal is to ensure that 10% of the installed capacity to be added by the year 2012, i.e. about 10 GWe, comes from renewable sources. Good progress has been made in the field of wind power and installed capacity additions in the recent years have been quite impressive. However, the wind mills have, so far, reported very poor capacity factors, (14% for wind power during the year 2002-03). 3.5 Nuclear Energy As in case of coal, uranium reserves are also given certain categorisation. These are Reasonable Assured Resources (RAR), Estimated Additional Resources-I (EAR-I), Estimated Additional Res-ources-II (EAR-II) and Speculative Resources (SR). Uranium reserves in India pertaining to categories RAR, EAR-I and EAR-II are estimated to be about 95,000 tonnes of metal. Speculative reserves are over and above this quantity and with further exploration, could become available for nuclear power programme. After accounting for various losses including mining (15%), milling (20%) and fabrication (5%), the net uranium available for power generation is about 61,000 tonnes. Thorium reserves are present in a much larger quantity. Total estimated reserves of monazite in India are about 8 million tonnes (containing about 0.63 million tonnes of thorium metal) occurring in beach and river sands in association with other heavy minerals. Out of nearly 100 deposits of the heavy minerals, at present only 17 deposits containing about ~4 million tonnes of monazite have been identified as exploitable. Mineable reserves are ~70% of identified exploitable resources. Therefore, about 2,25,000 tonnes of thorium metal is available for nuclear power programme. The present indigenous nuclear power plants are of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type, having heavy water as moderator and coolant, and working on the once-through-cycle of natural uranium fuel. Based on such reactors nearly 330 GWe-yr of electricity can be produced from domestic uranium resource. This is equivalent to about 10 GWe installed capacity of PHWRs running at a life-time 35 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 36. capacity factor of 80% for 40 years. This uranium on multiple recycling through the route of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) has the potential to provide about 42,200 GWe- yr assuming utilisation of 60% of heavy metal, percentage utilisation being an indicative number. Actual value will be have the potential of about 150,000 GWe-yr, which can satisfy our energy needs for a long time. A three-stage nuclear power programme has been chalked out in the Department of Atomic Energy to systematically exploit all these resources. It is planned to install a nuclear power capacity of about 20 GWe by the year 2020. The second stage of the nuclear power programme envisages building a chain of fast breeder reactors multiplying fissile material inventory along with power production. Approval of the Government for the construction of the first 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) was obtained in September 2003 and it is scheduled for completion in the year 2011. It is envisaged that four more such units will be constructed by the year 2020 as a part of the programme to set up about 20 GWe by the year 2020. Subsequently FBRs will be the mainstay of the nuclear power programme in India. The third stage consists of exploiting country’s vast resources of thorium through the route of fast or thermal critical reactors or the accelerator driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) . A 300 MWe Advan-ced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), designed to draw about two-third power from thorium fuel, is under development and will provide experience in all aspects of technologies related to thorium fuel cycle. A beginning is being made towards developing an accelerator needed for ADS. 3.6 New Fuel Resources and Technologies With enhanced exploration and mining, in tune with the trend so far, it is likely that new deposits of coal and hydrocarbons will be discovered, thereby increasing our resource base in future. New technologies such as in situ coal gasification will make more efficient use of the present resources and will enable the country to tap resources presently considered uneconomical. A recent article in Nature gives account of hydrocarbons and how the energy- returned-on-energy-invested (EROI) has tended to decline over time for all energy resources. For example, the EROI of oil in the US has decreased from a value of at least determined as one proceeds with the progra-mme and gets some experience. Issues involved are fuel burn-up, extent of multiple recycling possible, cycle losses during reprocessing and re-fabrication, and out-of-pile period consisting of transportation, storage, reprocessing, re-fabrication etc. FBR generation potential indicated above is equivalent to an installed capacity of about 530 GWe operating for 100 years at a life-time capacity factor of 80%. The thorium reserves, on multiple recycling through appropriate reactor systems, 100 to 1 for oil discoveries in 1930s to about 17 to 1 today for oil and gas extraction. The paper also says that the alternate liquid fuels such as ethanol from corn have a very low EROI. An EROI of much greater than 1 to 1 is needed to run a society. For a country like India having a high density of population, non-conventional renewable energy resources would continue to be important, but low EROI and competing pressures on the use of land would not permit them to contribute a significant share to the total energy mix. US Department of Energy has funded eight projects under the Clean Coal Initiative and has also ann-ounced plan to develop a pollution free coal fired power plant (Code named ‘FutureGen’) of the future . Similar proactive efforts are needed in India in the areas of coal mining as well as coal based power plant technologies. 36 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 37. Many countries have interest in exploiting the gas hydrates. Gas hydrates or methane hydrates are ice-like solids in which water molecules form cages around molecules of methane, the chief component of natural gas. Reserves of hydrates may offer more energy than coal . However, this resource needs to be precisely evaluated. In India also these resources are being identified. Estimates of this rather newly identified energy resource in India vary by orders of magnitude. According to a press report , various agencies in India have mapped out 6150 trillion cubic meters of gas hydrates along the southern coastline of the Indian peninsula. However, the technology of gas production from hydrates is yet to be commercially proven. The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is pursuing a proposal to develop technologies for exploiting gas hydrates in collaboration with Russian Federation. Fusion is another attractive long-term energy option and R&D on fusion is being done worldwide including in India at the Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat. Fusion based reactor systems may become a reality by middle of the century. 13. 14.Provisional Population Totals, page 34, Census of India 2001, Registrar General & 15.Census Commissioner, India. 16.World Population: Major Trends- A Study by United Nations, (www. iiasa.ac.at / Research / LUC /Papers) accessed on 19.08.2002 Provisional Population Totals, page 31, Census of India 2001, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 17.Estimated from the Annual Reports 2002-03 of various ministries of the government of India, EJ = Exa Joule =1018 Joules. Other commonly used units 18.are MTOE and MTCE. 1 EJ = 23.9 MTOE = 34.5 MTCE. World Energy Assessment: 19.Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, 2000, page 139 gives definition of all 20.the energy units. MTOE is based on the assumption that calorific value of oil 21.i10,000 kcal/kg. Similarly MTCE is based on the assumption that calorific value of coal is 6,930 kcal/kg. 22.Report of the Steering Committee on Energy Sector for 12th Five Year Plan, 23.Government of India, Planning Commission (Sr. No. 1/2001, March-2002). BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2002. 24.Report of Working Group on Coal & Lignite for The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002- 25.2007), July 2001. 26.An Energy Overview of India, DOE, USA, 27.(www.fe.doe.gov/international/indiover.html) accessed on11.06.2002. Vision Hydrocarbon-2025, 2000, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, 28.Government of India - Strategy Paper for Development of the Hydrocarbon 29.Sector, February 2000. 30.BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2002, (www.bp.com/centres/energy/) accessed on 15.07.2002. 31.Annual Report, 2002-2003, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India page 13. ‘O+OEG’ stands for ‘Oil’ and ‘Oil Equivalent Gas’ 32.Disha - Green India 2047, page 283,TERI 2001. Annual Report 2002- 2003, page 3, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India 33.Annual Report 2001- 2002, page 6, Ministry of Power, Government of India. Report of the Steering Committee on Energy Sector for 10th Five Year Plan, 34.Government of India, Planning Commission (Sr. No. 1/2001, March-2002). 35.Annual Report, page 4, 2001-02, Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Resources, 36.Government of India. 37 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 38. 37.A.B.Awati, Internal note, July 24, 2003, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. 38.It consists of two components: 80,000 tonnes from Reasonably Assured Resource (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources-I (EAR-I) and 15,000 tonnes from 39.Estimated Additional Resource-II (EAR-II). Out of 3.93 MT of monazite ore about 70% is available for further processing 40.which contains 9% of ThO2 of which 87.87 % is thorium metal. One viewpoint is that ongoing research to increase the fuel burn-up could enable 41.achieving burn-up of the order of 200,000 MWd/T a reality in the next one decade. To achieve 60% heavy metal utilization would, thus, require only 3 cycles, which should be achievable. Anil Kakodkar, “Perspective of a Developing Country with Expanding Nuclear Power Programme”, International Conference on Innovative Technologies for Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Nuclear Power, June 2003, IAEA, Vienna. Charles Hall et al, “Hydrocarbons and the evolution of human culture” Nature, vol 426, 20 November 2003. “Bush takes the Initiative on Clean Coal”, Modern Power Systems, April 2003, page 3. “Methane extraction and carbon sequestration” ORNL Review, No. 2, 2002, page 4. “Massive gas-hydrate reserves discovered” Financial Express, Nov. 15, 1998 (http://www.indian-express.com/fe/daily/19981115/31955104.html) accessed on 15.07.2002. Proposed Indo-Russian Centre for Gas Hydrate Studies, Integrated Long Term Programme for Cooperation in Science & Technology between India and Russia, Department of Science and Technology, October 2002, page 59. Koji Tokimatsu et.al. ‘Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties’ Energy Policy 31 (2003) 775-797. ‘An Outline Roadmap for Fusion Energy Science: A Portfolio Approach- Discussion Draft’ 11-13-1998 (http://www.math.nyu.edu/mfdd/imre/roadmap.pdf) accessed on 10.10.2003. Peter Rodgers, “Waiting for the power of the sun”, Physics World, July 2002, page 45. Electricity Demand Projection Many national and international agencies have made projections of energy demands of India. We first present a survey of various studies and then give our projections. 4.1. A Survey of Various Studies There is a considerable spread in energy demand forecasts made for India by various investigators. Some important forecasts/scenarios are summarized in Table 3. Various working groups of the steering committee on energy sector for the 10th five year plan projected an average primary commercial energy demand growth rate of 5.74%/yr for the two forthcoming five year plans. In view of (a) the increased emphasis on energy efficiency and energy conservation, (b) an expected higher contribution of the service sector to the GDP in future and (c) the impact of information technology and e-commerce, the steering committee came up with a lower figure of 4.25%/yr for the demand growth rate . The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) , carried out an analysis of the Indian energy scenario and suggested strategies for sustainable development . In their base case scenario the primary energy growth rate was taken as 4.4%/yr during the 38 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 39. period 1997-2019 and 3.6%/yr during the period 2020-2047. For electricity, the corresponding growth rates were 5.7%/yr and 3.9%/yr. In the alternative scenario, growth rates are smaller, 3.7%/yr and 3.0%/yr for the primary energy and 5.1%/yr and 3.4%/yr for electricity. Both of these scenarios assume a very large dependence on imports, which is projected to increase from about 20% in the year 1997 to about 70% in the year 2047 in the base scenario and 60% in the alternative scenario. The International Energy Outlook 2002 (IEO) of the United States predicts for India a reference primary energy consumption growth rate of 3.6%/yr during the period 1997 to 2020. The high and low growth scenarios correspond to 4.5%/yr and 2.6%/yr respectively. For the electricity consumption, the three corresponding growth rates for the above period are 3.8%/yr, 4.5%/yr and 2.6%/yr. Under the project “A Long-term Perspective on Environment and Development in the Asia-Pacific Region” of the Environment Agency of the Government of Japan the primary energy consumption growth rates, for India, were projected to be 3.9%/yr till the year 2025, 2.6%/yr till the year 2050 and 1.8%/yr till the year 2100 under their high estimate category . Similar growth rates have been assumed for India in another study “US-Japan Energy Cooperation to Help Achieve Sustainable Development in Asia” . The primary and electricity energy growth rate forecasts made by the Institute of Energy Economics of Japan (IEEJ), for India, are 5.2%/yr and 5.4%/yr respectively for the forthcoming twenty years . The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of Engineers of the United Kingdom in their study on the role of nuclear energy in generating electricity have referred to Morrison’s projections of world energy requirement. For the developing nations, those are based on 4%/yr until the year 2026, 3%/yr until the year 2050 and 2%/yr for the rest of the century . In India, Central Electricity Authority (CEA) undertakes periodic electric power surveys (EPS) to make projections of the energy requirements of the country. These estimates guide the planning process for the capacity additions. CEA released its report on the 16th electric power survey in January 2001 and projected electricity growth requirement, for the period 1997-2012, to be about 6.5%/yr and 7.4%/yr in its two scenarios . Beyond the year 2050, most of the energy growth forecasts are around 1 to 2%/yr. 4.2 Demand Projection: Our View India’s GDP is growing fast. Energy Intensity of GDP has been observed to follow a certain trend worldwide. Below a certain level of development, growth results in increase in energy intensity. With further growth in economy, the energy intensity starts declining. Energy intensity of GDP in India is same as in OECD countries , when GDP is calculated in terms of the purchasing power parity (PPP). Energy-GDP elasticity , the ratio of the growth rates of the two, remained around 1.3 from early fifties to mid-seventies. Since then it has been continuously decreasing. Electricity is the most important component of the primary energy. Electricity-GDP elasticity was 3.0 till the mid-sixties. It has also decreased since then. Reasons for these energy– economy elasticity changes are: demographic shifts from rural to urban areas , structural economic changes towards lighter industry, impressive growth of services, increased use of energy efficient devices, increased efficiency of conversion equipments and inter-fuel substitution with more efficient alternatives. Based on the CMIE data the average value of the Electricity-GDP elasticity during 1991-2000 has been calculated to be 1.213 and that of the primary energy- GDP elasticity to be 0.907. Estimating the future GDP growth rates of India from the projections made by Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman , taking the primary energy intensity fall 39 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 40. to be 1.2 %/yr , extrapolating the electricity intensity fall from past data till the year 2022 and subsequently a constant fall of 1.2 %/yr the growth rates of the primary energy and electrical energy have been estimated by us as follows. These rates form the basis of the projections reported in this study. It may be recalled that historical primary energy and electricity growth rates during the period 1981-2000 were 6%/yr and 7.8%/yr respectively. Based on the growth rates given in the above table, per capita electricity generation would reach about 5300 kWh per year in the year 2052 and the total about 8000 billion kWh. By then the cumulative energy expenditure will be about 2400 EJ. The ratio of thermal equivalent of electrical energy to the primary commercial energy will rise from about 57% in the year 2002-03 to about 65% in the year 2052-53. Power generation in India was only 4.1 billion kWh in the year 1947-48 and in the year 2002-03 it was more than 600 billion kWh. Considering the past record, the future economy growth scenario and likely boost to captive power plant sector as a result of changes arising due to Electricity Act 2003 , the target of generating about 8000 billion kWh per year by 2052 is achievable. 42. Report of the Steering Committee on Energy Sector for 12th Five Year Plan, 43. Government of India, Planning Commission (Sr. No. 1/2001, March-2002). 44..It was earlier called Tata Energy Research Institute. 45. Disha-Green India 2047, TERI, 2001. International Energy Outlook, Energy Information Administration, Appendices A, 46. B and C, March 2002, (www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html) accessed on 10.07.2002. 47. A Long Term Perspective on Environment and Development in the Asia-Pacific Region, (http://www.ecoasia.org/workshop/bluebook/contents.html) accessed on 48. 30.05.2002. 49. John Layman, US - Japan Energy Cooperation to Help Achieve Sustainable Development in Asia, Energy Outlook for Asia, Sep. 2000, 50. (www.acus.org/Publications/Occasionalpapers/Energy/LymanEnergy.pdf.) accessed on 30.05.2002. 51. Kazuya Fujime, IEEJ, ( http://eneken,ieej.or.jp/en/data/pdf/115.pdf.) accessed 52. on 11.06.2002. 53. Nuclear Energy-The Future Climate, The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of 54. Engineering, U.K., June 1999, (www.royalsoc.ac.uk/policy/nuclearreport.htm) accessed on 24.05.2002. 55. Sixteenth Electric Power Survey of India, Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Government of India, September 2000 (page 132). 56. Energy Intensity of GDP is defined as the ratio of energy consumption to GDP e.g., MTOE/ Rs.1000 of GDP. Key World Energy Statistics, 2003, International Energy Agency. 57. TERI Energy Data Directory & Yearbook 2000/2001, Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India. 58. Movement from rural to urban areas influences energy-economy elasticity in several ways. It causes a shift from non-commercial energy to commercial 59. energy particularly electricity. It also results in efficient use of energy and a shift towards services. 40 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 41. Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman, ‘Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050’ Global Economics Paper No. 99, Goldman Sachs, 1st Oct. 2003 (https://www.gs.com/insight/research/reports/99.pdf). From 2000 to 2030, global energy intensity will fall by 1.2% per year. Intensity will fall more quickly in the non-OECD regions, largely because of improved energy efficiency and structural economic changes towards lighter industry. See World Energy Outlook, Highlights, page 32 - 2002. This is higher than what this ratio is in developed countries and reflects the shift towards cleaner energy source due to likely advances in technology in the coming five decades. RKD Shah, “Strategies for Growth of Thermal Power”, Energy for Growth and Sustainability, Indian National Academy of Engineering, 1998. http://powermin.nic.in/electricity_act_2003 accessed on 28.10.2003. Meeting Demand Projection The present status of various fuel-resources in India is given in Table 4. The domestic mineable coal (about 38 BT) and the estimated hydrocarbon reserves (about 12 BT) together may provide about 1200 EJ of energy. To meet the projected demand of about 2400 EJ, one has to tap all options including using the known fossil reserves efficiently, looking for increasing fossil resource base, competitive import of energy (including building gas pipe lines whenever and wherever permitted based on geo-political considerations and found feasible from technocomm-ercial con- siderations), harnessing full hydro potential for generation of electricity and increasing use of non-fossil resources including nuclear and non-conventional. Nuclear fuel-resources have the potential of significantly reducing the gap in the demand and supply of energy. Issues like comparative economics, effect on environment, security of supplies, future technological deve-lopments in India and all over the world, perceived proliferation concerns etc. will dictate contributions of various energy resources. We made an attempt to understand all issues and build a reference scenario to meet the projected demand. With regard to nuclear, issues involved are likely evolution of policies being followed by nuclear resource suppliers, further indigenous development of fast breeder re-actor technologies and development of technologies for setting up of ADS. Reference scenario assumes that while import of reactors having an installed capacity of 8000 MWe by the year 2020 included in the plans of the Department of Atomic Energy would be possible, any further imports may not be possible due to prevailing international nuclear commerce scenario. Reference sce-nario also assumes that fast breeder reactors to be set up beyond 2020 would be based on metal fuels having short doubling time. Other cases considered included no imports of reactors beyond the two already contracted, and development of ADS by 2030. These are referred to briefly in this report. Before giving further details about the reference scenario, we will like to comment on certain important factors viz., imports, economics and environment. Imports At present, India imports about 30% of its commercial energy . It is desirable that in future also the import content is limited to about the same level. India is importing coal, hydrocarbons as well as enriched uranium . Possibilities for importing gas through a pipe line from Central Asia or Middle East are being talked about, but in view of strategic constraints no firm plans are in place. It is worthwhile to compare import of nuclear fuel with the import of other forms of fuel (Table 5). Nuclear fuel contains energy in a concentrated form thus requiring much less tonnage for fuel to be transported or stored. In the overall cost of electricity generated from nuclear fuel, the cost of fuel is a much smaller component as compared to the other 41 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 42. components. In addition, spent fuel is a resource for fuel to be used in fast breeder reactors. The cost indicated is on the assumption that the fuel is used in once through mode. These numbers can undergo minor changes over a period of time, but the order of magnitude differe-nce between the characteristics of nuclear fuel and other fuels will always remain. Further, the fuel discharged from nuclear reactors also con-tains fissile component and that can be recovered by reprocessing and recycled, preferably in FBRs, thereby further multiplying the fissile material. Thus, if import of energy is a necessity, from strategic considerations nuclear fuel is a preferable option. To keep the energy import at an affordable level and to have diversity of supply sources, it is necessary that the share of nuclear energy be substantially increased from the present about 3% of the total generation. Growth of nuclear installed capacity in India would depend on the chara-cteristics of the concept chosen for fast breeder reactors and associated fuel cycle technologies. Economics and Environment The comparative economics of various modes of power generation depends on local conditions, discount rates and availability of cheap fuels like coal and gas. Wherever fossil fuels are available at reasonable prices, the setting up of thermal power plants is an option to be considered in any techno-economic analysis. Issues to be considered in case of coal based plants include location of coal-mines vis-a-vis load centres, coal transportation, availability of railroads for transportation, sulphur and ash content of the fuel and associated environmental impact. Plants based on imported coal have to be set up at coastal sites. India’s oil reserves are minuscule and should be reserved for use by transport sector. Gas prices are subject to fluctuations due to market forces and form a sizable fraction of electricity cost produced from gas-fired plants. An internal study done by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) indicates that nuclear power is competitive as compared to coal fired thermal power, when the nuclear plant is about 1000 km from the pit-head. There are several regions in the country where such haulage is involved. Being capital intensive in nature, the cost of nuclear electricity becomes more competitive with the age of the plant as the capital cost depreciates. The study referred to in the previous paragraph is based on economics data pertaining to PHWRs being constructed and operated by NPCIL. Studies by IGCAR indicate that the cost of fast breeder reactor will be comparable to, if not less than, PHWR cost. “The estimated unit energy cost works out to INR 3.25 per kWh. With increased fuel burn up and series construction of reactors, the unit energy cost will come down.” The recently published study on nuclear power by MIT points out that recycle option would impose a significant penalty on nuclear power. This, however, has been strongly criticized by the French , who have real industrial experience with reprocessing and plutonium recycling. The CEA report says that “….the incremental cost of MOX recycling is between 4% and 6% of the kWh cost.” This essentially indicates that fuel cost in case of recycling is only marginally above the once through case. For Indian conditions, where the cost of natural uranium is significantly above that in the international market, this indicates that cost of plutonium-based fuels would be very competitive. 42 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 43. Generally only direct costs are used in comparative assessment of different electricity options. However, the opinion is building up in favour of internalising all costs of generation in any comparative assess-ment of energy options and this would include, inter alia, the cost of impact on environment and health and cost of setting up of infrastructure for fuel transportation which is often subsidised. The largest environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels are carbon dioxide and other forms of air pollution, which can cause chronic illness. The risks associated with these impacts affect the entire planet. In addition, the volume of waste generated in case of energy generation from fossil fuels is quite large. Technically nuclear energy is far more benign and much of the cost is already internalized in financial plans. For example, nuclear power operators are required to provide funds for decommissioning of installations. External costs have been estimated by a study conducted under European Commission’s ExternE project and results reported in the year 1998 are summarized in the Table 6. Similar studies need to be conducted under Indian conditions so as to factor externalities in the process of planning. To reduce the risk of global climate change, industrialized countries have made commitments to reduce GHG emissions under a protocol, negotiated in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 as an addition to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In the so-called Kyoto Protocol, indu-strialized countries have agreed to reduce their collective emissions during the period 2008-2012 by at least 5.2% below 1990 levels. So far no decision has been taken about carbon reduction commitments for the period beyond the year 2012, but statements have already been made, that countries like India and China should also make carbon reduction commitments. It is pertinent to note that per capita carbon emission in India is 1.1 tonnes per year and it is 2.5 tonnes per year in China while for the OECD countries, it is 10.9 tonnes per year While developing future energy technology mix, nuclear energy has to be an important part of the mix as it produces virtually no GHG emissions. The basis for the scenario and the main features are summarized hereafter. 5.1 The Basis for Building the Scenario to Meet the Projected Demand. Capacity Factors and Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion Efficiency Due to continued improvement in technology, capacity factors of various types of power plants and thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiencies would improve as projected in the Table 7. Hydro The Central Electricity Authority has completed the preliminary ranking study of hydroelectric schemes to harness the balance hydroelectric potential in the country and the report was released on 5th February 2002. It recommended achieving cumulative hydro installed capacity of 115 GWe by the year 2021-22 and the full 150 GWe by the year 2025-26. Non-conventional Renewable Out of the total potential of 100 GWe of the non-conventional energy, 10 GWe is planned to be added by the year 2011-12. Assuming same rate of growth, about 56 GWe will be reached by the year 2022-23. The remaining potential is assumed to be attained by the year 2052-53. 43 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 44. Nuclear The target set by DAE of installing about 20 GWe nuclear power by the year 2020 will be achieved. This target includes 2.5 GWe of Oxide fuelled FBRs and 8 GWe of LWRs. R&D for using metal fuel in FBRs will be completed by the year 2020. Corresponding fuel cycle technologies will also be developed. Industrial capability to construct required numbers of FBRs of 1 GWe rating will be in place by the year 2021 and this capacity will be expanded subsequently. All the plutonium produced in PHWRs and in LWRs will be used for fuelling FBRs. Reactor physics parameters used for calculating growth of nuclear installed capacity are given in the Annex. The study indicates that about a quarter of the total electricity generation by nuclear power by the middle of the century is possible. The R&D issues to be completed before the year 2020 to achieve such a growth have been identified and in our opinion this is doable. It is possible to have a contribution even higher than a quarter based on nuclear energy by the middle of the century if, (i) All R&D, for setting up an ADS based on thorium as fuel, is completed and a demonstration unit is commissioned by around the year 2020, (ii) A prototype unit of large capacity is constructed by the year 2030, and (iii) Many such power units are set up so as to make significant contribution to electricity generation as well as to primary energy by the middle of the century. R&D to achieve this has been initiated as a part of the 10th five year plan in India . Efforts are being made worldwide to develop ADS for power generation as well as waste incineration and the expectation is that the construction of a full size prototype device would start around the year 2030. However, in view of paucity of energy resources, India has to take a lead role and the development on this front has to be faster. As indicated earlier, this scenario is not reported as it is yet to be fully developed. Fossil Fossil resources would meet the remaining demand. Various demand growth rates assumed in the present study are based on the sectoral demand estimates made by TERI , the resource position of the domestic fuels (Table 4) and desirability of minimizing import . As per this scenario, the growth rates for coal & lignite demand will be about 2.9%/yr till the year 2022, 5.3%/yr during the period 2022-2032, 5.1%/yr during the period 2032-2042 and 4.3%/yr during the period 2042-2052. During the corresponding periods the growth rates of demand of hydrocarbons will be about 3.7 %/yr., 4.4%/yr, 4.6%/yr and 3.2%/yr. 5.2 Salient Features of the Projected Scenario Using the basis given in Section 5.1, the complete scenario has been calculated and the results are given in Tables 8 to 11 and figures 1 and 2. Salient features are as follows. Energy Annual electricity generation would increase from about 638 TWh in the year 2002- 03 to about 7957 TWh in the year 2052-53. Total Installed power capacity will go up from about 139 GWe in the year 2002-03 44 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 45. to about 1344 GWe in the year 2052-53. Annual primary energy consumption would increase from about 13.5 EJ in the year 2002-03 to about 117 EJ in the year 2052-53. Contribution of Different Fuel Resources to Primary and Electrical Energy Approximate percentage contributions of various resources towards electricity generation in the year 2052-53 will be coal - 47%, hydrocarbon - 16%, hydro - 8%, non-conventional renewable - 4% and nuclear - 26%. Installed capacity distribution in the above year will be coal - 46%, hydrocarbon - 15%, hydro-11%, non-conventional renewable - 7%, and nuclear - 20%. Various components of primary energy in the year 2052 are projected to be Coal - 40.7%, hydrocarbon - 35.4%, Hydro - 4.9%, non-conventional renewable -2.4% and nuclear - 16.6%. Primary Energy – Cumulative Usage Cumulative usage of coal by the year 2052 will be about 943 EJ as against the present domestic mineable reserves of 667 EJ. To meet the difference and to meet future requirements of coal, extensive efforts need to be launched towards discovering additional resources, improving technology of extracting coal so as to improve recovery from existing resources and exploiting resources presently considered economically unviable. The demand gap remaining after all these efforts has to be met by imports. For the hydrocarbons the cumulative usage will be 912 EJ as against the reserves 511 EJ. To meet the difference and to meet future requirements of hydrocarbons extensive efforts need to be launched towards discovering additional resources and improving technology so as to ensure better recovery. The demand gap remaining after all these efforts has to be met by imports. Cumulative hydro-energy generation till the year 2052 will be about 212 EJ. Cumulative non-conventional renewable energy till the year 2052 will be about 72 EJ. Cumulative nuclear generation till the year 2052 will be about 246 EJ. Out of it 226 EJ will be the domestic component. Cumulative total primary energy consumption will be ~2385 EJ. Unless known domestic resources are augmented, there will be a shortage of ~697 EJ, constituting about 29% of the total. This will have to be met by imports. As the presently known extractable coal reserves would have been exhausted by the middle of century, it is necessary to ensure that nuclear generation through fast breeder reactors and thorium fuelled reactors is poised to replace some of the coal based plants after about 5 decades. This requires development of ADS and/or fusion based systems at the earliest. 60. 61.Estimated from data given in ‘Energy’ published by Centre For Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, April 2002. India has 12 pressurized heavy water and 2 boiling water reactors in operation. For the boiling water reactors, enriched uranium is imported. The remaining reactors use indigenously produced fuel. Of the nine reactors under construction, 62.two are light water reactors being set up in technical cooperation with the Russian Federation and will use enriched uranium imported from Russian Federation and 63.one is a fast breeder reactor and will use plutonium derived from reprocessing of spent fuel discharged from PHWRs. The remaining six will use natural uranium. 64.A K Nema, B K Pathak and R B Grover, “India – Nuclear Power for GHG Mitigation 45 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 46. 65.and Sustainable Energy Development”, Nuclear Power for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, International Atomic Energy Agency, November, 2000. 66.S B Bhoje, “Status of Fast Reactor Development in India”, Conference on Nuclear Power Technologies with Fast Neutron Reactors, Obninsk, Dec, 2003. 67.Eric S Beckjord, “The Future of Nuclear Power”, An Interdisciplinary MIT Study, 68.2003. “Comments by CEA on the MIT Report on the Future of Nuclear Power – 69.Interdisciplinary MIT Study” 2003, personal communication from Arthur de 70.Montalembert 71.H-H Rogner quot; Nuclear Power and Sustainable Developmentquot;, IAEA Side Event at 72.the 8th Conference of Parties (CoP-8) to the UNFCCC, New Delhi, 28th Oct. 2002. Human Development Report, Page 213-215, Oxford University Press – 2002. This report is in 7 volumes. The volume 1 is the general report and can be downloaded from http://www.cea.nic.in/hpid/preliminary_ranking_study_of_hyd.htm Tenth Plan Proposals, Report of Working Group R&D Sector, June 2001, DAE, GOI Edwin Cartlidge, “Nuclear Alchemy”, Physics World, June 2003, page 8. Disha-Green India 2047, Page 249, TERI 2001. Once the power demand from fossil resources is fixed based on all the assumptions the distribution amongst the two components, coal and hydrocarbon is done as follows. Out of the two fossil components coal is preferable due to its relatively larger domestic availability and stable international price. Coal is required for other industries also like steel etc. In the year 2002 about 80% of the total coal consumption was in the power industry. It is assumed here that it can at best increase to 85%. The rest of the power is derived from hydrocarbons. Concluding Remarks To meet increasing energy requirements, policy decisions to speedily develop and utilize all types of energy resources at our command need to be taken and implemented. Full potential of the hydro and non-conventional renewable resources should be exploited at the earliest. In the coming five decades, though coal based thermal power plants will continue to be the mainstay of electricity generation, share of nuclear power has to be significantly expanded. For the nuclear power to play this role, the ongoing PHWR, LWR and FBR programmes should be completed. The development of U-Pu metal based FBRs of requisite breeding characteristics and associated fuel reprocessing technologies should be completed in the next 15-20 years. Fast breeder reactors have the potential to ensure that generation by nuclear power by the middle of the present century is about a quarter of the total electricity generation and this would enable to limit the primary energy import to about 30%. Thorium based thermal and/or fast breeder technology as well as ADS, should be developed so as to provide required fissile material beyond the year 2052. All efforts should be made to develop and deploy advanced technologies in a shorter time frame so as to ensure still higher contribution by nuclear energy thereby reducing the energy import. Intensive R&D efforts need to be mobilized towards exploration of hydrocarbons and coal and better utilization of existing resource base, development of efficient fuel cycle technologies for nuclear power and for exploitation of new fuel resources such as gas hydrates. Acknowledgement Authors would like to thank Dr. Anil Kakodkar, Chairman, AEC for fruitful discussions throughout the course of the study. Authors also thankfully acknowledge the comments received from BARC, IGCAR and NPCIL. 46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 47. Figure 1: Projected Installed Power Capacity 47 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 48. Figure 2: Projected Annual Electricity Generation 48 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 49. Top ^ Table 1: Population Projection Av.Gr. Rate * Population** Year (%/yr) (Billion) 1991 1.99 0.843 2001 1.50 1.027 2011 1.02 1.19 2021 0.70 1.32 2031 0.40 1.41 2041 0.20 1.47 2051 0.00 1.50 * Average growth rate figures are applicable for the next decade. The figure for 1991 is calculated, the rest are projected. ** The population figures for 1991 & 2001 are from Census of India 2001, the rest are projected. Table 2: Contribution of Different Fuel Resources to Primary & Electrical Energy Primary Energy, Year 2002-03 (Estimated) Coal+Lig Crude NG Hydro Nuc Non-conv Contribution in 6.40 4.83 1.18 0.79 0.23 0.03 13.46 EJ % of total 47.53 35.92 8.79 5.85 1.72 0.19 100.00 Import (EJ) 0.51 3.42 ~0.0 ~0.0 0.03 0.00 3.96 % of above 7.97 70.81 ~0.0 ~0.0 13.0 0.00 29.42 Source: Annual Reports of the year 2002-03 of Ministries of Power, Coal, Petroleum & Natural Gas, Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Department of Atomic Energy and communication from Central Electricity Authority. Electricity, Year 2002-03 Thermal Hydro Nuclear Non-conv Total Contribution in TWh 550.82 65.66 19.24 2.66 638.38 % of total 86.3 10.3 3.0 0.4 100.0 1. Power from Utilities: Thermal, Hydro and Nuclear: 531.61 TWh (Source http://cea.nic.in/data/opt2_mon_gen_act.htm assessed on 23.4.03), 2. Wind: 2.13 TWh (Source Annual Report 2002-03 Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources) 3. Captive Power: Capacity factor of 41% for the year 2000-01 is calculated from the data given in “Energy” published by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, April 2002. Generation of 104 billion kWh in 2002-03 has been calculated assuming a capacity factor of 41% on an estimated base of 29 GWe. <![endif]> 49 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 50. Table 3 : A Survey of Energy Growth Rate Projections for India1[1] Investigator Primary Electrical Period of Commercial Energy Growth Projection Energy Growth Rate (%/y) Rate (%/y) SCE-India2[2] 1 2002-2012 4.3 1997-2019 4.5 5.7 TERI-India3[3] 2 2020- 2047 3.7 3.9 IEO-USA4[4] 3 1997- 2020 4.5 4.5 1990- 2025 3.9 …. EAGJ-Japan5[5] 4 2026- 2050 2.4 …. 2051-2100 1.8 …. IEEJ-Japan6[6] 5 1999-2020 5.2 5.4 until 2026 …. 4.0 RS&RAE-UK7[7] until 2050 …. 3.0 6 2051-2100 …. 2.0 8[8] 7 CEA-India 1997- 2012 …. 6.5 2002- 2022 4.6 6.3 2022-2032 4.5 4.9 8 Present Study 2032-2042 4.5 4.5 2042- 2052 3.9 3.9 Table 4: India's Energy Resource Base 1[1] Historical energy growth rates for 1981 to 2000 were 6%/yr & 7.8 %/yr for primary energy & electricity from utilities respectively. 2[2] Report of the Steering Committee on Energy (SCE) Sector, 10th Five Year Plan, Government of India, Planning Commission (Sr. No. 1/2001, March-2002). 3[3] Disha- Green India 2047, TERI, 2001. Disha gives demand growth rates for coal, oil and gas. Primary energy growth rates are derived based on the calorific values of the fossil fuels and the thermal equivalents of the electricity generated (See Table 7, page 274 and Tables 8&9. page 287). Disha gives total generation in the years 1997, 2019 & 2047. Electricity growth rates are calculated from the given data. Conversion efficiencies from electrical energy to thermal energy are given in the Table 7. 4[4] International Energy Outlook (IEO), Energy Information Administration, Appendices A, B and C, March 2002, (www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html). The growth rates correspond to the High Economy Growth Scenario (Appendix B). 5[5] A Long Term Perspective on Environment and Development in the Asia-Pacific Region (http://www.ecoasia.org/workshop/bluebook/contents.html) by Environmental Agency of Japan (EAGJ). The growth rates pertain to the region Asia-Pacific and not exclusively to India. Considering India’s projected GDP growth rate, high estimate is quoted. 6[6] Kazuya Fujime, Managing Director, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ), (http://eneken,ieej.or.jp/en/data/pdf/115.pdf.). 7[7] Nuclear Energy- The Future Climate, The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of Engineering (RS & RAE), U.K., June 1999. The growth rates pertain to developing countries and not exclusively to India. 8[8] Sixteenth Electric Power Survey of India, Central Electricity Authority (CEA), Ministry of Power, Government of India, September 2000 (page 132). The growth rate corresponds to lower of the two scenarios. Higher growth rate is 7.3%. 50 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 51. Electricity Amount Thermal Energy Potential EJ TWh GW-yr GWe-yr Fossil 9[9] Coal 38 - BT 667 185,279 21,151 7,614 Hydrocarbon10[10] 12 - BT 511 141,946 16,204 5,833 Non-Fossil Nuclear11[11] Uranium-Metal 61,000 -T In PHWR 28.9 7,992 913 328 In Fast Breeders 3,699 1,027,616 117,308 42,231 2,25,000 - Thorium-Metal T In Breeders 13,622 3,783,886 431,950 155,502 Renewable 12[12] Hydro 150 - GWe 6.0 1,679 192 69 Non-conv. Ren.13[13] 100 - GWe 2.9 803 92 33 Assumptions for Potential Calculations Fossil: 1. Complete source is used for calculating electricity potential with thermal efficiency of 0.36 2. Calorific values: Coal: 4,200 kcal/kg, Hydrocarbon: 10,200 kcal/kg Non-Fossil: Thermal energy is the equivalent fossil energy required to produce electricity at 0.36 efficiency. Nuclear 1. PHWR burn-up = 6,700 MWd/T of uranium oxide, efficiency = 0.29. 9[9] Report of Working Group on Coal & Lignite for The 10th Five Year Plan (2002-2007) July 2001 10[10] Annual Report 2002- 2003, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India and remarks in the para 3.2 of the present report. 11[11] A.B. Awati, Internal note, July 24, 2003, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. 12[12] Annual Report 2001- 2002, Ministry of Power, Government of India. 13[13] Annual Report, 2001-02, Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Resources, Government of India. Top ^ 51 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 52. 2. Fast breeders can use 60% of the uranium. This is an indicative number. Actual value will be determined as one proceeds with the programme and gets some experience. Fast reactor thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency is taken to be 42%. 3. Breeders can use 60% thorium with efficiency of 42%. At this stage, the type of reactors wherein thorium will be used are yet to be decided. The numbers are only indicative. Hydro 1. Name plate capacity is 150 GWe. 2. Estimated hydro- potential of 600 billion kWh and name plate capacity of 150 GWe gives a capacity factor of 0.46. Non-conventional Renewable 1. Includes: Wind 45 GWe, Small Hydro 15 GWe, Biomass Power/ Co-gen. 19.5 GWe and Waste to Energy 1.7 GWe etc. 2. Capacity factor of 0.33 has been assumed for potential calculation. Table 5: Cost of Imported Fuel Fuel Rs./Tonne Billion US $/EJ Naphtha at Indian port 13,470 5.86 L.N.G. at Indian port 12,500 5.80 Coal at Indian port 2,346 1.67 Nat.-U (U3O8) at International 11,00,000 0.04 market Costs of fossil fuels are from quot; Draft Report of the Expert Committee on Fuels for Power Generation, Central Electricity Authority, Government of India, April 2002quot;. Natural uranium cost is the one prevailing for most part of the year 2002- http://www.uxc.com/review/uxc_g_2yr_price.html (accessed on 23-01-2003). Table 6: External Costs Equivalent Costs Fuel lives lost (per (mEcu/kWh) GWe-year) Coal 18 -150 213 Lignite 35 - 84 138 Oil 26 -109 213 Gas 5.0 - 31 27 Wind 0.5 - 2.6 5 Hydro 0.8 - 7 2 Biomass 1.2 - 29 51 Nuclear 2.5 - 7.3 1 Adapted by IAEA (H-H Rogner) from European Commission ExternE Project 1998 Table 7: Capacity Factors & Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion Efficiency 52 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 53. Capacity Factor Efficiency Year Thermal Hydro Non-conv Nuclear 2002 0.7 0.38 0.14 0.80 0.30 2022 0.7 0.46 0.33 0.80 0.36 2032 0.7 0.46 0.33 0.80 0.36 2042 0.7 0.46 0.33 0.85 0.36 2052 0.7 0.46 0.33 0.85 0.38 The efficiencies quoted here have been used for calculation of Primary Energy- equivalents of hydro, nuclear and non-conventional renewable electricity produced. Table 8: Primary and Electrical Energy – Projected Growth Non- Elec/ Popul- Coal + Hydro- Nucl- Prim. Year Hydro conv- Electricity Prim- ation Lignite carbon ear Energy Ren ary Per EJ Billion EJ EJ EJ EJ EJ EJ TWh Cap % (ET) kWh 2002 1.04 6.40 6.02 0.79 0.23 0.03 13.46 7.65 638 614 57 2022 1.33 11 13 4.6 2.1 1.6 33 22 2154 1620 66 2032 1.42 19 19 6 4.4 2.0 51 35 3485 2454 68 2042 1.47 31 30 6 9.8 2.4 80 54 5438 3699 68 2052 1.50 47 41 6 19.4 2.7 117 75 7957 5305 64 For calculating primary energy in EJ equivalent to electrical energy generated by hydro, nuclear or non-conventional renewable sources, efficiencies given in Table 7 have been used. ET stands for equivalent thermal. Table 9: Installed Electrical Capacities – Fuel Mix (Including estimated captive power) Non-conv Coal Hydro-carbon Hydro Nuclear Total Renewable GWe % GWe % GWe % GWe % GWe % GWe 2002 71.92 51.84 32.81 23.65 27.78 20.02 3.5 2.52 2.72 1.96 138.73 2022 156 37 60 14 115 28 56 13 29 7 417 2032 266 41 101 15 150 23 68 11 63 10 648 2042 436 46 155 16 150 16 82 9 131 14 954 2052 615 46 204 15 150 11 100 7 275 20 1344 Table 10: Electricity Generation – Fuel Mix 53 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 54. (Including estimated captive power generation) Non-conv Per Cap Year Coal Hydro-carbon Hydro Nuclear Total Renewable Elec Gen TWh % TWh % TWh % TWh % TWh % TWh kWh 2002 425.74 66.69 125.08 19.61 65.66 10.29 2.66 0.42 19.24 3.01 638.38 614 2022 957 44 369 17 460 21 162 8 206 10 2154 1620 2032 1630 47 618 18 600 17 197 6 441 13 3485 2454 2042 2673 49 950 18 600 11 237 4 978 18 5438 3699 2052 3774 47 1250 16 600 8 289 4 2044 26 7957 5305 Table 11: Cumulative Nuclear Power Installed Capacity PHWR, AHWR and FBR LWR and FBR based on Sub Total Grand based on Pu from PHWR Pu from LWR Total Year Thermal Fast (GWe) Thermal Fast (GWe) Oxide Metal (GWe) (GWe) (GWe) (GWe) (GWe) Oxide Oxide Metal Oxide Oxide Metal 2002 2.40 0.00 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.00 2.72 0.00 2.72 2022 9.96 2.50 6.00 8.00 0.00 3.00 20.46 9.00 29.46 2032 9.40 2.50 33.00 8.00 0.00 10.00 19.90 43.00 62.90 2042 7.86 2.50 87.00 8.00 0.00 26.00 18.36 113.00 131.36 2052 4.06 2.50 199.00 8.00 0.00 61.00 14.56 260.00 274.56 If only the already negotiated 2 GWe LWRs are imported then the installed capacity in 2052 will be 208 GWe instead of 275 GWe. Table 12: FBR Breeding Characteristics & Cycle Fissile Inventory Fissile Breeding Cycle fissile inventory for Fuel Type one year out of pile System Doubling System Growth period (T) Time (yr) Rate (%/yr) Oxide 18.8 3.8 4.7 Carbide 11.0 6.5 3.9 Metal 8.9 8.1 3.7 Source: INFCE Studies- see Annex 2 1. Reactor Unit Installed Capacity= 1 GWe 2. Reactor Capacity Factor = 0.75 3. Fuel Discharge Burn-up: Maximum = 100 GWd/T, Average = 67.5 GWd/T 4. Out-of-pile time period includes transportation, intermediate storage, pretreatment, reprocessing, fabrication etc. of the fuel 54 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 55. Annex: Basis for Calculating Growth of Installed Nuclear Capacity The requirement of natural uranium as the initial inventory for the 540 MWe PHWR is about 110 T of UO2 which is equivalent to 97 T of uranium metal i.e. about 180 TU/GWe. For the existing PHWRs of 220 MWe size this number is about the same. For the future 700 MWe PHWRs, as the core remains the same as that of the 540 MWe reactor, the initial inventory per GWe is lower, about 138 TU/GWe. As the total PHWR capacity would consist of roughly equally of the two designs, an average value of about 160 TU/GWe has been taken in the present study. The annual fuel operational requirement depends on the power, the burn-up, the capacity factor and the thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency. It is about 150 TU for 1 GWe power, 6,700 MWd/T burn-up, 80% capacity factor and 0.29 thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency. The discharged fuel contains about 3.5 kg plutonium. Out of this plutonium, only about 75% is the fissile component. Depleted uranium would constitute the major fraction (about 0.988) of the discharged fuel. It would be used mainly in FBRs. For the 1 GWe LWR, the fuel discharge rate is estimated to be 25 T per year at 35,000 MWd/T burn-up, 0.33% thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency and 80% capacity factor. The discharged fuel contains about 1% plutonium, of which two-third will be the fissile component . For the 1 GWe FBR the fuel discharge rate is estimated to be 10.81 T per year at 67,500 MWd/T burn up, at 0.42 thermal to electrical energy conversion efficiency and 80% capacity factor. The fissile component in discharged fuel will be 1.081 times of that of the fissile component of the fuel loaded in the reactor. This number viz., 1.081 has been calculated by INFCE based on 0.75 capacity factor. Larger the capacity factor larger would be this number. Use of this number in the present study is conservative. It is assumed that the technology of Pu-U metal based FBRs having the fissile growth rate of 8.1 %/yr, would have been developed by 2020 (Table 12). The critical fissile mass required for the above FBR and associated fuel cycle is about 3.7 T for one-year out of pile period. The critical mass may vary with the isotopic composition of the plutonium used i.e. whether it is plutonium discharged from PHWR, LWR or FBR, but this consideration is beyond the scope of the present estimates and is assumed to have negligible effect. Metal-fuelled FBRs of 4 GWe capacity or more will be installed annually from 2021 till the plutonium inventory from PHWR discharged fuel lasts and then as many as possible FBRs will continue to be added from the plutonium further bred in PHWRs as well as FBRs. Similarly, FBRs will be installed from the plutonium generated in LWRs and also from the plutonium bred in FBRs themselves. The depleted uranium discharged from the PHWRs will be used in the FBRs as initial inventory and as makeup requirements i.e. the difference between the feeds and the discharges. The total cycle inventory would be approximately 130 T per GWe and the annual makeup requirement would be about 1.1 T per GWe. It strictly applies for the INFCE reference oxide design only but has been taken to be applicable for the metal design as well. It may have little effect on the present estimates based on the metal design. Accordingly about 35,750 T of the depleted uranium would be tied up in 55 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 56. FBRs. The annual makeup requirement after 2052 would be about 300 T per year, whereas nearly 24,000 T would be the inventory in hand. It would be sufficient for the life time of the FBRs. INFCE data is based on a burn up of 100,000MWd/T. It is expected that by 2020, R&D will be completed to ensure that fuel burn up is 200,000 MWd/T and this might also increase fissile material growth by reducing cycle losses. Use of INFCE data for the present study is conservative. 86. 87.Design Manual NAPP – 01100, July 1989. 88.B. Rouben, ‘The Nuclear Fuel Cycle’ (http://engphys.mcmaster.ca/~garlandw/sner/fuelcycl2.pdf) accessed on 07.02.2004. INFCE Fast Breeders, International Fuel Cycle Evaluation Conference Working Group 5(INFCE), 1980, IAEA. 56 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 57. Annex 14 Foreign firms interested in India’s thorium deposits Business Editors/Energy Editors Novastar Resources to Tour India's Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Discuss Future Commercialization with Indian Rare Earths Ltd. NEW YORK, NEW YORK, Jun. 7 -/E-Wire/Business Wire/-- Novastar Resources Ltd., a significant commercial mining source of Thorium, a naturally occurring nuclear energy more efficient and far less radioactive than Uranium, will visit India for a tour of the Department of Atomic Energy's Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) and for discussions with Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (IREL) (www.indianrareearths.com) to discuss both Novastar's recent Thorium drill log results and the process of refining Monazite to yield commercial grade Thorium Oxide (ThO2). After meeting with IREL in Aluva, India, the Company plans to meet with officials from other major mining operations headquartered in the country. Mr. Raj Pamnani, International Relations Consultant, for Novastar Resources and Managing Partner, Jina Partners (www.jinapartners.com), a venture capital management firm with a powerful international network of contacts including scientists, politicians, investors, and entrepreneurs, will meet with executives at Indian Rare Earths Ltd. The Company will specifically meet with the Rare Earth Division (quot;REDquot;) of IREL, which is a chemical plant wherein the mineral monazite produced is chemically treated to separate thorium as an oxide upgrade and Rare Earths elements in composite chloride form. Mr. Pamnani will also meet with BARC officials for a tour of the design and operation of their Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), built for the utilization of a Thorium-based fuel cycle. The AHWR will use thorium-based mixed oxide (MOX) fuel to generate power. Development of thorium-plutonium (Th-Pu) and thorium-uranium (Th-U233) mixed oxide fuels (MOX) was initiated in 2001. This research included the development of indigenous equipment for the production of thorium dioxide powder and trials with uranium dioxide. The design and development of this AHWR will provide research and development support for India's Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) program. quot;This trip holds a lot of potential for Novastar, because IREL is well regarded in the field of separating and refining Thorium ore from Monazite and India is fully committed to the utilization of Thorium as a primary energy source,quot; said Pamnani. quot;During our visit to India, we plan to discuss the potential our Thorium property has for India and highlight the mutually beneficial relationships that can be forged for the sole purpose of exploring Thorium as a viable source of primary energy for India and other countries.quot; While in India, the delegation from Novastar will focus on: 1 Exploring the possibility of establishing a relationship between India and Novastar Resources 2 Studying IREL and RED and the extensive Thorium mining capabilities, among 57 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 58. others, and 3 Formalizing the business relationship and setting up cooperative programs and projects with the Indian government There is increasing interest in utilizing Thorium as a nuclear fuel because Thorium is a more efficient nuclear fuel and far less radioactive than Uranium. Also, all of the mined Thorium is potentially useable in a reactor, compared with the 0.7% of natural uranium, so some 40 times the amount of energy per unit mass could potentially be made available. Therefore, the Thorium fuel cycle, with its potential for breeding fuel without the need for fast-neutron reactors, holds considerable potential long-term. It is a key factor in the sustainability of nuclear energy. About Novastar Resources Novastar Resources, Ltd. is a publicly traded company within the commercial mining sector and is a significant commercial mining source of Thorium, a naturally occurring nuclear energy more efficient and far less radioactive than Uranium. The company's stock is traded and quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board under the symbol NVAS. Further information is available on the company's website at www.novastarresources.com Safe Harbor Statement This press release may include certain statements that are not descriptions of historical facts, but are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934. These forward looking statements may include the description of our plans and objectives for future operations, assumptions underlying such plans and objectives and other forward looking terminology such as quot;may,quot; quot;expects,quot; quot;believes,quot; quot;anticipates,quot; quot;intends,quot; quot;expects,quot; quot;projects,quot; or similar terms, variations of such terms or the negative of such terms. Such information is based upon various assumptions made by, and expectations of, our management that were reasonable when made but may prove to be incorrect. All of such assumptions are inherently subject to significant economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies beyond our control and upon assumptions with respect to the future business decisions which are subject to change. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that actual results will meet expectations and actual results may vary (perhaps materially) from certain of the results anticipated herein. /SOURCE: Novastar Resources Ltd. -0- 06-07-2005 /CONTACT: Harrison Wise hwise@rubensteinpr.com /WEB SITE: http://www.novastarresources.com/ http://www.indianrareearths.com/ http://www.igcar.ernet.in/press_releases/press11.htm THE HINDU dated 24.11.2004 58 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 59. Annex 15 Fast-breeder reactors more important for India Embargoes have only increased India's self-reliance in the nuclear field, says Anil Kakodkar, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy. In a recent interview to The Hindu in Mumbai , Dr. Kakodkar spoke of the importance of fast-breeder reactors in meeting the country's energy needs. Excerpts: Question: What are the achievements and failures of the Department of Atomic Energy in the last 50 years? Dr. Kakodkar: We have a large, capable human resource pool of scientists and technologists. This, I think, is a very important achievement. The second important achievement is that our programme, on the basis of self-reliance, has demonstrated that we can take our R&D efforts, carried out in our laboratories, to commercial scale of excellence in the marketplace. The third achievement is that the first stage of India's nuclear power programme, presently consisting of 12 Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), is completely in the industrial domain. It will grow on its own steam. Lastly, as a result of the consolidation of the entire work done in the last 50 years, we now have a clearly defined roadmap for future R&D and its commercialisation. In terms of failures — I will not call them failures — but we did see several challenges. For example, embargoes have been a major challenge. Embargoes have not deterred us from making progress and, in fact, they have made our self-reliance that much more robust. Obviously, the dimensions of our programme would have been bigger if we had been able to do things at a much faster pace. Without the embargoes? Yes, without the embargoes. On the whole, I will say that we have now succeeded in this very frontline technology in all its dimensions. We have different technologies for various applications. Can you give examples? Nuclear energy applications in agriculture, health, food security and so on. While we have done this, we have also contributed towards nuclear weapons ability in the country. India today is a country with nuclear weapons to ensure its long-term security. At the same time, we have domestic capability to guarantee long-term energy security in a manner that will help in preserving the environment and avoiding the adverse impact of climate change. How important are the fast-breeder reactors in ensuring India's energy security? Fast-breeder reactors are more important to India than to other countries which have capabilities in nuclear power technology. This is because of the nuclear resource profile we have in the country. Our uranium reserves — what we have — as 59 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 60. per the present state of exploration will be able to support 10,000 MWe generating capacity, which is not large. But it is the starting point for setting up fast reactors. When the same uranium, which will support 10,000 MWe generating capacity in the PHWRs, comes out as spent fuel and we process that spent fuel into plutonium and residual uranium, and use it in the fast reactors, we will be able to go to electricity capacity which will be as large 5,00,000 MWe. This is due to the breeding potential of the fast reactors, using the plutonium-uranium cycle. That is the importance of the fast-breeder reactors under Indian conditions, compared to other countries. France, the U.S. and the U.K. have not persisted with their breeder reactors programme. Are we entering an area others have backed out from? That is not true. There is a programme called Generation Four Initiative Forum, GIF for short. This is a programme led by the United States in which ten other countries are participating. They have nuclear power reactor configurations that are important for the future. They have identified a total of six configurations, six reactors. Out of that, three or four are fast reactors. So the importance of fast reactors in future energy requirements is recognised well worldwide. In fact, in Russia, an 800 MWe fast reactor is under construction. The ground reality now is that uranium is available at a much cheaper price internationally. In this situation of plenty of uranium availability, there is no urgency for these countries to move on to fast-breeder reactor technology. This, however, is not the case with us. How many breeder reactors will we build in the near future? We are making a beginning with the first 500 MWe and we will complete it by 2010. After that, we will build more similar units. We have planned four in the programme up to 2020. The development of the fast-breeder technology will go on at the IGCAR. In this development, we will proceed in two directions. One direction is to go for higher capacity reactors, may be developing 1,000 MWe reactors. The other direction is to use the reactor design and its associated fuel cycle, which will have a shorter doubling time because we get into a higher and higher generating capacity through the breeding process. The faster the breeding, quicker will be the rise in the fast-breeder reactor's capacity. So we should pursue both the directions: one is the higher reactor unit size, and the other, the fuel cycle, which has a shorter doubling time. In this, we have drawn the entire road map including R&D activities, the development that should be done and, the new energy systems to be built. The 300 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which will use thorium as fuel, is your pet project. Why the delay in its construction, which was to begin before the end of last April? The fast-breeder reactors constitute the second stage of our programme. While we have scarcity in terms of uranium, our thorium resources are abundant. [The third stage of the programme using] thorium-uranium 233 fuel can run in a sustained mode for a long time. So we have made this as our third stage after we have sufficient capacity through breeder reactors. For if you irradiate thorium at a higher capacity level, then you will have a very long programme at a higher capacity level. We are also working on development [of reactors] that will allow growth with the thorium fuel cycle. Besides, we have programmes on other applications of thorium, 60 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 61. such as the high temperature energy generation. All this constitutes the third stage of our nuclear power programme, that is, demonstrating large-scale electricity generation using thorium. We are very happy with the support promised by the Prime Minister. The AHWR will be one of the first elements in the third stage. Its design is complete. We have prepared the project report. We have completed a peer review by knowledgeable people other than those who designed it. A fairly large amount of R&D work has been completed. There is more R&D work to be done. It is true that we should have started the AHWR construction this year. But we felt that since the reactor will be ultimately implemented in the public domain, it is important that its design is also reviewed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (which keeps a tab on safety in nuclear power facilities in the country). So we have now created an arrangement wherein for such developments [reactors], which will ultimately go out of the BARC for use by the society or industry, safety aspects should be entrusted with the AERB. We are in the process of making that arrangement now. The Prime Minister has asserted that India would not be the source of proliferation of sensitive technologies and also spoken about the developments in the neighbourhood. Do you see a toughening of India's stance on proliferation issues? If you look at India's track record, it has always behaved in a very responsible fashion. At the same time, we carry out our indigenous efforts in a self-reliant manner for developing technologies and their implementation in the national interest. This is of course a legitimate right. India is one sixth of humanity. One sees that when such barriers are imposed, they put some kind of resistance to the pace at which we can grow. Then one has to question the justification for such a process. It is our policy to act in a manner that this nuclear technology is managed in a responsible way. We have come to this level, based on our own self-reliant effort. On the other side, [in] a regime which they have put in place, clandestine activities still go on. What we are talking about is a regime which facilitates development, addresses the development of a large country like India. What he [the Prime Minister] said was rather than arresting proliferation by irresponsible people, today's framework seems to be creating barriers for our development. We want a system which addresses the true proliferation concerns and still solves the problems we face in our development. For we are talking of a large fraction of humanity. Will the dialogue with the U.S., Next Steps in Strategic Partnership, be of any use to India for developing our nuclear power technology? I don't think so. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V4D-4J91NRP- 3&_user=1968367&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search &_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000052195&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=196836 7&md5=081c3451e0aa8c996eb6396cb7411d2a 61 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 62. Annex 16 Design and development of the AHWR—the Indian thorium fuelled innovative nuclear reactor R.K. Sinha , and A. Kakodkar Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India Received 11 March 2004; revised 26 September 2005; accepted 28 September 2005. Available online 17 February 2006. Abstract India has chalked out a nuclear power program based on its domestic resource position of uranium and thorium. The first stage started with setting up the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) based on natural uranium and pressure tube technology. In the second phase, the fissile material base will be multiplied in Fast Breeder Reactors using the plutonium obtained from the PHWRs. Considering the large thorium reserves in India, the future nuclear power program will be based on thorium–233U fuel cycle. However, there is a need for the timely development of thorium-based technologies for the entire fuel cycle. The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) has been designed to fulfill this need. The AHWR is a 300 MWe, vertical, pressure tube type, heavy water moderated, boiling light water cooled natural circulation reactor. The fuel consists of (Th–Pu)O2 and (Th–233U)O2 pins. The fuel cluster is designed to generate maximum energy out of 233U, which is bred in situ from thorium and has a slightly negative void coefficient of reactivity. For the AHWR, the well-proven pressure tube technology has been adopted and many passive safety features, consistent with the international trend, have been incorporated. A distinguishing feature which makes this reactor unique, from other conventional nuclear power reactors is the fact that it is designed to remove core heat by natural circulation, under normal operating conditions, eliminating the need of pumps. In addition to this passive feature, several innovative passive safety systems have been incorporated in the design, for decay heat removal under shut down condition and mitigation of postulated accident conditions. The design of the reactor has progressively undergone modifications and improvements based on the feedbacks from the analytical and the experimental R&D. This paper gives the details of the current design of the AHWR. Article Outline 1. Introduction 2. Evolution of the AHWR concept 3. Overview of the reactor configuration 4. Fuel and fuel cycle 5. Reactor physics 5.1. Main objectives of the physics design 62 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 63. 5.1.1. Achieving negative void coefficient of reactivity in both operating and accidental conditions 5.1.2. Achieving a flat radial power distribution 5.1.3. Optimizing the axial power profile for adequate thermal margin 233 5.1.4. Achieving self-sustenance in U 5.1.5. Minimization of plutonium make-up requirement 5.2. Reactor physics analyses 5.2.1. Physics analysis for the equilibrium core 5.2.2. The initial core of AHWR 5.2.3. Recycling of uranium 5.2.4. Xenon oscillations 6. Description of major reactor systems 6.1. Reactor block 6.1.1. Calandria 6.1.2. End shields 6.1.3. Coolant channel assembly 6.2. Fuel handling and storage system 6.2.1. Fuel transfer system to transfer fuel across containment walls 6.2.2. Fuelling machine 6.2.3. Fuel storage bay 6.3. Reactor building 7. Passive systems and inherent safety features of AHWR 7.1. Passive core heat removal by natural circulation during normal operation 7.2. Passive core decay heat removal system 7.3. Emergency core cooling in passive mode and core submergence 7.4. Passive containment isolation system 7.5. Vapor suppression in gravity driven water pool 7.6. Passive containment cooling 7.7. Passive shutdown on MHT system high pressure 7.8. Passive concrete cooling system 8. Thermal hydraulic analysis 8.1. Effect of tail pipe height 8.2. Effect of tail pipe size 8.3. Effect of feed water temperature 8.4. Stability analyses 63 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 64. 9. Experimental programs to demonstrate the inherent and passive features relevant to AHWR and their development status 10. Safety analyses 11. Summary References 1. Introduction The Indian nuclear power program has been conceived bearing in mind the optimum utilization of domestic uranium and thorium reserves with the objective of providing long-term energy security to the country. One of the essential elements of the Indian strategy is to enhance the fuel utilization using a closed fuel cycle. This entails reprocessing of the spent fuel to recover fissile and fertile materials and its recycle back into the system. Considering this objective, the indigenous nuclear power program in India was initiated with Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) using natural uranium and heavy water, and based on pressure tube technology. The pressure tube concept, used in PHWRs, has several advantages such as: • physical separation of the high-temperature high-pressure coolant from the low- temperature low-pressure moderator; • a high conversion ratio with well thermalized neutron spectrum due to cold moderator; • low excess reactivity in the core arising out of on-power fuelling; • a greater flexibility in adopting different refuelling schemes. India has been operating and developing improved versions of its current generation PHWRs on the basis of operating experience, international trends and indigenous R&D inputs as a first stage. In the second stage of the Indian nuclear power program, plutonium from the natural uranium-based PHWRs will be used in Fast Breeder Reactors for multiplying the fissile base. Considering the large thorium reserves in India, the future systems, in the third stage of Indian nuclear power program, will be based on thorium–233U fuel cycle. While the initiation of the third stage will take place in the future, there is a need for the timely development of thorium-based technologies for the entire thorium fuel cycle. The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being developed to fulfill this need. 2. Evolution of the AHWR concept Thorium is a fertile material and has to be converted into 233U, a fissile isotope. Of the three fissile species (233U, 235U and 239Pu), 233U has the highest value of η 64 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 65. (number of neutrons liberated for every neutron absorbed in the fuel) in thermal spectrum. Since 233U does not occur in the nature, it is desirable that any system that uses 233U should be self-sustaining in this nuclide in the entire fuel cycle, which implies that the amount of 233U used in the cycle should be equal to the amount produced and recovered. Thorium in its natural state does not contain any fissile isotope the way uranium does. Hence, with thorium-based fuel, enrichment with fissile material is essential. The large absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons in thorium facilitates the use of light water as coolant. On account of its high cost and its association with radioactive tritium, use of heavy water coolant requires implementation of a costly heavy water management and recovery system. The use of light water as coolant makes it possible to use boiling in the core, thus producing steam at a higher pressure than otherwise possible with a pressurized non-boiling system. With boiling coolant, the reactor has to be vertical, making full core heat removal by natural circulation feasible. The choice of heavy water as moderator is derived from its excellent fuel utilization characteristics. Considering these characteristics, the mainly thorium fuelled AHWR, is heavy water moderated, boiling light water cooled, and has a vertical core. The future Indian thorium-based reactor systems will be optimized for the thorium cycle. For the AHWR, pressure tube type PHWR technology is selected to take advantage of the vast experience gained and infrastructure developed in the country. It is desirable for the new reactors to incorporate passive safety characteristics consistent with the emerging international trends. The design of the reactor has progressively undergone several modifications and improvements based on feedbacks from the results of analytical and experimental R&D. This paper describes the current design of the AHWR. 3. Overview of the reactor configuration As already mentioned, the AHWR is a vertical, pressure tube type, heavy water moderated and boiling light water cooled natural circulation reactor (Sinha and Kakodkar, 2003) designed to generate 300 MWe and 500 m3/day of desalinated water. The AHWR is fuelled with (Th–233U)O2 pins and (Th–Pu)O2 pins. The fuel is designed to maximize generation of energy from thorium, to maintain self-sufficiency in 233U and to achieve a slightly negative void coefficient of reactivity. An emergency core cooling system injects water directly into the fuel. The reactor core of the AHWR consists of 505 lattice locations in a square lattice pitch of 245 mm. Of these, 53 locations are for the reactivity control devices and shut down systems. Reactivity control is achieved by on-line fuelling, boron dissolved in moderator and reactivity devices. Boron in moderator is used for reactivity management of equilibrium xenon load. There are 12 control rods, grouped into regulating rods, absorber rods and shim rods of 4 each. The reactor has two independent, functionally diverse, fast acting shut down systems, namely, Shut Down System-1 (SDS-1) consisting of mechanical shut off rods and Shut Down System-2 (SDS-2) based on liquid poison injection into the moderator. There are 30 interstitial lattice locations housing 150 in-core self-powered neutron detectors and 6 out-of-core locations containing 9 ion chambers and 3 start-up detectors. An automatic reactor regulating system is used to control the reactor power, power/flux distribution, power-setback and xenon override. Both for the control rods and the shut off rods, the absorber material, boron carbide, is packed in an annulus within 80 stainless steel tubes. The core map is given in Fig. 1. 65 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 66. Fig. 1. Core map of the AHWR. The reactor core is housed in a low-pressure reactor vessel called calandria. The calandria contains heavy water, which act as moderator as well as reflector. The calandria houses the vertical coolant channels, consisting of pressure tubes rolled in top and bottom end fittings. The pressure tube contains the fuel cluster. A calandria tube envelops each pressure tube and the air annulus between the two tubes provides thermal insulation between the hot coolant channel and the cold moderator. The calandria tubes are rolled, in the tube sheets of top and bottom end shields of the calandria. The light water coolant picks up nuclear heat in boiling mode from fuel assemblies. The coolant circulation is driven by natural convection through tail pipes to steam drums, where steam is separated and is supplied to the turbine. A simplified schematic arrangement of the AHWR is shown in Fig. 2. 66 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 67. Fig. 2. Simplified schematic arrangement of the AHWR. Four steam drums (only one shown in Fig. 2 for the sake of clarity), each catering to one-fourth of the core, receive feed water at 403 K to provide optimum sub-cooling at the reactor inlet. Four down-comers, from each steam drum, are connected to a circular inlet header. The inlet header distributes the flow to each of the 452 coolant channels through individual feeders. The AHWR incorporates several passive systems to fulfill several safety functions (Sinha et al., 2000). A 6000 m3 capacity gravity driven water pool (GDWP), located close to top of the containment serves as a heat sink for several passive systems, besides acting as suppression pool and a source of water for low-pressure emergency core cooling. Achievement of passive shutdown using steam overpressure to provide the driving force and passive cooling of concrete surfaces are some of the other unique passive safety features provided in the AHWR. A fuelling machine is located on top of the deck plate. The fuelling machine of the AHWR handles the fuel clusters by means of ram drives and snout drive for coupling and making a leak tight joint with the coolant channel. The AHWR has the flexibility to have on power as well as off-power fuel handling. The dimensional details of the core are given in Table 1. Table 1. 67 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 68. Dimensional details of the core Total no. of lattice locations 505 Number of fuel channels 452 Number of lattice locations for control rods 12 Number of lattice locations for shut-off rods 41 Lattice pitch (mm) 245 Active core height (m) 3.5 Calandria Inner diameter of the main shell (m) 7.4 Inner diameter of the sub-shell at each end (m) 6.8 Length (m) 5.3 Tube material Pressure tube Zr2.5 Nb Calandria tube Zircaloy-4 Tube dimension Inner diameter/WT of Pressure tube (mm) 120/4 Outer diameter/WT of Calandria tube (mm) 168/2 Reflector thickness (D2O) axial/radial (mm) 750/600 Moderator temperature (K) 353 Moderator purity (% of D2O) 99.8 A seawater desalination plant will meet the demineralized water requirements of the reactor and drinking water required at the plant, utilizing the low-pressure steam from the turbine. A provision exists to add to the desalination capacity at the cost of electrical power output. 4. Fuel and fuel cycle 68 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 69. The fuel has been designed to meet the requirement of thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, fuel handling and reconstitution (i.e., replacement of outer ring of irradiated (Th–Pu)O2 fuel pins with fresh ones). The vertical pressure tube configuration has guided the structural design of the fuel assembly. The fuel assembly is 10.5 m in length and is suspended from the top in the coolant channel. The assembly consists of a fuel cluster and two shield sub-assemblies. These sub-assemblies are connected to each other through a quick connecting/disconnecting joint to facilitate handling. The fuel cluster is a cylindrical assembly of 4300 mm length and 118 mm diameter. The arrangement of pins in the fuel cluster is shown in Fig. 3(a). The cluster has 54 fuel pins arranged in 3 concentric rings around a central rod as shown in Fig. 3(b) (Anantharaman and Shivakumar, 2002). The 24 fuel pins in the outer ring have (Th– Pu)O2 as fuel and the 30 fuel pins in the inner and intermediate rings have (Th– 233 U)O2 as fuel. The innermost 12 pins have a 233U content of 3.0 wt.% and the middle 18 pins have 3.75 wt.% 233U. The outer ring of (Th–Pu)O2 pins contain 3.25 wt.% of total plutonium, of which the lower half of the active fuel has 4.0% Pu and the upper part has 2.5% Pu (Kumar et al., 1999). Two enrichments have been provided in the outer ring to have favorable minimum critical heat flux ratios. 69 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 70. Fig. 3. (a) Cross-section of fuel pins in the cluster and (b) AHWR fuel cluster. 70 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 71. The fuel pin consists of fuel pellets confined in a Zircaloy-2 clad tube. The fuel pin has a pellet stack length of 3500 mm and a plenum volume with a helical spring in it to keep the pellet stack pressed. The fuel pins are assembled in the form of a cluster with the help of the top and bottom tie-plates, with a central rod connecting the two tie-plates. Six spacers along the length of the cluster provide the intermediate pin spacing. The central rod has a tubular construction with holes for direct injection of ECCS water on the fuel rods. It also contains dysprosium capsules containing dysprosium oxide in Zirconia matrix. The design data of the fuel assembly is given in Table 2. Table 2. Description of the AHWR fuel assembly Parameter Value Number of fuel pins 54 Outer diameter (mm) 11.2 Density (g/cm3) 9.6 Fuel clad Material/thickness (mm) Zircaloy-2/0.6 Fuel type/number of pins (Th–233U)O2/12 Inner ring (Th–233U)O2/18 Middle ring Outer ring (Th–Pu)O2/24 Fuel enrichment (wt%) Inner ring (233U) 3.0 Middle ring (233U) 3.75 Outer ring (Pu) 3.25 (average) Upper half 2.5 Lower half 4.0 71 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 72. Parameter Value Central rod Tube o.d./thickness (mm) 36/2 Number of pins/capsule 12 Outer diameter of pin (mm) 6 Material/o.d. (mm) ZrO2 + Dy2O3 Dysprosium (wt%) 3.0 Average discharge burnup (MWd/t) 24,000 Average linear heat rating (kW/m) 10.6 Peak linear heat rating (kW/m) 14.0 The AHWR fuel cycle is a closed fuel cycle, envisaging recycle of both fissile 233U and fertile thoria back to the reactor (Anantharaman et al., 2000). The currently envisaged fuel cycle time is eight years. This comprises four years for in-reactor residence time, two years for cooling, one year for reprocessing and one year for refabrication. Since the 233U required for the reactor is to be bred in situ, the initial core and annual reload for the initial few years will consist of (Th–Pu)O2 clusters only. After reprocessing, 233U is always associated with 232U, whose daughter products are hard gamma emitters. The radioactivity of 232U associated with 233U starts increasing after separation. This poses radiation exposure problems during its transportation, handling and refabrication. Hence, it is targeted to minimize delay between separation of 233U and its refabrication into fuel. In view of this, a co- location of the fuel cycle facility, comprising reprocessing, waste management and fuel fabrication plant, with the AHWR has been planned. The 233U-based fuel needs to be fabricated in shielded facilities due to activity associated with 232U. This also requires considerable enhancement of automation and remotization technologies used in fuel fabrication. The spent fuel cluster, before reprocessing, would undergo disassembly for segregation of (Th–Pu)O2 pins, (Th–233U)O2 pins, structural materials and burnable absorbers. The (Th–233U)O2 pins will require a two stream reprocessing process, i.e., separation of thorium and uranium whereas the (Th–Pu)O2 pins will require a three stream reprocessing process, i.e., separation of thorium, uranium and plutonium. A part of the of reprocessed thorium (45%) may be used immediately in the fabrication of (Th–233U)O2 pins since 233U fabrication is required to be carried out in shielded facilities. The remaining thorium will be stored for sufficient amount of time for the activity to decay to a level at which, it is easier for handling with minimal shielding. The stored thorium will be subsequently used for the fabrication of (Th–Pu)O2 fuel pins. 5. Reactor physics 72 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 73. 5.1. Main objectives of the physics design The physics design of AHWR is carried out to fulfill the following objectives (Srivenkatesan et al., 2000): 233 (1) maximize the energy from in situ burning of U; (2) achieve a negative void coefficient of reactivity; (3) achieve greater than 20,000 MWd/t fuel discharge burnup; (4) minimize, to the extent possible, the initial plutonium inventory; (5) minimize, to the extent possible, the consumption of plutonium for given energy output; 233 (6) achieve self-sustenance in U; (7) deliver a thermal power of 920 MW to the coolant. To achieve these objectives, the physics design has progressively evolved from a seed-blanket core design concept to a core consisting of a single type of cluster called composite cluster, containing both (Th–233U)O2 and (Th–Pu)O2 fuel pins (Kumar, 2000). The main considerations governing the fulfillment of these objectives are discussed in the following sub-sections. 5.1.1. Achieving negative void coefficient of reactivity in both operating and accidental conditions The cluster design is mainly dictated by the objective of achieving negative void coefficient of reactivity. The void coefficient of reactivity can be made negative by maintaining a harder neutron spectrum in the core. This can be achieved either by changing the properties of the moderating medium or by decreasing the inventory of the moderator (for example, by increasing the cluster size in relation to the lattice pitch). It is also possible to achieve negative void coefficient of reactivity by using a burnable absorber either in the fuel or in isolated pins in an inert matrix. On voiding of the coolant, the thermal neutron flux increases in the cluster, and the neutron flux can be reduced by using a slow burning absorber. In the AHWR, dysprosium is used as a burnable absorber within the cluster at a lattice pitch of 245 mm, to make the void coefficient of reactivity negative for average core burnup. 5.1.2. Achieving a flat radial power distribution Heat removal through natural convection is an important feature of this reactor. In order to have good thermal hydraulic and neutronic coupling, the radial power distribution has to be flat. This requires the height of the active core to be kept small with respect to the diameter of the core. In view of this, the core height has been chosen to be 3.5 m and the calandria vessel diameter is 7.4 m. There are 505 lattice locations in the core, out of which 452 locations are occupied by fuel and the rest by reactivity devices. 73 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 74. 5.1.3. Optimizing the axial power profile for adequate thermal margin In a typical boiling water reactor with bulk boiling, the axial power profile is bottom- peaked and this increases the thermal margin in the top region of the fuel where the void fraction is high. In AHWR, in order to achieve a desirable axial power distribution for adequate thermal margin, graded enrichment is used along the length of the fuel assembly. This is achieved by altering only the plutonium content in the outer pins without compromising the void reactivity. The lower half of the fuel assembly is loaded with 4.0 wt.% Pu and the upper half with 2.5 wt.% Pu in thorium dioxide. 233 5.1.4. Achieving self-sustenance in U The objective of achieving self-sustenance in 233U has governed the reactor physics design of AHWR core. The 233U bred in the cluster decides the self-sustaining characteristic of AHWR fuel. With irradiation, the 233U content depletes in the inner (Th–233U)O2 pins and increases in the outer (Th–Pu)O2 pins due to conversion from thorium. The conversion has been maximized by making the spectrum harder, i.e., in an intermediate energy range around 0.2 eV. 5.1.5. Minimization of plutonium make-up requirement The plutonium pins are placed in the outermost ring of the cluster to minimize the plutonium requirement. The plutonium used as make-up fuel comes from the discharged PHWR fuel. The power from thorium is 60%. 5.2. Reactor physics analyses The analyses comprise core calculations, using a 3D code for core optimization, for obtaining the optimum fuel discharge burnup, flattened channel power distribution and worth of the reactivity devices. 5.2.1. Physics analysis for the equilibrium core The reactor physics analysis presented here mainly pertains to the equilibrium core configuration, which consists of the composite type of cluster. Detailed lattice analyses have been performed to calculate the variation of lattice parameters such as the lattice reactivity (k-infinity), the macroscopic cross-sections and the isotopic compositions as a function of irradiation. The pin-wise power distribution across the cluster, reactivity coefficients, and other lattice characteristics are also obtained. The lattice evaluations have been done with WIMSD code system (Askew et al., 1996) and the 69 energy groups WIMSD nuclear data library from the basic data set of ENDF/BVI.8 (IAEA, 2002). The design features of AHWR for equilibrium core configuration are given in Table 3. The core calculations have been done using 3DKIN and FEMTAVG (Kumar and Srivenkatesan, 1984). The time-averaged simulations have been done to get optimum discharge burnup and flattened channel power distribution for the equilibrium core configuration. The core power distribution has been optimized for a total power of 920 MWt. 74 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 75. Table 3. Physics parameter of AHWR equilibrium core Parameter Value Fuelling rate, annual Number of fuel channels 113 Pu (kg) 200 233 Conversion ratio, U 97% Power from thorium/233U 60% Peaking factors (maximum) Local 1.45 Radial 1.2 Axial 1.64 Total 2.85 Reactivity control Boron/gadolinium in moderator Control rods (no.) 12 (total of 18.9 mk) Absorber rods (no.) 4 (total of 7.1 mk) Regulating rods (no.) 4 (total of 8.1 mk) Shim rods (no.) 4 (total of 3.7 mk) 41 nos. (total of 80 mk; 46 mk with two maximum Shut Down System-1 worth rods not available) Absorber material B4C pins in SS shell Shut Down System-2 Liquid poison injection in moderator 75 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 76. Parameter Value Safety parameters Delayed neutron fraction, β 0.003 Prompt neutron generation 0.22 time, Λ (ms) Reactivity coefficients, ∆k/k (°C) −2.0 × 10−5 Fuel temperature +3.5 × 10−5 Coolant temperature +1.0 × 10−5 Channel temperature Void coefficient, ∆k/k (% −6.0 × 10−5 void) In order to achieve flux flattening, the equilibrium core has been divided into three burnup zones, which are adjusted to get the average discharge burnup of nearly 24,000 MWd/t and the maximum channel power of 2.6 MWt. The average coolant density in the core is 550 kg/m3. The code FEMTAVG is coupled to a static thermal– hydraulics code THABNA, and the coolant density as a function of distance from inlet for every channel is calculated. It is seen that the core burnup, power and coolant density distribution converge in three to four iterations and the optimum power distribution is estimated accordingly. The quarter core power distribution, calculated for the average coolant density of 550 kg/m3 throughout the core, is shown in Table 4. The burnup zones and their exit burnups are also given in Table 4. Table 4. Optimized core power distribution The exit burnups of the three zones are 30,000, 23,500 and 20,000 MWd/t. The average discharge burnup is nearly 24,000 MWd/t. The radial and axial peaking factors are calculated to be 1.2 and 1.64, respectively. The limits on power distribution/power are derived from the minimum critical heat flux ratio—MCHFR (CHFR is the ratio of the critical heat flux at any point in the flow channel to the actual flux at that point), and it is a measure of safety margin available for the reactor core. The MCHFR calculated at 20% overpower is 1.67. 76 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 77. The reactivity balance in AHWR is given in Table 5. The equilibrium xenon load is 21.0 mk and the maximum transient xenon load peaking following shut down is 7.0 mk (US$ 1 = 3 mk). This is due to relatively low thermal flux level of 7.0 × 1013 n/cm2/s. The void reactivity for equilibrium core of AHWR has been calculated as 6.0 mk. Table 5. Reactivity balance in AHWR Reactor core state Reactivity (mk) Reactivity swings (1) Cold to hot standby Channel temperature (300–558 K) +2.5 Moderator temperature (300–353 K) +3.0 Total +5.5 (2a) Hot standby to full power Fuel temperature (558–898 K) −6.5 Coolant void (coolant density from 0.74 to 0.55 g/cm3) −2.0 Total −8.5 (2b) LOCA from full power (coolant density 0.55–0.0 g/cm3) −4.0 (3) Xenon load Equilibrium load −21.0 Transient load after shutdown from full power (peak at about 5 h) −7.0 The major postulated initiating events, considered from the point of reactivity changes, are loss of regulation accident and cold-water ingress. Out of these, only loss of regulation accident involves substantial positive reactivity addition. Both the shut down systems of AHWR are capable of independently shutting down the reactor in time. 77 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 78. 5.2.2. The initial core of AHWR The 233U, required for the equilibrium core of AHWR will be bred in situ. It is envisaged that there will be a gradual transition from the initial core that will not contain any 233U, to the equilibrium core. 5.2.3. Recycling of uranium With several recycles, the 234U content in uranium increases from 6 to about 12%. It is seen that the reactivity load due to 234U in successive recycling of uranium in the AHWR causes a penalty of about 1500 MWd/t. Fuel cycle calculations have been done to optimize cycle length with respect to the self-sustenance in 233U and other fuel performance characteristics. 5.2.4. Xenon oscillations The possibility of xenon instabilities in the AHWR is reduced considerably due to relatively low thermal flux level along with negative void and power feedback. Only first azimuthal mode, with sub-criticality of 12 mk, is close to the instability threshold in the AHWR. There are four regulating rods, one in each quadrant, to suppress any flux tilt arising due to these azimuthal oscillations. 6. Description of major reactor systems 6.1. Reactor block The reactor block of AHWR consists of calandria, end shields, coolant channels and associated piping, deck plate, reactor control and protection systems, and ECCS header with associated piping and main heat transport (MHT) system inlet header. The layout of components in reactor block is shown in Fig. 4. The calandria is housed in a light water filled reactor vault that acts as an effective radiation shield. End shields, supported on concrete structure, are provided at both the ends of the calandria. 78 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 79. Fig. 4. Reactor block. 6.1.1. Calandria The calandria is a 5.3 m long cylindrical stainless steel (SS304L) vessel. It houses the reactor core, moderator, reflector, and a portion of the reactor control and protection systems. The central portion of the calandria is called the main shell (7.4 m i.d. × 3.5 m long). Two sub-shells of smaller diameter (6.8 m i.d.) are attached to the main shell at top and bottom with flexible annular plates. The calandria is fully filled with heavy water and is connected to the expansion tank to accommodate volumetric expansion of the moderator. The nozzle penetrations, required for the moderator system, the liquid poison injection system and the expansion tank are provided in the sub-shells of the calandria vessel. The nozzle penetrations for over pressure relief devices are provided in main shell of the calandria vessel to protect the calandria against internal pressure above the design limit occurring during accidental conditions. The nominal inlet and outlet temperatures of the moderator are 328 and 353 K, respectively, and the calandria is designed for 0.05 MPa above the static head due to moderator. 6.1.2. End shields The end shields are composite cylindrical stainless steel (SS304L) structures, filled with a mixture of steel balls and water and are attached to the top and bottom ends of the calandria by in situ welding. These end shields provide radiation shielding and serve as pressure boundary to the moderator system. The end shields also support and guide the coolant channel assemblies, reactor control systems and protection systems. The vertical calandria tubes are joined to the end shield lattice tubes by rolled joints. Light water is circulated through the end shields to remove the nuclear heat generated. 6.1.3. Coolant channel assembly The coolant channel houses the fuel assembly with shielding blocks and has suitable interfaces for coupling to the main heat transport system. A suitable interface is provided for coupling the fuelling machine with the coolant channel to facilitate removal of hot radioactive fuel from the reactor and introduction of fresh fuel into the reactor. The coolant channel has features to accommodate thermal expansion, and irradiation creep and growth. The schematic arrangement of the coolant channel with the fuel assembly is shown in Fig. 5. The vertical coolant channel consists of pressure tube, top and bottom end fittings, and calandria tube. The pressure tube, made of zirconium–niobium alloy, is located in the core portion. The core portion is extended with top and bottom end fittings made of stainless steel. The feeder pipe is connected to the bottom end fitting through a self-energized metal seal coupling and this facilitates easy removal. The tail pipe is welded to the top end fitting. The coolant enters the coolant channel at 533.5 K, flows past the fuel assembly and hot coolant flows out as steam–water mixture at 558 K flows out to tail pipes. The annular space between the pressure tube and calandria tube, as shown in Fig. 6, provides a thermal insulation between the hot coolant and the cold moderator. The coolant channel assembly is laterally supported within the lattice tube by two bearings located at the two ends of the top end shield lattice tube. The weight of the coolant channel is supported at the top end shield. An annulus leak monitoring system is incorporated to provide an early warning of a leakage in the pressure tube, 79 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 80. as a part of the strategy to meet the leak before break requirement for the pressure tube. Fig. 5. Schematic arrangement of the coolant channel assembly. 80 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 81. Fig. 6. Fuel cluster in the pressure tube. Easy replacement of pressure tubes, as a part of the normal maintenance activity is an important consideration in the design of the coolant channel assemblies. The AHWR coolant channel is designed for easy replacement of pressure tubes as a regular maintenance activity without incurring a large downtime of the reactor. This allows the individual coolant channel to be replaced at the end of its design life. A longer life and easy replacement criteria have guided the selection of the pressure tube material and the design of pressure tube, end fittings and the couplings. The pressure tube is provided with an in-built reducer at the bottom end and a thicker walled top end. The pressure tube is detachable from the rolled joint with the top end fitting. The bottom end fitting can be detached from the feeder by de-coupling the bottom metal seal coupling. The bottom end fitting is sized such that it can be removed along with the pressure tube through the bore of the top end fitting after detaching it from the feeder and the top end fitting. Top end fitting is provided with two sets of rolled joint bores. A shop assembled fresh pressure tube with bottom end fitting can be inserted through the bore of the top end fitting and rolled to the fresh set of rolled joint grooves. 6.2. Fuel handling and storage system The refuelling operation is carried out by a remotely operated fuelling machine moving on rails laid on the reactor top. The fuel handling system mainly consists of a fuelling machine, an inclined fuel transfer machine, a temporary fuel storage block located inside the reactor building and a fuel storage bay located outside the reactor. The temporary fuel storage block comprises fuel port and under water equipment. The fuel port acts as an interface with fuelling machine for charging new fuel and receiving spent fuel. Underwater equipment is used for handling the fuel within the storage block, and for transferring the fuel clusters across the containment walls through an inclined fuel transfer machine. The temporary fuel storage block also caters to buffer storage of the fuel to meet refuelling requirement in case of temporary outage of the inclined fuel transfer machine. The inclined fuel transfer machine transfers the fuel from temporary fuel storage block to the fuel storage bay located outside the reactor building. The fuel storage bay houses new fuel storage area, spent fuel storage area and the handling equipment. The design of the system has been conceptualized and following important concepts have been evolved. 81 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 82. 6.2.1. Fuel transfer system to transfer fuel across containment walls The inclined fuel transfer machine is a tall machine connecting the temporary fuel storage block to the fuel storage bay through the containment walls. A water filled pot containing fuel, guided in an inclined ramp, is hoisted up in the tilting leg and subsequently hoisted down to unload the fuel on the other side. Fig. 7 shows the fuel handling system of AHWR. The concept of the inclined fuel transfer machine is most suitable because of less requirement of space inside the reactor building, on line fuel transfer, small containment penetrations, assured cooling of fuel throughout the transfer and passive containment isolation features. Fig. 7. Fuel handling system of the AHWR. 6.2.2. Fuelling machine The experience and feedback of fuelling machines of the existing PHWRs and the Dhruva research reactor have been considered for the design of the AHWR fuelling machine. The fuelling machine is a vertical and shielded machine designed to handle the 10.5 m long fuel assembly (Fig. 8). The fuel assembly of the AHWR consists of the fuel cluster, shield A and shield B joined together through collet joints. The fuelling machine moves on the reactor top face to approach any individual coolant channel for carrying out the refuelling operation. The function of the fuelling machine is to remove and insert the fuel assembly. The major components of the fuelling machine are ram assembly, magazine assembly, snout assembly, separator assembly and its trolley and carriage assembly. The snout plug located in the snout assembly makes a leak tight connection with the coolant channel end fitting. The snout assembly clamps the fuelling machine to the end fitting for carrying out the refuelling operation. The seal plug is located at the top of coolant channel and acts as a pressure boundary for the MHT water/steam. The ram assembly consists of three coaxial rams and the outer ram travels up to 7.6 m for removal of the fuel assembly from the coolant channel. The three coaxial rams manipulate the snout 82 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 83. plug, seal plug, ram adaptors and shield plugs for their removal, movement and installation. The magazine assembly consists of eight tubes fixed on a rotor and temporarily stores the plugs and fuel cluster. The ram adaptor is hung in the magazine tube and holds the fuel cluster through a collet joint. The separator assembly is required to sense and hold the fuel assembly during its removal and insertion to facilitate joining/disjoining different fuel assembly parts. The fuelling machine head is hung to the fuelling machine support system through a X-trunion located at the ram housing of the ram assembly. The fuelling machine support system is mounted on a shielding assembly. The shielding assembly is supported on a trolley and carriage assembly. The trolley moves in Y direction on the rails provided on the carriage assembly. The carriage assembly moves across the reactor top face in X direction on fuelling machine rails. The drive is provided by an oil hydraulic system. The fuelling machine is coarse aligned to a particular channel through the trolley and the carriage travels, and fine alignment is by X fine and Y fine movements provided in the fuelling machine support system. During the refuelling process the fuelling machine clamps with the channel, makes leak tight joint, removes the seal plug, removes the fuel assembly, separates the shield ‘A’, shield ‘B’ and fuel cluster, replaces with new fuel and boxes up the channel after completing the reverse sequences of operations. The entire operation of fuelling machine is done remotely. Fig. 8. Fuelling machine of the AHWR. 6.2.3. Fuel storage bay 83 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 84. A storage bay, located in the fuel building adjoining the reactor building, stores the fresh and the spent fuel under water. The storage pool capacity is decided based on the refuelling frequency of 113 fuel clusters (one-fourth of the core) per annum, two years cooling span for the fuel cluster and six months inventory of new fuel clusters. Provision is made to monitor the leakage from the bay. A fail-safe crane and handling equipment are provided in the bay. 6.3. Reactor building The concept of double containment has been adopted in the design of AHWR reactor building. The containment structures consist of an inner containment wall and dome, forming the primary containment. An outer containment wall and dome form the secondary containment. The inner containment wall and the containment dome are made of prestressed concrete and the outer containment wall and outer containment dome are made of reinforced concrete. There exists an annular space of 5.2 m width between the two containments. The containment structures and the internal structures of the reactor building are founded on a common circular reinforced concrete base raft. The base raft is 4 m thick near the center and 5 m thick near the edges, where the walls are connected. The AHWR reactor building has a 6000 m3 capacity circular water tank in the inner containment located at an elevation of 136 m. This large water pool, called gravity driven water pool, is sufficient to cool the reactor for three days following any accident in the plant. The GDWP tank is made of reinforced concrete with a steel liner inside. The pool is supported on the ring beam of the inner containment all along its circumference. In addition to this, two tail pipe towers support it. These tail pipe towers extend right up to the base of the raft. Two steam drums are located within each tail pipe tower at an elevation of 123 m. The GDWP is divided into eight compartments. 7. Passive systems and inherent safety features of AHWR The AHWR has several passive safety systems for reactor normal operation, decay heat removal, emergency core cooling, confinement of radioactivity, etc. (Bhat et al., 2004). These passive safety features are listed below: • core heat removal by natural circulation of coolant during normal operation and shutdown conditions; • direct injection of ECCS water in the fuel cluster in passive mode during postulated accident conditions like LOCA; • containment cooling by passive containment coolers; • passive containment isolation by water seal, following a large break LOCA; • availability of large inventory of water in GDWP at higher elevation inside the containment to facilitate sustenance of core decay heat removal, ECCS injection, containment cooling for at least 72 h without invoking any active systems or operator action; 84 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 85. • passive shutdown by poison injection in the moderator, using the system pressure, in case of MHT system high pressure due to failure of wired mechanical shutdown system and liquid poison injection system; • passive moderator cooling system to minimize the pressurization of calandria and release of tritium through cover gas during shutdown and station blackout; • passive concrete cooling system for protection of the concrete structure in high- temperature zone. The passive and active heat removal paths of the AHWR under various operational states and in LOCA are shown in Fig. 9. The design features of passive systems are described in the following paragraph. Fig. 9. Heat removal paths of the AHWR. 7.1. Passive core heat removal by natural circulation during normal operation During normal reactor operation, full reactor power is removed by natural circulation caused by thermo siphoning phenomenon. The main heat transport system transports heat from fuel rods to the steam drums using boiling light water in a natural circulation mode. The necessary flow rate is achieved by locating the steam drums at a suitable height above the core. By eliminating nuclear grade primary circulating pumps and their drives, and control system, all event scenarios initiating from non-availability of main pumps are therefore excluded besides providing economical advantage. The above factors result in considerable enhancement of system safety and reliability. Full power heat removal using natural circulation 85 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 86. depends on several associated phenomena. Some details of the analysis and experimental studies are described later in the paper. 7.2. Passive core decay heat removal system During reactor shut down, core decay heat is removed by eight isolation condensers (ICs) submerged in the gravity driven water pool. The pool acts as a heat sink for passive decay heat removal system. Four isolation condensers are capable of removing 6% full power core heat (decay heat at reactor trip). Passive valves are provided on the down stream of each isolation condenser. These valves get activated at a set steam drum pressure, and establish steam flow by natural circulation between the steam drums and corresponding isolation condenser under hot shutdown. The steam condenses inside the isolation condenser pipes immersed in the GDWP and the condensate returns to the core by gravity (Fig. 11). The isolation condensers are designed to bring down the main heat transport system temperature from 558 to 423 K. The water inventory in the GDWP is adequate to cool the core for more than three days without any operator intervention and without leading to boiling of pool water. During normal shutdown, decay heat is removed by natural circulation in the main heat transport circuit and the heat is transferred to ultimate heat sink through main condenser. The isolation condenser system removes heat during non-availability of the main condenser. In case of unavailability of both isolation condenser and main condenser, decay heat is removed by active system utilizing the MHT purification coolers. 7.3. Emergency core cooling in passive mode and core submergence In the event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), four independent loops of ECCS provide cooling to the core for at least 72 h. A high-pressure injection system using accumulators and a low-pressure injection system using GDWP as source of water are passively brought into action, in a sequential manner, as the depressurization of the MHT system progresses, during LOCA. The ECCS has four accumulators, each connecting to a quadrant of the fuel channels through a one-way rupture disc and a non-return valve. The rupture action due to the depressurization of the MHT system causes the injection of emergency coolant from accumulators. The accumulator houses a fluidic flow control device as shown in Fig. 10. It consists of a vortex chamber with a radial inlet connected to a vertical standpipe open at the top and a small tangential inlet. A large mass of cold water enters quickly into the core in the early stages of LOCA due to flow through the standpipe and tangential inlet during water level higher than standpipe. Later, a relatively small flow is extended for a longer time ( 15 min) through the tangential inlet due to vortex formation in the fluidic flow control device. 86 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 87. Fig. 10. Accumulator with fluid flow control device. The GDWP is also connected to ECCS header by a one-way rupture disc and a non- return valve. The GDWP water is injected to remove the decay heat in the fuel after the MHT system pressure falls below GDWP pressure head. During LOCA, the water from the MHT system, the accumulators and the GDWP, after cooling the core, collects in the space around the core in the reactor cavity and eventually submerges the core in water. 7.4. Passive containment isolation system To minimize early large releases following a LOCA, it is necessary to isolate containment following a large break LOCA. To achieve this, a passive containment isolation arrangement has been provided, in addition to the closing of the normal inlet and outlet ventilation dampers (Maheshwari et al., 2004). The reactor building air supply and exhaust ducts are shaped in the form of U bends of sufficient height. In the event of a large LOCA, the containment gets pressurized and the pressure acts on the GDWP inventory and swiftly establishes a water siphon, into the ventilation duct U bends. Water in the U bends acts as seal between the containment and the external environment, providing the necessary isolation between the two. An isolation water tank is provided inside the GDWP to achieve the water seal in minimum possible time. The isolation water tank has a baffle plate with one side connected to V1 volume (volume containing high enthalpy systems) through a vent shaft and other side connected to V2 volume (volume comprise areas having low enthalpy systems) U duct. Due to the differential pressure between two sides of the baffle during the LOCA, the isolation tank water spill in to the U duct and isolate V1 volume from V2. Drain connections provided to the U bends permit the re- establishment of containment ventilation manually when desired. 87 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 88. 7.5. Vapor suppression in gravity driven water pool The GDWP absorbs the energy released in the containment immediately following the LOCA. After a postulated LOCA, the steam released to the V1 volume is directed to the GDWP through a large number of large size vent ducts. The vent ducts opens into the GDWP water, condensing the steam and cooling the non-condensable and reduces the heat load released to the containment. 7.6. Passive containment cooling The passive containment coolers are utilized to achieve post-accident primary containment cooling to limit the primary containment pressure. The passive containment coolers are located below the GDWP and are connected to the GDWP inventory (Maheshwari et al., 2001). During the LOCA, a mixture of hot air and steam flows over the passive containment coolers. Steam condenses and hot air cools down on the outer tube surfaces of the coolers due to natural circulation of GDWP water inside the tubes providing long-term containment cooling after the accident. 7.7. Passive shutdown on MHT system high pressure Passive shutdown system injects poison into the moderator by using the increased steam pressure arising out of the failure of wired shutdown systems. The AHWR has two independent shutdown systems, one comprising the mechanical shut off rods (SDS-1) and the other employing injection of a liquid poison in the low-pressure moderator (SDS-2). Both the shutdown systems require active signals for shutdown of the reactor. The scheme of passive shutdown actuates on high steam pressure due to unavailability of heat sink, followed by failure of SDS-1 and SDS-2. The schematic of the passive shutdown on MHT high pressure is shown in Fig. 11. In such an event of pressure rise, pressure opens a rupture disc and pressure is transmitted for opening a passive valve connected to a pressurized poison tank, injecting poison in the moderator to shutdown the reactor. Inadvertent poison injection is avoided by keeping the rupture disc burst pressure above the expected MHT pressure rise during and after reactor shutdown activated by either SDS-1 or SDS-2. 88 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 89. Fig. 11. Passive shutdown device. 7.8. Passive concrete cooling system This system is designed to protect the concrete structure of the reactor located in the high-temperature zone (V1 volume). The cooling is achieved by circulation of coolant from GDWP in natural circulation mode through cooling pipes located between the concrete structure and an insulation panel. The heat transferred to the insulation panel is transferred to the GDWP water by the cooling pipes, fixed on a corrugated plate on outer surface of the insulation panel. Cooling pipes are placed at an optimum pitch to maintain the concrete temperature below 358 K. This passive feature has eliminated the requirement of otherwise needed active equipment. 8. Thermal hydraulic analysis The thermal hydraulic characteristics of a natural circulation reactor depend on the geometry of system, pressure, inlet sub-cooling, feed water temperature, and radial and axial power distribution in the core. The thermal hydraulic design of the AHWR has been carried out to provide adequate stability margin as well as thermal margin. The stability margin is defined as the ratio of successive amplitudes of flow oscillations following a disturbance to the system and the thermal margin is the minimum critical heat flux ratio. Thus, when the stability margin is less than one, the system is stable; if it is more than one it is unstable and if it is one, the system is at the threshold of stability. The MCHFR value has to be much larger than one for having a larger thermal margin for the reactor. The computer codes, TINFLO-S (Nayak et al., 2002) and ARTHA (Chandraker et al., 2002) were used to evaluate 89 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 90. these parameters for the reactor. The effect of various parameters affecting the thermal and stability margins has been determined. The thermal hydraulic analyses were carried out to determine the channel flow distribution, exit quality, void fraction in the channels and the MCHFR. Some of the important results of the analyses are given in Table 6. A high value of stability margin is desirable. Several parametric studies were carried out to optimize the geometrical and operating conditions (Kumar et al., 2002). A brief outline of the results obtained is described below. Table 6. Thermal hydraulic parameters of AHWR Core fission power 960 MWt Core power 920 MWt Coolant Light water Heated fuel length 3.5 m Total core flow rate 2237 kg/s Coolant inlet temperature 533.5 K (nominal) Coolant outlet temperature 558 K Feed water temperature 403 K Average steam quality 18.2% Steam generation rate 407.6 kg/s Steam drum pressure 7 MPa MHT loop height 39 m Minimum critical heat flux ratio (MCHFR) at 20% overpower 1.67 Maximum channel power 2.6 MW 8.1. Effect of tail pipe height The variations of core inlet sub-cooling and flow rate with the change in tail pipe height for a high-power (2.6 MW) channel of the reactor are detailed in Fig. 12. It can be seen that with an increase in the tail pipe height the channel flow rate increases and sub-cooling at the core inlet decreases. Fig. 13 gives the variation of stability margin and CHFR with the change in the tail pipe height. Stability margin indicates that the normal operating region is away from the unstable region. Both the stability and the thermal margin increases with increase in the tail pipe height. However, beyond the tail pipe height of 20 m, the increase in the stability margin is only marginal while the thermal margin keeps on improving. 90 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 91. Fig. 12. Effect of tail pipe height on core inlet sub-cooling and channel flow rate. Fig. 13. Effect of tail pipe height on thermal and stability margin. 8.2. Effect of tail pipe size Fig. 14 shows the effect of tail pipe (riser) diameter on the channel flow rate and the sub-cooling for a constant feed water temperature of 403 K. The channel flow rate initially increases with increase in tail pipe size and saturates beyond 127 mm diameter. The effect of tail pipe size on the stability and the thermal margin is shown in Fig. 15. Initially, with increase in the tail pipe size, the stability margin increases significantly but later on (beyond 127 mm tail pipe size) the increase is only 91 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 92. marginal. The thermal margin improves with an increase in the tail pipe size. However, beyond the tail pipe size of 127 mm, the effect of increase in size is not significant. Fig. 14. Effect of tail pipe diameter on core inlet sub-cooling and channel flow rate. Fig. 15. Effect of tail pipe diameter on CHFR and stability margin. 8.3. Effect of feed water temperature The effect of feed water temperature on core inlet sub-cooling and the channel flow rate is shown in Fig. 16. Both the channel flow rate and the sub-cooling decrease 92 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 93. with increase in the feed water temperature. Fig. 17 shows the effect of feed water temperature on the thermal and the stability margin. The stability margin increases with increase in the feed water temperature while the CHFR decreases with increase in the feed water temperature. Fig. 16. Effect of feed water temperature on core inlet sub-cooling and channel flow rate. Fig. 17. Effect of feed water temperature on stability margin and CHFR. 93 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 94. 8.4. Stability analyses The Ledinegg type of instability occurs when the inlet sub-cooling exceeds 9 K (Fig. 18) for the system pressure of 0.1 MPa and the channel power greater than 315 kW. At a pressure of 1.0 MPa and sub-cooling less than 40 K, this type of instability is completely avoided. Thus, at the operating pressure of 7 MPa, Ledinegg type of instability is not a concern. However, density wave instability occurs even at a pressure of 7.0 MPa and inlet sub-cooling of 25.9 K if the power is less than 49.8% FP (Fig. 19). Thus, controlling the inlet sub-cooling and pressure will avoid both these instabilities. Fig. 18. Ledinegg type instability map for AHWR. 94 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 95. Fig. 19. Stability map for dynamic stability. 9. Experimental programs to demonstrate the inherent and passive features relevant to AHWR and their development status Several passive features have been adopted for the AHWR for which analytical studies have been carried out. Some of these needs to be validated through experimental programs. A list of the experimental programs is given in Table 7. Table 7. Experimental program Main objectives Enabling technologies Status of development Negative void coefficient Tight lattice pitch Feasibility demonstrated Use of a scatterer cum Physics experiments to be absorber component within done in the critical facility fuel cluster Optimum use of passive Ongoing and Natural circulation driven systems for core heat experimental studies main coolant system removal planned in the ITL Isolation condensers Large passive heat sink within containment Passive valves R&D in progress Enhanced safety following Passive emergency core Planned experiments in LOCA cooling system (ECCS) the integral test loop Ongoing experimental Fluidic device in ECCS program ECCS injection directly into Ongoing experimental fuel program Demonstration planned in Passive containment a facility under isolation construction Passive feature, no R&D Core submergence required 95 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 96. Main objectives Enabling technologies Status of development One-way rupture disk R&D planned High reliability non-return R&D in progress valve Additional features to Passive poison injection Demonstration planned in achieve low core damage using steam pressure an experimental facility frequency Moderator heat removal, stratification in large Passive moderator cooling Planned in a scaled model diameter calandria High-temperature Planned experiments in Passive concrete cooling protection of concrete ITL A critical facility is being built at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre to validate the physics calculation models used for the AHWR. An extensive experimental program has been planned and executed to understand the natural circulation characteristics including its stability for the design of the AHWR. This comprises setting up of several experimental facilities. The AHWR natural circulation characteristics during start-up, power raising and accidental conditions have been experimentally simulated in these facilities. In addition to several small facilities, a full size integral test loop (ITL) (Rao et al., 2002) has also been built to simulate the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the AHWR. The facility has the same elevation as that of the AHWR. The facility contains one full size channel of the AHWR, with its associated inlet feeder and tail pipe. The geometry of the feeder pipe and tail pipe of the ITL is retained the same as that of the AHWR, thus it simulates not only the driving buoyancy head, but also the resisting frictional forces which are vital in the simulation of natural circulation. The nominal operating pressure of the ITL is 70 bar and maximum power of operation is about 2 MW, which are closer to the prototypic conditions. Fig. 20 and Fig. 21 show the simulation of decay heat removal behavior of the AHWR in the ITL following a station blackout. Under this condition, due to non-availability of the Class-IV power, the feed pumps are unavailable. The reactor is tripped and the main steam isolation valve (MSIV) closes. The decay heat generated in the core is removed by thermo siphon using the ICs. In the integral test loop, the decay heat generation rate has been simulated by controlling the current flowing through the cluster, heated electrically. From Fig. 21, it can be observed that the MHT pressure continuously falls due to the steam condensation in the ICs. Many other safety experiments are being carried out in this facility to validate the AHWR design concepts. 96 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 97. Fig. 20. Simulation of decay heat removal rate of the AHWR in integral test loop following a station blackout. Fig. 21. Variation of steam drum pressure in the integral test loop following a station blackout. The critical heat flux (CHF) under natural circulation condition is also a complex phenomena and it has been found that the conventional CHF relationships for forced 97 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 98. circulation conditions cannot be applied over the entire range of operation under natural circulation conditions. To study the CHF of the AHWR cluster, several phased experimental program are underway both in BARC and at Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. These include conducting experiments in prototypic AHWR clusters using water as well as Freon as the working fluid and the corresponding nominal operating conditions of the reactor as well as development of mathematical models for critical power prediction based on film flow analysis. Experiments on condensation of steam in presence of non-condensable gas are being carried out on the passive external condenser tube of AHWR. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the condensation heat transfer coefficient outside the tube in a stagnant steam/air mixture simulating the prototypic conditions. The experiments will be performed on different orientation of the tube with different concentration of non-condensable gases. Further, the tests will be conducted with the natural circulation of water inside the tube with steam/air mixture condensing outside the tube. 10. Safety analyses The emphasis in the reactor design has been to incorporate passive safety features to the maximum extent, as a part of the defense in depth strategy. The main objective has been to establish a case for elimination of a need for an evacuation planning, following any credible accident scenario in the plant. A major objective of design of the AHWR has been to provide a capability to withstand a wide range of postulating events without exceeding specified fuel temperature limits, thereby maintaining fuel integrity. The safety analysis of AHWR has identified an exhaustive list of 55 postulated initiated events (PIEs) (Gupta and Lele, 2002). The events considered include a wide range in the following categories: • small, medium and large break LOCA; • operational transients involving loss of coolant inventory; • multiple system failure; • power transients. The safety analyses include 10 anticipated transients without scram scenario. The latter include the combination of a frequent event with unavailability of shutdown system. The acceptance criteria for all design basis accidents are given below: • maximum fuel cladding temperature ≤ 1473 K; • maximum local oxidation of fuel clad ≤ 18%; • maximum fuel temperature anywhere in the core for any transient ≤ melting point of ThO2; • mass of Zr converted into ZrO2 ≤ 1% of the total mass of the cladding; 98 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 99. • radiation level at the plant boundary ≤ applicable levels for emergency planning. The analyses indicate that in none of the accident sequences mentioned above the fuel clad temperature exceeds 1073 K. In the conventional sense, for the purpose of design of the containment, a double- ended guillotine rupture of the 500 mm diameter inlet header has been considered. A clad surface temperature transient for this case is furnished in Fig. 22. This shows the efficiency and adequacy of the designed engineered safety feature, to limit the consequences, well within the acceptance criteria limits. A large number of other accident scenarios conventionally fall within the category of beyond design basis accidents. However, even in these cases, including a case of station blackout together with failures of both the independent fast acting shutdown systems (SDS-1 and SDS-2), it has been demonstrated (Fig. 23) that none of the acceptance criteria for design basis accidents has been violated. Fig. 22. Clad temperature of the maximum power rated channel for double-ended guillotine break of inlet header. 99 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 100. Fig. 23. Clad temperature of the maximum power rated channel under failure of wired shutdown system. 11. Summary The design of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor incorporates several new features. These include utilization of thorium on a large scale and inclusion of several passive safety features. In addition to development of a system of computational tools to address the issues arising out of these innovations, an extensive experimental programme is under way to validate the design approaches used. At the current stage of design, the safety evaluations carried out so far, indicate that the peak clad temperature remains within acceptable limits for practically the entire range of initiating events and their credible combinations. The reactor is expected to serve as a platform for the development and demonstration of all technologies associated with the large-scale utilization of thorium, and advanced safety systems relevant for water cooled reactors. References Anantharaman et al., 2000 K. Anantharaman, H.S. Kamath, S. Majumdar, A. Ramanujam and M. Venkatramani, Thorium Based Fuel Reprocessing & Refabrication Technologies and Strategies, INSAC-2000 Mumbai, 1–2 June (2000). Anantharaman and Shivakumar, 2002 K. Anantharaman and V. Shivakumar, Design & Fabrication of AHWR Fuel, CQCNF-2002 Hyderabad (December 2002). Askew et al., 1996 J.R. Askew, F.J. Fayers and P.B. Kemshell, A General Description of the Lattice Code WIMS, British Nuclear Energy Society (October 1996) p. 564. 100 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 101. Bhat et al., 2004 N.R. Bhat, I.V. Dulera, M.G. Andhansare, D. Saha and R.K. Sinha, Design of passive systems of Indian AHWR and CHTR, Paper Presented in IAEA Technical Meeting I3-TM-26926 on ‘Review of Passive Safety Design Options for Small and Medium Sized Reactors’ IAEA, Vienna, June 13–17 (2005). Chandraker et al., 2002 D.K. Chandraker, N.K. Maheshwari, D. Saha and R.K. Sinha, A computer code for the thermal hydraulic analysis of a natural circulation reactor, 16th National Heat and Mass Transfer Conference and 5th ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadhavpur University, Calcutta, India (January 2002). Gupta and Lele, 2002 Gupta, S.K., Lele, H.G., 2002. Safety analyses of AHWR: approaches, methodology and applications. In: Paper Presented in the First National Conference on Nuclear Reactor Technology, Mumbai, India, 25–27 November. IAEA, 2002 International Atomic Energy Agency, 2002. IAEA CRP on Final Stage of the WIMS-D Library Update Project (WLUP), http://www.iaea-nds.org. Kumar and Srivenkatesan, 1984 Kumar, A., Srivenkatesan, R., 1984. Nodal Expansion Method for Reactor Core Calculation. BARC Report. BARC-1249. Kumar et al., 1999 A. Kumar, U. Kannan, Y. Padala, G.M. Behera and R. Srivenkatesan, Physics design of advanced heavy water reactor utilising thorium, Paper Presented in the Technical Committee Meeting on Utilization of Thorium Fuel Options IAEA, Vienna (November 1999). Kumar et al., 2002 N. Kumar, D.K. Chandraker, A.K. Nayak, P.K. Vijayan, D. Saha and R.K. Sinha, Effect of various geometric parameters on the design safety considerations of a natural circulation boiling water reactor: thermal margin vs stability margin, First National Conference on Nuclear Reactor Technology BARC, Mumbai, India, 25–27 November (2002). Kumar, 2000 A. Kumar, A new cluster design for the reduction of void reactivity in AHWR, Poster Paper Presented at the Indian Nuclear Society Annual Conference INSAC-2000, Mumbai, 1–2 June (2000). Maheshwari et al., 2001 N.K. Maheshwari, D. Saha, D.K. Chandraker, V. Venkat Raj and A. Kakodkar, Studies on the behaviour of a passive containment cooling system for the Indian heavy water reactors, Kerntechnik 66 (2001), pp. 15–22. Maheshwari et al., 2004 N.K. Maheshwari, P.K. Vijayan, D. Saha and R.K. Sinha, Passive Safety Features of Indian Innovative Nuclear Reactors, Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Design Features, Safety Approach and R&D Trends IAEA TEC-DOC 1451, Vienna, 7–11 June (2004). Nayak et al., 2002 A.K. Nayak, N. Kumar, P.K. Vijayan, D. Saha and R.K. Sinha, Analytical study of flow instability behaviour in a boiling two phase natural circulation loop under low quality conditions, Kerntechnik 67 (2002), pp. 95–101. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2) 101 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 102. Rao et al., 2002 Rao, G.S.S.P., Vijayan, P.K., Jain, V., Borgohain, A., Sharma, M., Nayak, A.K., Belokar, D.G., Pal, A.K., Saha, D., Sinha, R.K., 2002. AHWR integral test loop scaling philosophy and system description, BARC Report, BARC/2002/E/017. Sinha et al., 2000 R.K. Sinha, H.S. Kushwaha, R.G. Agarwal, D. Saha, M.L. Dhawan, H.P. Vyas and B.B. Rupani, Design and development of AHWR—the Indian thorium fuelled innovative nuclear reactor, INSAC-2000, Annual Conference of Indian Nuclear Society Mumbai, 1–2 June (2000). Sinha and Kakodkar, 2003 R.K. Sinha and A. Kakodkar, The road map for a future Indian nuclear energy system, International Conference on Innovative Technologies for Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Nuclear Power Vienna, 23–26 June (2003). Srivenkatesan et al., 2000 R. Srivenkatesan, A. Kumar, U. Kannan, V.K. Raina, M.K. Arora, S. Ganesan and S.B. Degwekar, Physics considerations for utilization of thorium in power reactors and subcritical cores, INSAC-2000, Annual Conference of Indian Nuclear Society Mumbai, 1–2 June (2000). Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 22 25505303; fax: +91 22 25505303. Nuclear Engineering and Design Volume 236, Issues 7-8, April 2006, Pages 683-700 India's Reactors: Past, Present, Future http://www.uic.com.au/nip67.htm 102 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 103. Annex 17 Thorium: UIC Briefing Paper # 67 May 2007 • Thorium is much more abundant in nature than uranium. • Thorium can also be used as a nuclear fuel through breeding to uranium-233 (U-233). • When this thorium fuel cycle is used, much less plutonium and other transuranic elements are produced, compared with uranium fuel cycles. • Several reactor concepts based on thorium fuel cycles are under consideration. Thorium is a naturally-occurring, slightly radioactive metal discovered in 1828 by the Swedish chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. It is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils, where it is about three times more abundant than uranium. Soil commonly contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. Thorium occurs in several minerals, the most common being the rare earth-thorium- phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium oxide, but average 6-7%. There are substantial deposits in several countries (see table). Thorium-232 decays very slowly (its half-life is about three times the age of the earth) but other thorium isotopes occur in its and in uranium's decay chains. Most of these are short-lived and hence much more radioactive than Th-232, though on a mass basis they are negligible. World thorium resources (economically extractable): Country Reserves (tonnes) Australia 300 000 India 290 000 Norway 170 000 USA 160 000 Canada 100 000 South Africa 35 000 Brazil 16 000 Other countries 95 000 World total 1 200 000 source: US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 1999 The 2005 IAEA-NEA quot;Red Bookquot; gives a figure of 4.5 million tonnes of reserves and additional resources, but points out that this excludes data from much of the world. Geoscience Australia confirms the above 300,000 tonne figure for Australia, but 103 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 104. stresses that this is based on assumptions, not direct geological data in the same way as most mineral rsources. When pure, thorium is a silvery white metal that retains its lustre for several months. However, when it is contaminated with the oxide, thorium slowly tarnishes in air, becoming grey and eventually black. Thorium oxide (ThO2), also called thoria, has one of the highest melting points of all oxides (3300°C). When heated in air, thorium metal turnings ignite and burn brilliantly with a white light. Because of these properties, thorium has found applications in light bulb elements, lantern mantles, arc-light lamps, welding electrodes and heat-resistant ceramics. Glass containing thorium oxide has a high refractive index and dispersion and is used in high quality lenses for cameras and scientific instruments. Thorium as a nuclear fuel Thorium, as well as uranium, can be used as a nuclear fuel. Although not fissile itself, thorium-232 (Th-232) will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (U- 233), which is fissile. Hence like uranium-238 (U-238) it is fertile. In one significant respect U-233 is better than uranium-235 and plutonium-239, because of its higher neutron yield per neutron absorbed. Given a start with some other fissile material (U-235 or Pu-239), a breeding cycle similar to but more efficient than that with U-238 and plutonium (in slow-neutron reactors) can be set up. The Th-232 absorbs a neutron to become Th-233 which normally decays to protactinium-233 and then U-233. The irradiated fuel can then be unloaded from the reactor, the U-233 separated from the thorium, and fed back into another reactor as part of a closed fuel cycle. Over the last 30 years there has been interest in utilising thorium as a nuclear fuel since it is more abundant in the Earth's crust than uranium. Also, all of the mined thorium is potentially useable in a reactor, compared with the 0.7% of natural uranium, so some 40 times the amount of energy per unit mass might theoretically be available (withouit recourse to fast breeder reactors). A major potential application for conventional PWRs involves fuel assemblies arranged so that a blanket of mainly thorium fuel rods surrounds a more-enriched seed element containing U-235 which supplies neutrons to the subcritical blanket. As U-233 is produced in the blanket it is burned there. This is the Light Water Breeder Reactor concept which was successfully demonstrated in the USA in the 1970s. It is currently being developed in a more deliberately proliferation-resistant way. The central seed region of each fuel assembly will have uranium enriched to 20% U-235. The blanket will be thorium with some U-238, which means that any uranium chemically separated from it (for the U-233 ) is not useable for weapons. Spent blanket fuel also contains U-232, which decays rapidly and has very gamma-active daughters creating significant problems in handling the bred U-233 and hence conferring proliferation resistance. Plutonium produced in the seed will have a high proportion of Pu-238, generating a lot of heat and making it even more unsuitable for weapons than normal reactor-grade Pu. A variation of this is the use of whole homogeneous assembles arranged so that a set of them makes up a seed and blanket arrangement. If the seed fuel is metal 104 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 105. uranium alloy instead of oxide, there is better heat conduction to cope with its higher temperatures. Seed fuel remains three years in the reactor, blanket fuel for up to 14 years. Since the early 1990s Russia has had a program to develop a thorium-uranium fuel, which more recently has moved to have a particular emphasis on utilisation of weapons-grade plutonium in a thorium-plutonium fuel. The program is based at Moscow's Kurchatov Institute and involves the US company Thorium Power and US government funding to design fuel for Russian VVER-1000 reactors. Whereas normal fuel uses enriched uranium oxide, the new design has a demountable centre portion and blanket arrangement, with the plutonium in the centre and the thorium (with uranium) around it*. The Th-232 becomes U-233, which is fissile - as is the core Pu-239. Blanket material remains in the reactor for 9 years but the centre portion is burned for only three years (as in a normal VVER). Design of the seed fuel rods in the centre portion draws on extensive experience of Russian navy reactors. *More precisely: A normal VVER-1000 fuel assembly has 331 rods each 9 mm diameter forming a hexagonal assembly 235 mm wide. Here, the centre portion of each assembly is 155 mm across and holds the seed material consisting of metallic Pu-Zr alloy (Pu is about 10% of alloy, and isotopically over 90% Pu-239) as 108 twisted tricorn-section rods 12.75 mm across with Zr-1%Nb cladding. The sub- critical blanket consists of U-Th oxide fuel pellets (1:9 U:Th, the U enriched up to almost 20%) in 228 Zr-1%Nb cladding tubes 8.4 mm diameter - four layers around the centre portion. The blanket material achieves 100 GWd/t burn-up. Together as one fuel assembly the seed and blanket have the same geometry as a normal VVER- 100 fuel assembly. The thorium-plutonium fuel claims four advantages over MOX: proliferation resistance, compatibility with existing reactors - which will need minimal modification to be able to burn it, and the fuel can be made in existing plants in Russia. In addition, a lot more plutonium can be put into a single fuel assembly than with MOX, so that three times as much can be disposed of as when using MOX. The spent fuel amounts to about half the volume of MOX and is even less likely to allow recovery of weapons-useable material than spent MOX fuel, since less fissile plutonium remains in it. With an estimated 150 tonnes of weapons Pu in Russia, the thorium-plutonium project would not necessarily cut across existing plans to make MOX fuel. In 2007 Thorium Power formed an alliance with Red Star nuclear design bureau in Russia which will take forward the program to demonstrate the technology in lead- test fuel assemblies in full-sized commercial reactors. R&D history The use of thorium-based fuel cycles has been studied for about 30 years, but on a much smaller scale than uranium or uranium/plutonium cycles. Basic research and development has been conducted in Germany, India, Japan, Russia, the UK and the USA. Test reactor irradiation of thorium fuel to high burnups has also been conducted and several test reactors have either been partially or completely loaded with thorium-based fuel. 105 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 106. Noteworthy experiments involving thorium fuel include the following, the first three being high-temperature gas-cooled reactors: • Between 1967 and 1988, the AVR experimental pebble bed reactor at Julich, Germany, operated for over 750 weeks at 15 MWe, about 95% of the time with thorium-based fuel. The fuel used consisted of about 100 000 billiard ball-sized fuel elements. Overall a total of 1360 kg of thorium was used, mixed with high-enriched uranium (HEU). Maximum burnups of 150,000 MWd/t were achieved. • Thorium fuel elements with a 10:1 Th/U (HEU) ratio were irradiated in the 20 MWth Dragon reactor at Winfrith, UK, for 741 full power days. Dragon was run as an OECD/Euratom cooperation project, involving Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland in addition to the UK, from 1964 to 1973. The Th/U fuel was used to 'breed and feed', so that the U-233 formed replaced the U-235 at about the same rate, and fuel could be left in the reactor for about six years. • General Atomics' Peach Bottom high-temperature, graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the USA operated between 1967 and 1974 at 110 MWth, using high-enriched uranium with thorium. • In India, the Kamini 30 kWth experimental neutron-source research reactor using U-233, recovered from ThO2 fuel irradiated in another reactor, started up in 1996 near Kalpakkam. The reactor was built adjacent to the 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor, in which the ThO2 is irradiated. • In the Netherlands, an aqueous homogenous suspension reactor has operated at 1MWth for three years. The HEU/Th fuel is circulated in solution and reprocessing occurs continuously to remove fission products, resulting in a high conversion rate to U-233. • There have been several experiments with fast neutron reactors. Power reactors Much experience has been gained in thorium-based fuel in power reactors around the world, some using high-enriched uranium (HEU) as the main fuel: • The 300 MWe THTR reactor in Germany was developed from the AVR and operated between 1983 and 1989 with 674,000 pebbles, over half containing Th/HEU fuel (the rest graphite moderator and some neutron absorbers). These were continuously recycled on load and on average the fuel passed six times through the core. Fuel fabrication was on an industrial scale. • The Fort St Vrain reactor was the only commercial thorium-fuelled nuclear plant in the USA, also developed from the AVR in Germany, and operated 1976 - 1989. It was a high-temperature (700°C), graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor with a Th/HEU fuel designed to operate at 842 MWth (330 MWe). The fuel was in microspheres of thorium carbide and Th/U-235 carbide coated with silicon oxide and pyrolytic carbon to retain fission products. It was arranged in hexagonal columns ('prisms') rather than as pebbles. Almost 25 tonnes of thorium was used in fuel for the reactor, and this achieved 170,000 MWd/t burn-up. • Thorium-based fuel for Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) was investigated at the Shippingport reactor in the USA using both U-235 and plutonium as the initial fissile material. It was concluded that thorium would not significantly affect operating strategies or core margins. The light water breeder reactor 106 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 107. (LWBR) concept was also successfully tested here from 1977 to 1982 with thorium and U-233 fuel clad with Zircaloy using the 'seed/blanket' concept. • The 60 MWe Lingen Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) in Germany utilised Th/Pu- based fuel test elements. India In India, both Kakrapar-1 and -2 units are loaded with 500 kg of thorium fuel in order to improve their operation when newly-started. Kakrapar-1 was the first reactor in the world to use thorium, rather than depleted uranium, to achieve power flattening across the reactor core. In 1995, Kakrapar-1 achieved about 300 days of full power operation and Kakrapar-2 about 100 days utilising thorium fuel. The use of thorium-based fuel was planned in Kaiga-1 and -2 and Rajasthan-3 and -4 (Rawatbhata) reactors. With about six times more thorium than uranium, India has made utilisation of thorium for large-scale energy production a major goal in its nuclear power program, utilising a three-stage concept: • Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs, elsewhere known as CANDUs) fuelled by natural uranium, plus light water reactors, produce plutonium. • Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) use this plutonium-based fuel to breed U-233 from thorium. The blanket around the core will have uranium as well as thorium, so that further plutonium (ideally high-fissile Pu) is produced as well as the U-233. Then • Advanced Heavy Water Reactors burn the U-233 and this plutonium with thorium, getting about 75% of their power from the thorium. The spent fuel will then be reprocessed to recover fissile materials for recycling. This Indian program has moved from aiming to be sustained simply with thorium to one quot;drivenquot; with the addition of further fissile uranium and plutonium, to give greater efficiency. Another option for the third stage, while continuing with the PHWR and FBR programs, is the subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), - see below. Emerging advanced reactor concepts Concepts for advanced reactors based on thorium-fuel cycles include: • Light Water Reactors - With fuel based on plutonium oxide (PuO2), thorium oxide (ThO2) and/or uranium oxide (UO2) particles arranged in fuel rods. • High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR) of two kinds: pebble bed and with prismatic fuel elements. Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) - Research on HTGRs in the USA led to a concept using a prismatic fuel. The use of helium as a coolant at high temperature, and the relatively small power output per module (600 107 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 108. MWth), permit direct coupling of the MHR to a gas turbine (a Brayton cycle), resulting in generation at almost 50% thermal efficiency. The GT-MHR core can accommodate a wide range of fuel options, including HEU/Th, U-233/Th and Pu/Th. The use of HEU/Th fuel was demonstrated in the Fort St Vrain reactor (see above). Pebble-Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) - Arising from German work the PBMR was conceived in South Africa and is now being developed by a multinational consortium. It can potentially use thorium in its fuel pebbles. • Molten salt reactors - This is an advanced breeder concept, in which the fuel is circulated in molten salt, without any external coolant in the core. The primary circuit runs through a heat exchanger, which transfers the heat from fission to a secondary salt circuit for steam generation. It was studied in depth in the 1960s, but is now being revived because of the availability of advanced technology for the materials and components. • Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) - India is working on this, and like the Canadian CANDU-NG the 250 MWe design is light water cooled. The main part of the core is subcritical with Th/U-233 oxide, mixed so that the system is self-sustaining in U-233. A few seed regions with conventional MOX fuel will drive the reaction and give a negative void coefficient overall. • CANDU-type reactors - AECL is researching the thorium fuel cycle application to enhanced CANDU-6 and ACR-1000 reactors. With 5% plutonium (reactor grade) plus thorium high burn-up and low power costs are indicated. • Plutonium disposition - Today MOX (U,Pu) fuels are used in some conventional reactors, with Pu-239 providing the main fissile ingredient. An alternative is to use Th/Pu fuel, with plutonium being consumed and fissile U- 233 bred. The remaining U-233 after separation could be used in a Th/U fuel cycle. Use of thorium in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) In an ADS system, high-energy neutrons are produced through the spallation reaction of high-energy protons from an accelerator striking heavy target nuclei (lead, lead-bismuth or other material). These neutrons can be directed to a subcritical reactor containing thorium, where the neutrons breed U-233 and promote the fission of it. There is therefore the possibility of sustaining a fission reaction which can readily be turned off, and used either for power generation or destruction of actinides resulting from the U/Pu fuel cycle. The use of thorium instead of uranium means that less actinides are produced in the ADS itself. (see paper on Accelerator- Driven Nuclear Energy). Developing a thorium-based fuel cycle Despite the thorium fuel cycle having a number of attractive features, development even on the scale of India's has always run into difficulties. Problems include: • the high cost of fuel fabrication, due partly to the high radioactivity of U-233 chemically separated from the irradiated thorium fuel. Separated U-233 is always contaminated with traces of U-232 (69 year half life but whose daughter products such as thallium-208 are strong gamma emitters with very short half lives); • the similar problems in recycling thorium itself due to highly radioactive Th- 228 (an alpha emitter with 2 year half life) present; 108 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 109. • some weapons proliferation risk of U-233 (if it could be separated on its own); and • the technical problems (not yet satisfactorily solved) in reprocessing. Much development work is still required before the thorium fuel cycle can be commercialised, and the effort required seems unlikely while (or where) abundant uranium is available. In this respect international moves to bring India into the ambit of international trade will be critical. If India has ready access to traded uranium and conventional reactor designs, it may not persist with the thorium cycle. Nevertheless, the thorium fuel cycle, with its potential for breeding fuel without the need for fast-neutron reactors, holds considerable potential long-term. It is a significant factor in the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy. Sources: Thorium based fuel options for the generation of electricity: Developments in the 1990s, IAEA-TECDOC-1155, International Atomic Energy Agency, May 2000. The role of thorium in nuclear energy, Energy Information Administration/Uranium Industry Annual, 1996, p.ix-xvii. Nuclear Chemical Engineering (2nd Ed.), Chapter 6: Thorium, M Benedict, T H Pigford and H W Levi, 1981, McGraw-Hill, p.283-317, ISBN: 0-07-004531-3. See also: lead paper in Indian Nuclear Society 2001 conference proceedings, vol 2. Kazimi M.S. 2003, Thorium Fuel for Nuclear Energy, American Scientist Sept-Oct 2003. Morozov et al 2005, Thorium fuel as a superior approach to disposing of excess weapons-grade plutonium in Russian VVER-1000 reactors. Nuclear Future? OECD NEA & IAEA, 2006, Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand Uranium Information Centre Ltd A.B.N. 30 005 503 828 GPO Box 1649N, Melbourne 3001, Australia phone (03) 9629 7744 fax (03) 9629 7207 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V1R-45S7R3Y- 3&_user=1968367&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2002&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search &_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000052195&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=196836 7&md5=1569b589fb2ac329f85bd72cd4644225 109 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 110. Annex 18 Sensitivity analysis for AHWR fuel cluster parameters using different WIMS libraries Arvind Kumar , , Umashankari Kannan and R. Srivenkatesan Reactor Physics Design Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai- 400085, India Received 18 January 2002; accepted 25 January 2002. Available online 7 May 2002. Abstract India is presently engaged in the design of an advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) which utilises thorium as fuel. The AHWR is a boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactor where the heat is removed through natural convection. Dysprosium is used as burnable absorber to get a reduction in void reactivity. The design needs to be well validated. The 69 group old WIMS library distributed by NEA in 1980′s is presently being used for the design and analysis of AHWR. We have now undertaken an exercise to study the sensitivity of the design parameters, such as k- infinity and void reactivity with respect to the various datasets which have been made available as part of the IAEA CRP on the final stage of the WIMS library update project (WLUP). The k-infinity variations are within 1% both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and at the end of cycle (EOC). The results for the coolant void reactivity, however, show significant differences between the different datasets at BOC itself which increases further with burnup. In comparison, the differences for natural uranium fuelled pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) lattice are relatively lower. Major source of variations in AHWR lattice are probably coming from Th-233U data. Article Outline 1. Introduction 2. Description of the problem 3. Method of analysis 4. Results 5. Conclusions References 1. Introduction 110 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 111. An advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) utilising thorium (Kakodkar; Balakrishnan; Sinha and Srivenkatesan) is being developed in India. It is a boiling light water cooled heavy water moderated reactor where heat is removed through natural circulation. The main objectives are to achieve maximum power from thorium with plutonium as an external fissile feed and to achieve self-sustaining characteristics in 233 U. The AHWR has been designed with advanced safety features like negative void coefficient and passive heat removal under all conditions (Kakodkar, 1998). The negative void coefficient is achieved by using Dysprosium as burnable absorber and reduction in moderator inventory by using inter-lattice void tubes in the fuel cluster ( Sinha and Kumar). Advanced reactor concepts have to be qualified thoroughly right at the design starting from the basic nuclear data used. An exercise was done to study the sensitivity of some of the above mentioned features to the basic nuclear data available. The lattice calculations for design were performed with the WIMS-D/4 code (Askew et al., 1966) and the old WIMS library. As part of the WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP), an on-going Coordinated Research Programme of the IAEA, three 69 group WIMS libraries based on ENDF-B/VI, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2.2 have been distributed ( Trkov, 2000). These libraries have been extensively validated for light water based uranium fuel cycles. The performance of these libraries for thorium fuel cycles are being studied as part of WLUP. In this paper, we present the sensitivity studies related to the AHWR, which uses thorium fuel. 2. Description of the problem The AHWR cluster, called D5, is a composite cluster consisting of two types of fuel arranged in a circular array of 12, 18 and 24 pins and a central zirconium displacer rod containing dysprosium as burnable absorber. The detailed design of AHWR along with the lattice calculations based on the old WIMS library is given elsewhere (Kumar, 2000). Only the salient features of this cluster are given here. The cross section of the cluster is shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1. Cross-section of the AHWR fuel cluster. The (Th,Pu)MOX pins are present in the outermost ring and use an enrichment of 3.0% Pu. The plutonium is that discharged from Indian PHWRs. The 233U enrichment 111 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 112. is 3.0% in the inner ring and 3.75% in the middle ring. The dysprosium is in the form of Dy2O3 in a ZrO2 matrix with the equivalent 164Dy being 3.0 wt.% (Kumar, 2000). The volume of moderator has been reduced by using some inter-lattice void tubes ( Sinha et al., 2000) as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2. Lattice arrangement of the AHWR D5 cluster. The intent of the problem was to re-calculate the design related lattice parameters using different datasets to perform a sensitivity study. The parameters compared were k-infinity, void reactivity, flux profile inside the cluster and the isotopic compositions of fissile and fertile materials. It was also decided to study a heavy water moderated 19 rod natural uranium cluster used in currently operating PHWRs and perform a sensitivity analysis. 3. Method of analysis The lattice calculations were carried out using the WIMS-D/4 code and the 69 group WIMS library. The calculations have been done using the discrete ordinates method with the S-16 approximation by appropriately accounting for the disadvantage factors due to the differentially enriched pins of the cluster. The sensitivity study was performed with the three WIMS libraries namely, ENDF- B/6, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2.2 distributed to the participants of the IAEA-CRP. The old WIMS library, distributed by NEA data bank in the 1980s, is presently being used for design calculations for Indian PHWRs and AHWR. Also, the above libraries have only 164 Dy and an equivalent 164Dy, instead of natural dysprosium, has been used for these calculations. 112 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 113. A sensitivity study was then performed where the safety parameters and other integral parameters were compared. 4. Results The k-infinity and void reactivity for AHWR D5 cluster is given in Table 1. The k- infinity pertains to the nominal operating condition. Table 1. Performance characteristics of AHWR D5 cluster with different datasets The coolant void reactivity is calculated as the difference in the infinite lattice reactivity at 0% voids and full (100%) voids, respectively. As seen from Table 1, there is a scatter of 7 mk between the different datasets in the k-infinity at the BOC and around 8 mk at a discharge burnup of 24,000 MWd/Te (EOC). The swing in void reactivity is very high in the analysis presented here because the absorption in end-product 165Ho and other dysprosium isotopes has not been considered. However, the core averaged coolant void reactivity is always negative. The void reactivity shows about 22% difference at the BOC and larger differences of about 35% at EOC. The compositions of some of the isotopes of interest are given in Table 2. There are small differences in the fuel isotopic compositions. Likewise, 164Dy concentration at EOC is also within 5%. The void reactivity variations may therefore be due to the difference in reaction rates of the individual nuclides. Table 2. Isotopic concentrations in AHWR D5 cluster with different datasets at EOC starting from the identical initial composition 113 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 114. The neutron energy spectrum for fresh fuel in the lattice is plotted in Fig. 3 for two different coolant conditions, i.e. fully voided and unvoided. Similar behaviour is seen at higher burnups. The comparison of cell-averaged flux profiles for the different datasets has been made with respect to ENDF-B/VI and is given in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 at a discharge burnup of 24,000 MWd/te (EOC). Smaller differences have been observed at low burnups. The fluxes plotted have been normalised to total cell absorption being unity. Fig. 3. Comparison of relative cell fluxes during voiding in the AHWR-D5 cluster. 114 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 115. Fig. 4. Comparison of relative cell fluxes for JENDL-3.2 and ENDF-B/VI at EOC for the AHWR-D5 cluster. Fig. 5. Comparison of relative cell fluxes for JEF-2.2 and ENDF-B/VI at EOC for the AHWR-D5 cluster. The relative cell fluxes are also plotted for the voided and non-voided conditions. The differences in the relative cell fluxes between JEF-2.2 and ENDF-B/VI show a peak around 0.3–0.4 eV. The differences in the flux profiles between JENDL-3.2 and ENDF-B/VI are generally around 1% in thermal energy range (Fig. 4). But in the voided case, the differences are low at lower energies and change sharply beyond 0.3 eV. At higher energies there are significant differences which come from the difference in the basic data itself. Reaction rates of some important nuclides in the AHWR D5 cluster have been studied with respect to several parameters like burnup and coolant conditions. In order to show the sensitivity to the different datasets, only 233U absorption reaction rates for the innermost pins are plotted in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. 115 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 116. Fig. 6. Sensitivity of different datasets for absorption reaction rates of U-233 at BOC in the inner (Th, U-233)MOX pins. Fig. 7. Sensitivity of different datasets for absorption reaction rates of U-233 at EOC in the inner (Th, U-233)MOX pins. 233 The JENDL-3.2 data for U show a large difference of 10% in thermal energy range and at higher burnups. 116 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 117. In order to compare the performance of these datasets for a natural uranium fuelled heavy water cluster, being used in PHWRs was studied. The results for this cluster are tabulated in Table 3. Table 3. Performance characteristics of PHWR cluster—19 rod natural UO2 The k-infinity, void reactivity and the cluster peaking factors have been tabulated in Table 3. The scatter in k-infinity in the different datasets is within 0.4% which is around 3.6 mk. The difference at the end-of-cycle is reduced still further. The void reactivity too is calculated within a difference of 0.4%, with the JENDL-3.2 set predicting consistently lower values. But in this cluster the void reactivity profile does not change with burnup. This shows that the three different datasets agree well for a uranium based heavy water lattice in spite of significant contributions coming from plutonium isotopes. 5. Conclusions The calculations for the AHWR cluster show that the integral parameters are very sensitive to the thorium and 233U data. The processed multi-group data of relevant isotopes itself differs by about 5% in the thermal energy range and by about 15% at higher energies (Srivenkatesan and Kannan). A peturbation analysis of 232Th data done using the Kyoto university critical assembly by Shiroya et al. (1999) shows a reactivity difference of -1565 pcm if 232Th data alone is replaced from JENDL-3.2 to ENDF-B/VI. They have also shown that a perturbation calculation for 233U results in a reactivity difference of –0.5%∆k/k. The basic evaluated nuclear data for the Th-U fuel cycles is obsolete and requires detailed reviewing so as to qualify to the current accuracy standards (Pronyaev, 1999). These differences, depending on the complexities of the lattice, lead to variations in fluxes and reaction rates resulting in the significantly different integral parameters from different datasets. However, the analysis of the natural uranium fuelled heavy water moderated lattice shows much lower differences. It is thus imperative that more experimental data for the thorium cycles is required to qualify the basic nuclear data. References 117 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 118. Askew et al., 1966. J.R. Askew, F.J. Fayers and P.B. Kemshell , A general description of the lattice code WIMS. J. Br. Nucl. Energy Soc. (1966), pp. 564–585. Balakrishnan et al., 1997. Balakrishnan, K., Kannan, U., Pushpam, N.P., Padala, Y., 1997. Feasibility Report of AHWR, chapter 15, Physics Design. Kakodkar, 1998. Kakodkar, A., 1998. Salient features of design of thorium fuelled advanced heavy water reactor. Indo-Russian seminar on thorium utilisation, Russia. Kannan, 2001. Kannan, U., 2001. Consultants Report on the Update of WIMSD Library. IAEA, Vienna. Kumar, 2000. Kumar, A., 2000. A new cluster design for the reduction of void reactivity in AHWR. Proceedings of annual conference of Indian Nuclear Society on power from thorium, status, strategies and directions, India. Kumar et al., 1999. Kumar, A., Kannan, U., Padala, Y., Behera, G.M., Srivenkatesan, R., Balakrishnan, K., 1999. Physics design of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor utilising thorium. Technical Committee Meeting on Utilisation of Thorium Fuel Options, IAEA, Vienna. Pronyaev, 1999. Pronyaev, V.G., 1999. Summary Report of the Consultants' Meeting on Assessment of Nuclear Data Needs for Thorium and other Advanced Nuclear Cycles, INDC(NDS)-408, IAEA Vienna. Sinha et al., 2000. Sinha, R.K., Kushwaha, H.S., Agarwal, R.G., Saha, D., Dhawan, M.L., Vyas, H.P., Rupani, B.B., 2000. Design and development of AHWR—the Indian thorium fuelled innovative nuclear reactor. Proceedings of annual conference of Indian Nuclear Society on power from thorium, status, strategies and directions, Mumbai, India. Shiroya et al., 1999. Shiroya, S., Unesaki, H., Misawa, T., 1999. Assessment of Th- 232 nuclear data through critical experiments using the Kyoto university Critical Assembly (KUCA). Technical Committee Meeting on Utilisation of Thorium Fuel Options, IAEA, Vienna. Srivenkatesan et al., 2000a. Srivenkatesan, R., Kumar, A., Kannan, U., Raina, V.K., Arora, M.K., Ganesan, S., Degwekar, S.B., 2000a. Physics considerations for utilisation of thorium in power reactors and subcritical cores. Proceedings of annual conference of Indian Nuclear Society on power from thorium, status, strategies and directions, Mumbai, India. Srivenkatesan et al., 2000b. Srivenkatesan, R., Kannan, U., Kumar, A., Ganesan, S., Degwekar, S.B. 2000b. Indian advanced heavy water reactor for thorium utilisation and nuclear data requirements and status. AGM on Long Term Needs for Nuclear Data Development, INDC(NDS)-428, IAEA, Vienna. Trkov, 2000. Trkov, A. (Co-ordinator), 2000. WIMS-D Library Update Project, International Atomic Energy Agency, http://www-rcp.ijs.si/ wlup/. 118 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 119. Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-22-559-5014; fax: +91-22-550-5151; email: arvind@magnum.barc.ernet.in 119 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 120. Annex 19 Role of small and medium-sized reactors Annals of Nuclear Energy Volume 29, Issue 16, November 2002, Pages 1967-1975 http://www.world-nuclear.org/sym/1998/kupitz.htm The Role of Small and Medium-Sized Reactors Jürgen Kupitz & Victor M. Mourogov In the second half of the twentieth century nuclear power has evolved from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. In these 50 years of nuclear development a great deal has been achieved and many lessons have been learned. By the end of 1997, over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience had been accumulated. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialised world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. The prospects for nuclear energy have been affected by a number of factors: • slower economic development and general reductions in the rate of increase in energy demand, coupled with oversupply in some countries; • the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents with their effect on public confidence in nuclear power; • slow progress in properly implementing nuclear waste disposal; • difficulties for utilities in some countries in transforming from a rapidly growing industry to routine operation of ageing facilities; • electricity supply deregulation; • increased competition from natural gas. The turn of the century is potentially a turning point for nuclear power prospects because of: • increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; • advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; • continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper describes the potential of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) in addressing current and future nuclear power issues, and gives an overview of SMR development programmes and SMR designs. 120 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 121. Energy Supply and Nuclear Power Today's global pattern of energy supply is not sustainable (Ref 1). The provision of affordable energy services is a fundamental prerequisite for economic growth and development. The plentiful energy resources in the past and the enormous efforts in research, development and engineering have produced the high living standards enjoyed today by the industrialised countries. For these countries achieving economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable development is a top priority. Now and in the near future, better living standards and increased employment opportunities for the developing countries are inevitably linked to the provision of substantially more energy services. Taking into account the population growth, the anticipated increase in energy services will require more than twice as much energy production over the next half century. Over the next two decades India plans to triple and China to double the combustion of coal for electricity generation alone. Where transmission and distribution infrastructures are already in place, natural gas will be the preferred fuel for electricity and heat generation and for households. With the increase in the income per capita, and with growing trade volumes in a global market place, the demand for oil product fuelled transportation will expand rapidly. There is an international consensus that heavy dependency on fossil fuels — which today account for more than 85% of the total energy supply — must be controlled. Their use adversely affects the atmosphere through emissions of greenhouse gases along with other noxious gases and toxic pollutants, thus becoming an obstacle to sustainable development both on a regional and on a global scale. One specific feature of fossil resources is their uneven distribution around the globe. For example, 60% of proven oil reserves are in the Middle East, while 40% of gas resources are in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) and 40% are in the Middle East. Coal is also very unevenly distributed, with more than 80% of the proven reserves being concentrated in three regions, North America, the FSU and China. The uneven distribution of fossil fuel resources and the high cost of transport systems and infrastructures will be additional issues to be taken into account when deciding on future energy supply. While energy efficiency in generation, transmission and end use, and the new renewable technologies, are an essential element of the sustainable energy policy of the industrialised countries, they may be far from sufficient and in many cases even inadequate to compensate for the expected increase in the demand for energy in the rest of the world. The global challenge is to develop strategies that foster a sustainable energy future, less dependent on fossil fuels. Nuclear Power for Electricity Supply Though it is not problem free, nuclear power is recognised as having an advantage in contributing to the goals of sustainable development. It has been deployed in the industrialised countries when energy supplies have been insecure and has largely contributed to the stable and predictable energy supply necessary for their economic growth. From today's point of view of sustainability criteria, the entire energy chain from 121 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 122. nuclear fuel production to radioactive waste disposal has very limited emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants and does practically no harm to the environment. Furthermore, it is an established technology and commercially available, with 473 nuclear plants currently operating or being built in 32 countries. It can also be reasonably competitive, the resources it uses are plentiful and have no other useful application. Nuclear power is unevenly used in the world. More than 95% of it is deployed in the industrialised countries and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. But the contribution of nuclear energy in the energy mix of the rest of the world, and in particular the developing countries, is very small. While nuclear power has reached a level of saturation in several European countries and North America, it continues to expand in Asia. At the same time countries in Eastern Europe and the FSU, heavily dependent on nuclear power, are experiencing serious difficulties due to a breakdown in the economies and the infrastructure necessary to keep the nuclear power plants operational and to further expand their nuclear power programmes. The future will see a mix of energy sources. The makeup of this mix cannot be precisely defined — it will depend not only on environmental considerations, but also on technological, political and market factors. The experience to date shows that in most of the countries which have reached a quasi-sustainable level of development, nuclear energy has played an important role in supplying a part of the required energy. Most of these countries will try to preserve their nuclear energy generation and capability and probably will seek to renew it in the future when the life of the current plants is exhausted. Inevitably, the countries whose economies will continue to grow rapidly, will be better placed to include nuclear power in their energy supply system for meeting their energy needs but also for security of supply, environmental awareness and access to high technology. Non-Electricity Applications of Nuclear About 33% of total primary energy is used to produce electricity. Most of the remaining amount is either used for transportation or converted into hot water, steam and heat. Nuclear plants are now being used to produce about 17% of the world's electricity, from 437 reactors with a total capacity of 352 GWe. Yet only a few of these plants are being used to supply hot water and steam. The total capacity of these few plants is about 5 GW of thermal power, and they are operating in just a few countries, mostly in Canada, China, Kazakhstan, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland and Ukraine (Ref 2). Specific temperature requirements vary greatly for heat applications. They range from about room temperature, for use as hot water and steam for agro-industry, district heating and seawater desalination, to up to 1000°C for process steam and heat for the chemical industry and high pressure injection steam for enhanced oil recovery, oil shale and oil sand processing, oil refinery processes, and refinement of coal and lignite. Water splitting for the production of hydrogen is at the upper end. Up to about 550°C, the heat can be supplied by steam; above that, requirements must be served directly by process heat, since steam pressures become much higher above 550°C. An upper limit of 1000°C for nuclear-supplied process heat is set on the basis of the long term strength capabilities of metallic reactor materials. 122 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 123. Water-cooled reactors offer heat up to 300°C. These types of reactors include pressurised water reactors (PWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and light water cooled, graphite-moderated reactors (LWGRs). Liquid metal fast reactors (LMFRs) produce heat up to 540°C. Gas-cooled reactors reach even higher temperatures, about 650°C for the advanced gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor (AGR), and 950°C for the high temperature gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor (HTGR). The primary conversion process in a nuclear reactor is from nuclear energy into heat. This heat can be used in a quot;dedicatedquot; mode for direct heating purposes, without production of electricity. Another mode is co-generation of heat and electricity. Parallel co-generation is achieved by the extraction of some of the steam from the secondary side of the steam generator, before it enters the turbine. Series co-generation is achieved by the extraction of steam at some point during its expansion in the turbine, when it is at the right temperature for the intended application. During this cycle, the extracted steam has also been used for electricity production. Series co-generation is ideally suited to industrial processes related to district heating, desalination and agriculture. More than 80% of the world's energy use is based on fossil energy sources, namely coal, oil and gas. Burning these fuels causes serious environmental problems from emissions of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. One approach to contribute to solving such problems is to use nuclear energy in integrated energy systems. A typical example for the future is the application of nuclear heat to reform natural gas. Using what is known as the HTGR-reforming process, synthesis gas, methanol, hydrogen, heat and electricity are produced from natural gas and uranium. In the process, natural gas is decomposed into mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The main products are methanol, a liquid carbohydron, and hydrogen. Side products are heat and electricity. Another example of this integrated approach is in the oil industry. Several studies have been performed on the use of nuclear power as a heat source for heavy oil exploitation. They show that under favourable oil market conditions, the nuclear option presents economic and environmental benefits, as compared to conventional methods. A third example is the integration of coal and nuclear energy in the steel industry. Technologically, this is the most ambitious integration, involving gasification of hard coal heated by hot helium from an HTGR. The intermediate products are synthesis gas and coke, which is used for iron ore reduction. The final products are methanol and pig iron (Ref 1). Key Nuclear Power Issues In an increasingly competitive and international global energy market a number of issues will affect not only the choice of nuclear power, but also the extent and manner in which it will be used in a sustainable mix of energy sources: 123 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 124. • enhancing reactor safety; • improving nuclear power generation economics; • minimising environmental impact; • improving resource utilisation. Enhancing Reactor Safety With over 8500 reactor year of operation worldwide, nuclear power generally has an excellent safety record. But the Chernobyl accident demonstrated that one very severe nuclear accident has a potential to cause national and regional radioactive contamination. Although safety and environmental impacts are becoming a key issue for all energy sources, many in the general public perceive nuclear power as particularly and intrinsically unsafe. In order to reduce the risk of accidents a number of approaches are used: • international collaboration to promote internationally accepted safety and engineering standards; • enhancement of the integrity of the reactor vessel and reactor systems (such as double containment); • development of advanced reactor designs with enhanced safety systems. Unquestionably, the most convincing demonstration of safety will be through the safe performance of existing plants and the avoidance of any major incident in the future. Improving Nuclear Power Economics Success in meeting this challenge is critical to maintaining a role for nuclear power as a viable energy option. Without getting the economics right, its potential environmental benefits may well become irrelevant. Nuclear power plants will increasingly have to compete directly, in an open energy market, with other suppliers of electricity. This competitive environment has significant implications for plant operations, including among others the need for efficient use of all resources, including personnel; more effective management of plant activities, such as outages and maintenance; and sharing of resources, facilities and services among utilities. The ultimate objective is to provide electricity services at competitive costs without compromising operational safety. Nuclear energy also has the potential to provide an economic source of heat for non-electricity applications, including district heating, desalination and high temperature process heat, especially through development and application of small and medium-sized reactors. Minimising Environmental Impact Although nuclear energy has distinct advantages over today's fossil burning systems — in terms of fuel consumed, pollutants emitted and waste produced — a further reduction in environmental concerns can positively influence public attitudes. As the overall health and environmental impact of the reactor and nuclear fuel cycle is small, attention is directed at techniques to deal with spent fuel, accumulated plutonium and radioactive waste. Reprocessing of spent fuel and recycling of most dangerous actinides in future fast reactors is being analysed in some countries as a solution for the fuel cycle back-end issues. Improving Resource Utilisation 124 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 125. Known and likely resources of uranium should assure a sufficient nuclear fuel supply in the short and medium term even with reactors operating primarily on once-through cycles with disposal of spent fuel. However, as uranium demand increases and reserves are decreased, to meet the requirements of increased nuclear capacity, there will be economic pressure for the optimal use of uranium in a manner that utilises its total potential energy content per unit quantity of ore. Recycling of generated plutonium in thermal reactors and introduction of fast reactors in the longer term is considered in some countries as a solution. While the above issues are for nuclear power in general the following are specific for small and medium reactors. Nuclear Power in Developing Countries Due to the ever increasing population in developing countries and the need to raise their standard of living, developing countries have a high demand for energy to support socio-economic development. But electricity grids in developing countries are usually smaller than in industrialised countries, and the large NPPs currently being offered (up to about 1400 MWe) on the international market are unsuitable for such countries. New capacity additions should not exceed 10—20% of the grid capacity, therefore many developing countries have to consider plants of about 700 MWe or smaller. Non-Electricity Applications Non-electricity industrial application processes usually require much smaller plant outputs than plants designed for electricity generation or co-generation of heat and electricity. Heat from nuclear power plants cannot be transported over long distances due to potential losses and high costs. Nuclear plants designed for heat production should on the one hand be as close as possible to the point of use, but on the other hand have to be a reasonable distance away due to safety concerns. Potential for SMRs to Address Nuclear Issues Definition of SMRs The choice of ranges is somewhat arbitrary but it has been the usual practice to take the upper limit of the range of small and medium-sized reactors (SMRs) as approximately half of the power of the largest reactors in operation. Accordingly, reactors up to 700 MWe are currently considered as SMRs. Other limits are defined by continuing to take similar reductions. The ranges adopted therefore are: • Very small reactors: <150 MWe. • Small reactors: 150—300 MWe. • Medium reactors: 300—700 MWe. • Large reactors: >700 MWe. For heat-only or co-generation reactors, the range limits are applied to the electrical equivalencies of the thermal power. For very small heat-only reactors, for example, the upper limit adopted is 500 MWth. It is understood that very small, small, medium or large reactors are relative 125 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 126. concepts, related to the power level of the largest reactors in operation. That is, at the time when the largest reactors in operation were of the order of 200 MWe, the corresponding upper limit of the SMR range was 100 MWe, when 600 MWe units came into operation, the SMR range increased to 300 MWe, and so on. As there are no ongoing efforts to further increase the power level of the largest units, the currently accepted SMR range is assumed to prevail for a considerable period. Applying the current definition of the SMR range, a third of the operating nuclear power reactors would qualify as SMRs. However, it should be noted that at the time when most of these plants were designed and built, they were considered large reactors according to the then-prevailing definition of the term. The above defined ranges for medium, small and very small reactors expressed in power levels (MWe), are to be interpreted more as orders of magnitude and less as precise numbers. The large variety of reactors with different characteristics which are included in each of these ranges, are intended to respond to different requirements and uses, which need to be taken into account in order to facilitate the assessment of the potential market. Medium size reactors are eminently power reactors whose objective is electricity generation. They can also be applied as co-generation plants supplying both electricity and heat, but the main product remains electricity. As such, they are intended for introduction into interconnected electricity grid systems of suitable size (at least six to 10 times the unit power) and operated as baseload plants. If operated in the co-generation mode, the heat supply would be up to about 20% of the energy produced. Economic competitiveness with equivalent alternative fossil fuelled plants is expected to be achievable under most conditions. Small reactors are either power or co-generation reactors which may have a substantial share of heat supply. Due to the size effect, small reactors for electricity generation only, or operated in the co-generation mode, are not expected to be economically competitive with medium or large size nuclear power plants. They are therefore intended for special situations where the interconnected grid size does not admit larger (medium or large size) units and where alternative energy options are relatively expensive. Very small reactors are not intended for electricity production under commercially competitive conditions as baseload units integrated into interconnected electrical systems. Clearly, very small reactors of current designs are not to be regarded as competitors of large, medium or even small power reactors, of which they are not scaled-down versions. Very small reactors address specific objectives such as the supply of heat and electricity or heat only (at either high or low temperature) for industrial processes, oil extraction, desalination, district heating, etc., propulsion of vessels or for energy supply of concentrated loads in remote locations. They could also serve as focal projects and a very effective stimulus for the development of nuclear infrastructures in countries starting a nuclear power programme. The consideration of the specific objectives of the reactors corresponding to each power range has major relevance for the assessment of the respective markets 126 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 127. (Ref 3). SMRs and Enhancing Reactor Safety SMR designs are not downsized version of larger reactors. In all cases they are taking new design approaches, which result into plants that are simpler, easier to operate and maintain, and that make extensive use of passive and inherent safety components and systems. These safety systems are usually built into the design of SMRs to protect the plant against severe accidents; they can hardly be compromised by malfunctioning equipment or human intervention. They especially exclude mechanisms for reactor core damage and the associated potential radioactivity release. This approach, which places a maximum emphasis on prevention rather than mitigation, is in fact a basic feature of the INSAG safety principles for future reactors. Some SMRs prevent severe accidents by eliminating the need for forced coolant flow for removing residual heat, while others reduce or even eliminate the necessity for correct operator action to avert or control major occurrences. SMRs and Developing Countries Due to their lower power output, their simplified designs and their high safety margins, SMRs are prime candidates for deployment in developing countries with small electricity grids or with a need to satisfy demand for non-electricity applications, such a district heating or production of potable water (Ref 4). Among the developing countries with ongoing nuclear power programmes, China and India represent a substantial market for SMRs. In China, there is an ambitious nuclear power programme firmly supported by the government. In addition to some imported medium size units, a series of domestically designed medium sized reactors, as well as some small and very small units (including heat-only reactors), are expected to be put in place. In India, there is continuing firm governmental support for the nuclear power programme, and a large demand of new capacity. The country is expected to proceed with its programme based on domestically designed SMRs. It is estimated that the market for SMRs in the above two countries is of the order of 20 to 30 units, more than half of which correspond to medium sized reactors. Argentina, Iran, Korea and Pakistan have ongoing nuclear power programmes, including reactors under construction. In Argentina, follow-up nuclear power plants are expected to be in the medium sized range; the development of a very small domestically designed reactor has been pursued, and there is a plan to build a first unit. In Iran, the construction of two large power reactors has been restarted, and there are plans to acquire some small units. In Pakistan, a further small reactor is expected to be followed by a series of medium sized units. Though large power reactors are the basis for the ongoing nuclear programme in Korea, more units in the medium range are expected. Also, implementation of a domestically designed very small reactor is expected. The estimate for these four countries within the period considered is 10 to 15 units. Among countries which have not yet initiated nuclear power projects, Turkey and Indonesia are in the acquisition stage of their first units. Both have intended to go nuclear for a long time. Malaysia and Thailand performed studies indicating 127 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 128. the convenience of the nuclear option. All four countries are potential markets for medium sized reactors, and in addition Indonesia might implement a very small unit at a remote site. The implementation of 5 to 10 SMRs is expected for this group of countries. The North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, the Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) show a high degree of interest in initiating nuclear power programmes. All have performed studies and preparations, including, in some cases, attempts to acquire nuclear power reactors. It is expected that further attempts will finally succeed, leading to the implementation of 5 to 10 SMRs, including very small, small and medium sized units. Several other countries which have not yet initiated nuclear power projects have performed studies and indicated interest in launching nuclear programmes. Belarus has persistent energy supply constraints and might acquire some medium sized units. In Chile, nuclear power could contribute to energy supply diversification in a fast growing economy with corresponding energy and electricity demand growth. In Croatia, a follow-up unit to the 600 MWe plant built in Slovenia was planned; new attempts could lead to a medium sized unit. Israel has consistently indicated interest in nuclear power; it has a solid nuclear technology infrastructure and could implement a nuclear project, subject to the success of the Middle East peace process. This also applies to Syria, which intends to proceed with medium sized units. Portugal was on the verge of launching a nuclear power programme in the past, but has since desisted; new attempts to implement medium sized units could succeed. Saudi Arabia has very large oil and gas resources, but energy supply diversification seems advisable; a nuclear power programme starting with a very small or small reactor might be launched. In addition, some other countries have indicated interest in nuclear power and in SMRs in particular, performing studies and building infrastructures: Peru, Uruguay and Bangladesh are examples. There are others, such as Cuba, Romania and the Philippines, where the construction of SMRs was suspended. In these countries, completing these projects would have priority over the initiation of new plants. The estimated market for SMRs in the above group of countries is 5 to 10 units altogether. These results indicate a market with the rather wide range 50 to 90 units to be implemented up to 2015. The outcome will probably not evolve in all countries according to either the high or the low estimates. It seems reasonable to assume that there will be a certain compensatory effect. Also, it is recognised that forecasts, just like national development plants, tend to err on the optimistic side. Therefore, an overall market estimate of 60 to 70 units seems reasonable. SMRs and Nuclear Power Competitiveness The overall trend in nuclear power plant design in most industralised countries has been towards large units, with current power output of about 1400 MWe. The main reason for this has been the economies of scale, which favour large units. Currently there are considerations to go to a power output of 1800 MWe, such as for the European Pressurised Water Reactor, being jointly developed by 128 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 129. Siemens and Framatome. SMRs with their low power output are following the opposite strategy. Although the economies of scale do not favour SMRs, there are several reasons why these plant can be competitive with larger units. These include simplified design, shorter construction time, lower overall investment requirement and easier financing. SMRs and Non-Electricity Applications SMRs have a wide application potential for various industrial heat processes. This includes SMRs that are designed for heat-only production or for co-generation of heat and electricity. Due to their reduced power output, which meets the requirements of developing countries with small electricity grids, SMRs have a broad application potential. Prime candidates for near term industrial process heat applications are mostly in the low temperature range, e.g. district heating, desalination of seawater and process steam and heat supply for industry. In particular, desalination of seawater with nuclear energy is receiving increasing international attention to cope with current and future shortages of potable water. SMR Development Programmes Several countries in East and South Asia believe strongly that nuclear power will be a principle source of energy in years to come. Small and medium reactors form a major part of this activity. The People's Republic of China has a well developed nuclear capability, having designed, constructed and operated reactors. In many cases, these reactors can be regarded as SMRs and the skills needed to implement them are the same as those needed for terrestrial power plants. China has some 10 000 nuclear engineers in three major centres in different parts of the country, as well as other centres which make a major contribution. There is a particular interest in district heating reactors to help ease the current enormous logistical problems of distributing 11 billion tonnes of coal around the country each year. In the SMR range, a 300 MWe PWR is in operation in China, and two 600 MWe reactors are under construction. All three reactors are of the evolutionary reactor type. Longer term plans call for development of a 600 MWe passive system. A 5 MWth integrated water cooled reactor has been built and operated for several winter seasons for district heating. A 200 MWth demonstration heating reactor project has been started. A 10 MWth high temperature gas cooled modular reactor for process application is under construction. Technical, safety and economic objectives of the programme have been defined. The test module HTR has been constructed and is expected to go critical by 1999. The system will be used to accumulate experience in plant design, construction, and operation. Several applications, such as electricity generation, steam and district heat generation are planned for the first phase. A process heat application, quot;methane formingquot;, is planned for the second phase. China is also constructing a 300 MWe LWR in Pakistan. India has some early reactors of the CANDU type developed by Canada but has adopted a prime policy target of self reliance in nuclear power development, based on heavy water moderated reactors. Four units of the 220 MWe PHWR type are under construction. Additional similar units and two units of a scaled up 500 MWe type are planned. The main objective is to make the most economical 129 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 130. use of uranium natural resources in the first phase. In the second phase it is planned to utilise fast breeder reactors fuelled by plutonium generated in phase one. A 500 MWe prototype is in a detailed design stage. India also has large reserves of thorium which exceed its reserves of uranium. The heavy water reactor with its very good neutron economics is well suited to the thorium/U-233 cycle and a programme of R&D work for phase three, aiming at utilisation of the this cycle in an advanced heavy water reactor, has been initiated. Japan has a high population density and a shortage of suitable sites for nuclear reactors due to the large fraction of the landmass covered by mountainous terrain. This has led to a preference for large reactors on the available sites to maximise the power output from them. In spite of this, there is a very strong and diverse programme of reactor development supported by the big industrial companies, by the national laboratory and by the universities. Three large industrial companies have developed their own LWR designs in the SMR range and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has several more innovative designs. At the end of 1996 two large reactors were under construction in Japan. The Monju fast breeder reactor (280 MWe), a prototype demonstration plant, is currently undergoing a safety review as a follow up of the incident in 1995. Several different designs are currently being worked on in the SMR range; namely SPWR, MRX, MS-300/600, HSBWR, MDP, 4S and RAPID. SPWR and the marine reactor MRX are integrated PWRs. The MS series are simplified PWRs. HSBWR is a simplified BWR. MDP, 4S and RAPID are small sodium-cooled fast reactors. Preliminary investigations have shown a high level of safety, operability and maintenance. The economics of these systems have been promising. These systems are expected to form part of Japan's next generation of reactors. Japan has also a development programme for the gas cooled reactor of the small and medium-sized range. A High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) has been under construction since 1991 at O-arai. The 30 MWth reactor will be the first of its kind to be connected to a high temperature process heat utilisation system with an outlet temperature of 850°C. The system will be used as a test and irradiation facility and also utilised to establish the basic technology for advanced HTGRs for nuclear process heat applications. The system is expected to go critical in 1998. However, the main trend in power generation is still taking the line of larger (1000—1300 MWe) evolutionary light water reactors. The guidelines of the programme put user-friendliness, improvement in operability, and flexibility of core design as prime design objectives. Korea has twelve nuclear power plants (10 PWRs, 2 PHWRs) in operation and has an ambitious programme for the further deployment of nuclear power. The country is not well blessed with indigenous sources of fossil fuel and has to rely on imports. Furthermore, 80% of the countryside consists of mountainous terrain which encourages the installation of large stations to make optimum use of the available sites. Most of the existing plants are of the PWR type, but, since April 1983, PHWRs (679 MWe each) have been added to the grid to give some diversification in supply and operation. Six large PWRs (1000 MWe each) and two medium-sized PHWRs (700 MWe each) are under construction. Large PWRs are expected to form the main component of nuclear power installation in Korea until well into the next century. The optimal combination of PWRs and PHWRs 130 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 131. will help to maximise the usage of uranium resources through the utilisation of spent fuel in the future. This choice has been the first phase of a strategy of reactor development in Korea. The medium-sized PHWR plants form part of the Korean power source, but the standard nuclear power plant, KSNP, with 1000 MWe rating, is expected to form the main stream of the nuclear power generation industry in Korea. On the basis of PWR technology, an advanced integral reactor, the System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) is being conceptually developed. The power output of the reactor will be in the range of 100—600 MWe depending on the purpose of utilisation, such as desalination or power generation. It is expected that the export of nuclear technology to the rest of the world will form part of Korean trade. Streamlining of standardisation, modularisation, prefabrication, and substantial reduction in the construction schedule of small and medium- sized reactors will make Korea a potential nuclear power exporter in the twenty- first century. In the Russian Federation, there is substantial experience from the development, design, construction and operation of several reactors in the small and medium- sized category. These reactors have been used for electricity generation, heat production and ship propulsion. Reactors that have been used for icebreaker and submarine propulsion are planned to be made available for other applications, not only within the Russia but also to other countries that are interested in their application for electricity generation for remotely located areas or for non- electricity applications. Currently a project is being implemented that consists of two reactors (KLT-40) mounted on a barge. These reactors have been earlier used for propulsion of icebreakers. The barge is supposed to provide electricity to Pevek in Northern Siberia. Barge mounted reactors may become a near term solution for other countries that need energy, but do not yet have the infrastructure for the introduction of large nuclear power plants. The barge mounted reactors could be operated under the supervision of the vendor and be pulled back to the vendor's location for maintenance and refuelling, thereby avoiding the need for on-site refuelling. Besides KLT-40 (up to about 160 MWth) there are other small reactors under design in Russia for mounting on barges, including the NIKA 75 (75 MWth), UNITHERM (15 MWth) and RUTA-TE (70 MWth). The CAREM-25 reactor is under development in Argentina by the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), which has subcontracted the design and development of the reactor to INVAP SE. The design and development of the fuel elements is carried out by CNEA. The power level of CAREM is 100 MWth, approximately 25 MWe. The intended uses of the reactor are electricity generation, industrial steam production, seawater desalination or district heating. The reactor is also intended to bridge the gap between a research reactor and a larger nuclear power plant, by serving as a focal project for infrastructure development and the transfer of technology, in order to facilitate the launching of a nuclear power programme in a country with no previous nuclear power experience. The main features of the reactor are light water cooling by natural circulation, low enriched uranium fuel, an integrated and self-pressurised primary system, and a passive heat removal system. The achievement of high levels of safety, 131 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 132. simplicity and reliability are the main design criteria. The basic design of CAREM- 25 has been completed. The detailed design of the reactor is being performed, and there is a comprehensive research and development effort going on. This consists of various relevant studies and of testing rigs and installations, such as a critical facility, natural convection loop, full scale hydraulic control rod drives, protection system simulator, etc. A preliminary safety analysis report has been completed and presented to the national regulatory authority. It is intended to construct a first project in Argentina. Examples of SMR Designs The AP-600 The Westinghouse Advanced Passive PWR (AP-600) is a 600 MWe design which is conservatively based on proven technology, but with an emphasis on passive safety features. It has been designed by Westinghouse of the United States, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The design team includes a number of US and foreign companies and organisations. The AP-600 passive safety-related systems include the passive core cooling system (PXS), the passive containment cooling system (PCS), and the main control room habitability system. The PXS protects the plant against reactor coolant system breaks, providing the safety functions of core residual heat removal, safety injection, and depressurisation. It uses three passive sources of water for safety injection: the core makeup tanks, the accumulators, and the in-containment refuelling water storage tank (IRWST). These injection sources are directly connected to nozzles on the reactor vessel. Long term injection water is provided by gravity from the IRWST, which is normally isolated from the reactor coolant system by check valves. The PXS includes a 100% capacity passive residual heat removal heat exchanger, which is connected through inlet and outlet lines to one reactor coolant system loop. The IRWST provides the heat sink for this heat exchanger. Once boiling in the IRWST starts, steam passes to the containment. This steam condenses on the steel containment vessel and, after collection, drains by gravity back into the IRWST. The heat exchanger and the PCS provide indefinite decay heat removal capability. The PCS provides the ultimate heat sink for the plant. The steel containment vessel provides the heat transfer surface that removes heat from inside the containment and rejects it to the atmosphere. Heat is removed from the outer surface of the containment vessel by natural circulation of air. During an accident, the air cooling is supplemented by evaporation of water, which drains by gravity from a tank located on top of the containment shield building. The VVER-640 This design of the VVER-640 (V-407) is being developed in Russia by OKB quot;Gidropressquot;, the Russian National Research Centre quot;Kurchatov Institutequot;, and LIAEP. The VVER emergency core cooling system (ECCS) includes the following automatically initiated subsystems: • hydrotanks with nitrogen under pressure; 132 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 133. • hydrotanks under atmospheric pressure; • deliberate emergency depressurisation. The passive ECCS provides long term residual heat removal in loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) accompanied by a station blackout. In the first stage, the nitrogen-pressurised hydrotanks will be actuated. When these are empty, the tanks holding cooling water under atmospheric pressure begin to operate. Active elements of the system needed for the function of emergency heat removal are provided with electrical power from storage batteries. The design basis for the passive residual heat removal system (PHRS) is also a station blackout situation, including loss of emergency power supply. The PHRS consists of four independent trains, each comprising a steam-water heat exchanger, piping for steam supply and condensate return, and battery-operated valves. The heat exchangers are installed in a tank of demineralised water. They are connected to the secondary side of the steam generators in such a way that the steam from the steam generator will flow to the heat exchanger where it condenses, transferring its heat to the water. The condensate will flow back to the steam generator. Coolant motion occurs by natural circulation. The system for passive heat removal from the containment includes coolers, storage tanks of cooling water and connecting pipelines. Steam released to the containment condenses on the heat exchange surface of the cooler giving heat to the water of a storage tank via natural circulation. Construction of a first pilot plant at the Sosnovy Bor site, near the Leningrad nuclear power station site outside St Petersburg, is under consideration. The Indian AHWR A 220 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in India. The AHWR utilises heavy water moderator and light water coolant with a fuel cycle based on thorium, and a safety approach based on the incorporation of passive safety systems. The top of the primary containment shell contains the gravity-driven water pool (GDWP). The inventory in the GDWP is sufficient to cool the reactor for three days following an accident. The GDWP inventory is connected to the core through a series of rupture discs and does not involve the use of external power, moving parts or instrumentation. Isolation condensers (ICs) positioned in the GDWP will transfer decay heat to the GDWP during short, planned reactor shutdowns or following a reactor trip. This is achieved by diversion of the steam flow between the steam drums and the turbine to the ICs. Another set of condensers in the GDWP will cool the primary containment following a LOCA. Simple experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of the passive containment cooling system and more detailed experiments are in progress. Emergency core cooling is provided from accumulators pressurised with nitrogen, with separation from the PHT system achieved with rupture discs that rupture when post LOCA depressurisation of the PHT system reaches a pre-set 133 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 134. level. South African PBMR Eskom, the state electricity utility of South Africa, has initiated a detailed economic and technical evaluation of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) as a potential candidate for future additions to its electricity generation system. The requirements set by Eskom for the installation of new generation capacity include a capital and operation cost which must match (or improve upon) that being achieved by their large coal stations. This currently represents a retail power cost to the customer of approximately two US cents per kWh. Other requirements for the plant include an availability approaching 90%, location and plant size to match the load, public acceptance and environmental cleanliness. High temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) feature a high degree of safety through reliance on passive safety features. All HTGRs incorporate ceramic coated fuel capable of handling temperatures exceeding 1600°C with core helium outlet temperatures approaching 950°C under normal operating conditions. Consequently, the primary focus for this reactor type is to investigate the generation of electricity via the direct coupling of a gas turbine to the HTGR (resulting in a net plant thermal efficiency approaching 47%), and to evaluate the application of this high temperature primary coolant for industrial applications such as steam and CO2 reforming of methane for the production of hydrogen and subsequent synthesis to other fuels such as methanol. The conceptual design of the South African PBMR features a helium cooled pebble bed reactor with a power output of 103 Mwe (228 MWth) coupled to a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system. The three turbo machines are equipped with magnetic bearings. The overall net efficiency of this Brayton cycle system is expected to be ~45%, based on a reactor outlet helium temperature of 900°C and a maximum system pressure of 70 bars. The PBMR reactor basically builds on German reactor designs utilising the experience from the Thorium High Temperature Reactor and the AVR. These plants utilise a steam cycle in contrast to the Eskom design for a direct cycle helium turbine. The choice of a core design limited to 228 MWth with a diameter of 3.5 m, and the use of graphite constrictions for nuclear control and shutdown outside of the pebble bed, provide conservatism in maintaining the maximum accident fuel temperature to 1600°C. Also, the PBMR is to use a multiple pass regime for on-line constant fuelling of the reactor. Activities of the IAEA The IAEA has witnessed a considerable renewal of interest by its member states in the development of SMRs. This is particularly evident in the developing countries where large power plants are not a viable consideration due to the size of the existing electrical grid. This interest was strongly expressed at the 1997 and 1998 IAEA General Conferences, and subsequently reaffirmed at meetings of the Board of Governors. Many member states have active programmes associated with nuclear power development in the SMR size range. These programmes involve a wide variety of reactor designs, and include plants whose status ranges from being in long term 134 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 135. operation to currently undergoing initial conceptual design. The vast majority of these plants are for the production of electricity. Although nuclear power seems to be focused predominantly on the generation of electricity, the wide range of plant types provides the possibility for nuclear power as an energy source for other applications, such as desalination, district heating, and industrial processes such as hydrogen production through the reforming of methane. The IAEA has an extensive programme to help support member states in their national SMR efforts. This programme has, as its basic objective, the requirement to provide a venue for international exchange of information on the development of technology and designs of SMRs, in order to enhance their performance, safety and economics. Restore Frames | Sym Home | Programme | Back | Forward © copyright The Uranium Institute 1998 SYM9798 http://www.indembassyathens.gr/India- nuclear%20energy/India_nuclear%20energy_thorium.htm EMBASSY OF INDIA, ATHENS 135 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 136. Annex 20 India's nuclear power programme moves ahead 2X1000MWE VVER reactors Inside view of Kamini reactor, AE Tarapur units 3 and 4 -PHWR under construction at critical in Sept 96, using U-233 Kak 540 MWE each Koodankulam fuel As the US Congress debates the Indo-US agreement on nuclear cooperation, a key aspect from the American viewpoint is that India has certain inherent strengths in the area of nuclear technology, which would enable India to forge ahead, albeit slowly, even without US cooperation. Central to this argument is the availability of huge reserves of thorium in India. Thorium reserves have been estimated to be between 3,60,000 and 5,18,000 tonnes. The US estimates the “economically extractable” reserves to be 2,90,000 tonnes, one of the largest in the world. Our uranium reserves, by contrast, are estimated to be at a maximum of around 70,000 tonnes. India currently has 15 commercial power reactors in operation, most of which are pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) which use natural uranium. Two Tarapur reactors are boiling water reactors (BWR) which need enriched uranium, which has to be imported. Together they generate about 3300 MWe (Mega Watt Electrical) of power, about 4 per cent of that generated from all sources. Another six PHWRs are in construction, and along with the two “VVER” Russian built 1000 MWe reactors which use enriched uranium, they would add about 3960 MWe by 2008. The goal is to reach at least 20,000 MWe by 2020. India's uranium reserves are low. Obtaining enriched uranium for the two Tarapur reactors and VVER type reactors requires the consent of the Nuclear Suppliers Groups countries, including Russia. This is where the agreement with the US is expected to be beneficial to India. Also central to India's success in achieving these goals, is the harnessing of thorium, for which India has developed a three-stage nuclear programme. India has already developed and tested the technologies needed to extract energy from Thorium, but large scale execution has not yet been possible, mainly because of limited availability of Plutonium. Stage one is the use of PHWRs. Natural uranium is the primary fuel. Heavy water 136 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 137. (deuterium oxide, D2O) is used as moderator and coolant. The composition of natural uranium is 0.7 percent U-235, which is fissile, and the rest is U-238. This low fissile component explains why certain other types of reactors require the uranium to be “enriched” i.e. the fissile component increased. In the second stage, the spent fuel from stage one is reprocessed in a reprocessing facility, where Plutonium-239 is separated. Plutonium, of course, is a weapons material, which goes towards creating India’s nuclear deterrent. Pu-239 then becomes the main fissile element, the fuel core, in what are known as fast breeder reactors (FBR). A test FBR is in operation in Kalpakkam, and the construction for a 500 MWe prototype FBR was launched recently by Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh. These are known as breeder reactors because the U-238 “blanket” surrounding the fuel core will undergo nuclear transmutation to produce more PU-239, which in turn will be used to create energy. The stage also envisages the use of Thorium (Th-232) as another blanket. Th-232 also undergoes neutron capture reactions, creating another uranium isotope, U-233. It is this isotope which will be used in the third stage of the programme. Thorium by itself is not a fissile material, and cannot be used directly to produce nuclear energy. The Kamini 40 MWe reactor at Kalpakkam which became critical in Sept 1996, using U-233 fuel, has demonstrated some of these technologies. India is currently developing a prototype advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) of 300 MWe capacity. The AHWRs, which use plutonium based fuel, are to be used to shorten the period of reaching full scale utilisation of our thorium reserves. The AHWR is thus the first element of the third stage. AHWR design is complete but further R and D work is required, especially on safety. It is expected to be unveiled soon and construction launched. In the third phase, in addition to the U-233 created from the second phase, breeder reactors fuelled by U-233, with Th-232 blankets, will be used to generate more U- 233. The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has estimated that India's thorium reserves can amount to a staggering 3,58,000 GWe-yr (Giga Watt Electrical - Year) of energy, enough for the next century and beyond BARC scientists are also looking at other designs, like an advanced thorium breeder reactor (ATBR) which requires plutonium only as a seed to start off the reaction, and then use only thorium and U-233. Here the plutonium is completely consumed and this reactor is thus considered “proliferation resistant”. A Compact High Temperature Reactor also under development at BARC . This reactor is designed to work in closed spaces and remote locations. Success in harnessing thorium’s potential is thus critical for the India’s future energy security. India has put in place mechanisms for ensuring safety and security of nuclear facilities. The regulatory and safety systems ensure that equipment at India's nuclear facilities are designed to operate safely and even in the unlikely event of any failure 137 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 138. or accident, mechanisms like plant and site emergency response plans are in place to ensure that the public is not affected in any manner. In addition, detailed plans, which involve the local public authorities, are also in place to respond if the consequences were to spill into the public domain. The emergency response system is also in a position to handle any other radiation emergency in the public domain that may occur at locations, which do not even have any nuclear facility. Regulatory and safety functions of Atomic Energy in India are carried out by an independent body, the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). The AERB was constituted on November 15, 1983 by the President of India under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions under the Act. The regulatory authority of AERB is derived from the rules and notifications promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986. The mission of the Board is to ensure that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health and the environment. (Source: The Tribune, Chandigarh; Deptt of Atomic Energy) 138 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 139. Annex 21 Nuclear power using thorium The strong correlation between per capita electricity generation and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) is well known. Therefore, to realize the high growth rates envisaged by the country, electricity generation has to increase in tandem. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) together with other institutions under the DAE framework has a mature knowledge of the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) technology. The known reserves of uranium in the country can support about 10 GWe of installed electricity capacity based on PHWRs for a life-time of 40 years at 80% capacity factor. With 12 PHWRs under operation and 6 under construction, about half the first stage of the nuclear power programme has been realized. This phase of the programme has established a sound technological base for nuclear power in the countryand the rest of the PHWR programme can be realized with comparative ease. If the ongoing exploration2 efforts in the country locate additional uranium reserves, PHWR programme can also be expanded beyond the envisaged 10 GWe now considered feasible. The PHWR programme has also provided the initial inventory of plutonium needed to seed the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) programme. NPCIL must finalize the design of 700 MWe PHWR3 at the earliest and all PHWR units to be constructed hereafter should be of this size. In addition to the PHWR programme, two Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) of 1 GWe each are being set up at Kudankulam in technical cooperation with Russian Federation. The present plan is to set up 6 additional PWRs of 1 GWe size and 4 additional FBRs of 500 MWe size by the year 2020. It was proposed to immediately initiate design of 1 GWe FBR and complete it at the earliest. R&D for deployment of metal alloy fuels4 having high breeding ratio must be completed in the next 10-15 years and all the FBRs to be constructed after the year 2020 should be based on such a fuel and should be of 1 GWe size. The design of a mainly thorium fuelled 300 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is nearing completion. This reactor will provide a platform for the timely development, demonstration and optimization of several technologies for the utilization of thorium, needed for the third stage of the Indian nuclear programme. AHWR has several innovative design features, including passive safety systems, making it a front-runner among the recent international initiatives for the development of innovative nuclear energy systems. Continued technological developments, facilitated by the experience with the construction and operation of the AHWR, should be pursued to further enhance the safety and economics of Indian advanced water cooled thermal reactor systems, and thorium based fuel cycles. Why Thorium? -India has 1/3 of the world's reserves of Thorium http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/scripts98/9820/thoriumscpt.htm 139 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 140. This is one reactor that ain't ever gonna meltdown. If it tries to overheat, you simply switch off the accelerator ... and the reaction just fizzles out. And it produces zero plutonium -- so no bombs. The thorium core is so efficient it can even burn old plutonium, as well as nuclear waste, cooking the whole lot into oblivion. http://www.cavendishscience.org/bks/nuc/thrupdat.htm What is special about thorium? (1) Weapons-grade fissionable material (uranium233) is harder to retrieve safely and clandestinely from the thorium reactor than plutonium is from the uranium breeder reactor. (2) Thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium or plutonium reactors. (3) Thorium comes out of the ground as a 100% pure, usable isotope, which does not require enrichment, whereas natural uranium contains only 0.7% fissionable U235. (4) Because thorium does not sustain chain reaction, fission stops by default if we stop priming it, and a runaway chain reaction accident is improbable. Besides, the priming process is extremely efficient: the nuclear process puts out 60 times the energy required to keep it primed. Because of this, the device is also called, (quite inappropriately) an quot;Energy Amplifier.quot; The radioactive waste from the thorium reactor contains vastly less long- lived radioactive material than that from conventional reactors. In particular, plutonium is completely absent absent from the thorium reactor's waste. While the radioactivity during the first few days is likely to be similar to that in conventional reactors, there is at least a ten-fold reduction of radioactivity in the waste products after 100 years, and a 10,000 fold reduction after 500 years. From a waste storage point of view, this is a significant advantage. 140 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 141. BARC scientists are also looking at other designs, like an advanced thorium breeder reactor (ATBR) which requires plutonium only as a seed to start off the reaction, and then use only thorium and U-233. Here the plutonium is completely consumed and this reactor is thus considered “proliferation resistant”. A Compact High Temperature Reactor also under development at BARC . This reactor is designed to work in closed spaces and remote locations. Success in harnessing thorium’s potential is thus critical for the India’s future energy security. India has put in place mechanisms for ensuring safety and security of nuclear facilities. The regulatory and safety systems ensure that equipment at India's nuclear facilities are designed to operate safely and even in the unlikely event of any failure or accident, mechanisms like plant and site emergency response plans are in place to ensure that the public is not affected in any manner. In addition, detailed plans, which involve the local public authorities, are also in place to respond if the consequences were to spill into the public domain. The emergency response system is also in a position to handle any other radiation emergency in the public domain that may occur at locations, which do not even have any nuclear facility. Regulatory and safety functions of Atomic Energy in India are carried out by an independent body, the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). The AERB was constituted on November 15, 1983 by the President of India under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions under the Act. The regulatory authority of AERB is derived from the rules and notifications promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986. The mission of the Board is to ensure that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health and the environment. (Source: The Tribune, Chandigarh; Deptt of Atomic Energy) http://www.igcar.ernet.in/press_releases/press11.htm THE HINDU dated 24.11.2004 The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) now being designed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) aims to meet the objectives of utilisation of thorium for commercial power generation, India to begin construction of Advanced Heavy Water reactor quot;We will start the construction on the AHWR sometime this year,quot; Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Anil Kakodkar said in a presentation at a theme session on Energy Security at the Indian Science Congress in Chidambaram. He said the thorium-based AHWR was currently undergoing pre-licensing review by 141 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 142. the Atomic Energry Regulatory Board. The AHWR, a 300 MW technology demonstrator reactor, will take about five to six years to complete and cost between Rs five and six crore per mega watt. Unit- Capacity Date of Commercial Type Location (MWe) Operation TAPS-1 Tarapur, 28-Oct- 1. BWR 160 Maharashtra 1969 TAPS-2 Tarapur, 28-Oct- 2. BWR 160 Maharashtra 1969 RAPS-1 Rawatbhata, 16-Dec- 3. PHWR 100 Rajasthan 1973 RAPS-2 Rawatbhata, 01-Apr- 4. PHWR 200 Rajasthan 1981 MAPS-1 Kalpakkam, 27-Jan- 5. PHWR 220 Tamilnadu 1984 MAPS-2 Kalpakkam, 21-Mar- 6. PHWR 220 Tamilnadu 1986 NAPS-1 Narora, Uttar 01-Jan- 7. PHWR 220 Pradesh 1991 NAPS-2 Narora, Uttar 8. PHWR 220 01-Jul-1992 Pradesh KAPS-1 Kakrapar, 06-May- 9. PHWR 220 Gujarat 1993 KAPS-2 Kakrapar, 01-Sep- 10. PHWR 220 Gujarat 1995 KAIGA-1 Kaiga, 16-Nov- 11. PHWR 220 Karnataka 2000 KAIGA-2 Kaiga, 16-Mar- 12. PHWR 220 Karnataka 2000 RAPS-3 Rawatbhata, 01-Jun- 13. PHWR 220 Rajasthan 2000 14. RAPS-4 Rawatbhata, PHWR 220 23-Dec- 142 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 143. Rajasthan 2000 TAPS-4 Tarapur, 12-Sept- 15. PHWR 540 Maharashtra 2005 TAPS-3 Tarapur, 18-August- 16. PHWR 540 Maharashtra 2006 KAIGA-3 Kaiga, 06-May- 17. PHWR 220 Karnataka 2007 Total 4120 Project Capacity MWe Scheduled Commercial Operation Kaiga - 4 1 X 220 U4 – Sep 07 U1 – Dec 07 KK - 1 & 2 2 X 1000 U2 – Dec 08 U5 – Aug 07 RAPP - 5 & 6 2 X 220 U6 – Feb 08 Pre project activities for expansion programme at the existing sites of kakrapar, Rawatbhata are in progress for the launching of 700 MWe units. Preparations are also in progress at a green coastal site of Jaitapur & existing site at Kudankulam for 1000 MWe LWR units. All these proposals have already been approved by Government of India. A memorandum of Intent for construction of Kudankulam units 3-6 was signed between Governement of India & Russian Federation. A target capacity addition of 1300 MWE in the X plan (2002-2007) was achieved with the commissioning of 2X540 MWe units Tarapur & a 22o MWe unit at Kaiga 3&4. The sites for 4 PHWRs of 700 MWe & 4 LWRs of 1000 Mwe have been approved by GOI. The Xith plan envisages commencement of work on 4x700 mwe PHWRs & 6 x1000 MWe LWRs http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf62.htm Thorium (May 2007) • Thorium is much more abundant in nature than uranium. • Thorium can also be used as a nuclear fuel through breeding to uranium-233 (U-233). • When this thorium fuel cycle is used, much less plutonium and other transuranic elements are produced, compared with uranium fuel cycles. • Several reactor concepts based on thorium fuel cycles are under consideration. Thorium is a naturally-occurring, slightly radioactive metal discovered in 1828 by the Swedish chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. It is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils, where it is about three 143 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 144. times more abundant than uranium. Soil commonly contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. Thorium occurs in several minerals, the most common being the rare earth-thorium- phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium oxide, but average 6-7%. There are substantial deposits in several countries (see table). Thorium-232 decays very slowly (its half-life is about three times the age of the earth) but other thorium isotopes occur in its and in uranium's decay chains. Most of these are short-lived and hence much more radioactive than Th-232, though on a mass basis they are negligible. World thorium resources (economically extractable): Country Reserves (tonnes) Australia 300 000 India 290 000 Norway 170 000 USA 160 000 Canada 100 000 South Africa 35 000 Brazil 16 000 Other countries 95 000 World total 1 200 000 source: US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 1999. The 2005 IAEA-NEA quot;Red Bookquot; gives a figure of 4.5 million tonnes of reserves and additional resources, but points out that this excludes data from much of the world. Geoscience Australia confirms the above 300,000 tonne figure for Australia, but stresses that this is based on assumptions, not direct geological data in the same way as most mineral rsources. When pure, thorium is a silvery white metal that retains its lustre for several months. However, when it is contaminated with the oxide, thorium slowly tarnishes in air, becoming grey and eventually black. Thorium oxide (ThO2), also called thoria, has one of the highest melting points of all oxides (3300°C). When heated in air, thorium metal turnings ignite and burn brilliantly with a white light. Because of these properties, thorium has found applications in light bulb elements, lantern mantles, arc-light lamps, welding electrodes and heat-resistant ceramics. Glass containing thorium oxide has a high refractive index and dispersion and is used in high quality lenses for cameras and scientific instruments. Thorium as a nuclear fuel Thorium, as well as uranium, can be used as a nuclear fuel. Although not fissile itself, thorium-232 (Th-232) will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (U- 233), which is fissile. Hence like uranium-238 (U-238) it is fertile. 144 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 145. In one significant respect U-233 is better than uranium-235 and plutonium-239, because of its higher neutron yield per neutron absorbed. Given a start with some other fissile material (U-235 or Pu-239), a breeding cycle similar to but more efficient than that with U-238 and plutonium (in slow-neutron reactors) can be set up. The Th-232 absorbs a neutron to become Th-233 which normally decays to protactinium-233 and then U-233. The irradiated fuel can then be unloaded from the reactor, the U-233 separated from the thorium, and fed back into another reactor as part of a closed fuel cycle. Over the last 30 years there has been interest in utilising thorium as a nuclear fuel since it is more abundant in the Earth's crust than uranium. Also, all of the mined thorium is potentially useable in a reactor, compared with the 0.7% of natural uranium, so some 40 times the amount of energy per unit mass might theoretically be available (withouit recourse to fast breeder reactors). A major potential application for conventional PWRs involves fuel assemblies arranged so that a blanket of mainly thorium fuel rods surrounds a more-enriched seed element containing U-235 which supplies neutrons to the subcritical blanket. As U-233 is produced in the blanket it is burned there. This is the Light Water Breeder Reactor concept which was successfully demonstrated in the USA in the 1970s. It is currently being developed in a more deliberately proliferation-resistant way. The central seed region of each fuel assembly will have uranium enriched to 20% U-235. The blanket will be thorium with some U-238, which means that any uranium chemically separated from it (for the U-233 ) is not useable for weapons. Spent blanket fuel also contains U-232, which decays rapidly and has very gamma-active daughters creating significant problems in handling the bred U-233 and hence conferring proliferation resistance. Plutonium produced in the seed will have a high proportion of Pu-238, generating a lot of heat and making it even more unsuitable for weapons than normal reactor-grade Pu. A variation of this is the use of whole homogeneous assembles arranged so that a set of them makes up a seed and blanket arrangement. If the seed fuel is metal uranium alloy instead of oxide, there is better heat conduction to cope with its higher temperatures. Seed fuel remains three years in the reactor, blanket fuel for up to 14 years. Since the early 1990s Russia has had a program to develop a thorium-uranium fuel, which more recently has moved to have a particular emphasis on utilisation of weapons-grade plutonium in a thorium-plutonium fuel. The program is based at Moscow's Kurchatov Institute and involves the US company Thorium Power and US government funding to design fuel for Russian VVER-1000 reactors. Whereas normal fuel uses enriched uranium oxide, the new design has a demountable centre portion and blanket arrangement, with the plutonium in the centre and the thorium (with uranium) around it (More precisely: A normal VVER- 1000 fuel assembly has 331 rods each 9 mm diameter forming a hexagonal assembly 235 mm wide. Here, the centre portion of each assembly is 155 mm across and holds the seed material consisting of metallic Pu-Zr alloy (Pu is about 10% of alloy, and isotopically over 90% Pu-239) as 108 twisted tricorn-section rods 12.75 mm across with Zr-1%Nb cladding. The sub-critical blanket consists of U-Th oxide 145 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 146. fuel pellets (1:9 U:Th, the U enriched up to almost 20%) in 228 Zr-1%Nb cladding tubes 8.4 mm diameter - four layers around the centre portion. The blanket material achieves 100 GWd/t burn-up. Together as one fuel assembly the seed and blanket have the same geometry as a normal VVER-100 fuel assembly). The Th-232 becomes U-233, which is fissile - as is the core Pu-239. Blanket material remains in the reactor for 9 years but the centre portion is burned for only three years (as in a normal VVER). Design of the seed fuel rods in the centre portion draws on extensive experience of Russian navy reactors. The thorium-plutonium fuel claims four advantages over MOX: proliferation resistance, compatibility with existing reactors - which will need minimal modification to be able to burn it, and the fuel can be made in existing plants in Russia. In addition, a lot more plutonium can be put into a single fuel assembly than with MOX, so that three times as much can be disposed of as when using MOX. The spent fuel amounts to about half the volume of MOX and is even less likely to allow recovery of weapons-useable material than spent MOX fuel, since less fissile plutonium remains in it. With an estimated 150 tonnes of weapons plutonium in Russia, the thorium- plutonium project would not necessarily cut across existing plans to make MOX fuel. In 2007 Thorium Power formed an alliance with Red Star nuclear design bureau in Russia which will take forward the program to demonstrate the technology in lead- test fuel assemblies in full-sized commercial reactors. R&D History The use of thorium-based fuel cycles has been studied for about 30 years, but on a much smaller scale than uranium or uranium/plutonium cycles. Basic research and development has been conducted in Germany, India, Japan, Russia, the UK and the USA. Test reactor irradiation of thorium fuel to high burnups has also been conducted and several test reactors have either been partially or completely loaded with thorium-based fuel. Noteworthy experiments involving thorium fuel include the following, the first three being high-temperature gas-cooled reactors: • Between 1967 and 1988, the AVR experimental pebble bed reactor at Julich, Germany, operated for over 750 weeks at 15 MWe, about 95% of the time with thorium-based fuel. The fuel used consisted of about 100 000 billiard ball-sized fuel elements. Overall a total of 1360 kg of thorium was used, mixed with high-enriched uranium (HEU). Maximum burnups of 150,000 MWd/t were achieved. • Thorium fuel elements with a 10:1 Th/U (HEU) ratio were irradiated in the 20 MWth Dragon reactor at Winfrith, UK, for 741 full power days. Dragon was run as an OECD/Euratom cooperation project, involving Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland in addition to the UK, from 1964 to 1973. The Th/U fuel was used to 'breed and feed', so that the U-233 formed replaced the U-235 at about the same rate, and fuel could be left in the reactor for about six years. • General Atomics' Peach Bottom high-temperature, graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the USA operated between 1967 and 1974 at 110 MWth, using high-enriched uranium with thorium. 146 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 147. • In India, the Kamini 30 kWth experimental neutron-source research reactor using U-233, recovered from ThO2 fuel irradiated in another reactor, started up in 1996 near Kalpakkam. The reactor was built adjacent to the 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor, in which the ThO2 is irradiated. • In the Netherlands, an aqueous homogenous suspension reactor has operated at 1MWth for three years. The HEU/Th fuel is circulated in solution and reprocessing occurs continuously to remove fission products, resulting in a high conversion rate to U-233. • There have been several experiments with fast neutron reactors. Power reactors Much experience has been gained in thorium-based fuel in power reactors around the world, some using high-enriched uranium (HEU) as the main fuel: • The 300 MWe THTR reactor in Germany was developed from the AVR and operated between 1983 and 1989 with 674,000 pebbles, over half containing Th/HEU fuel (the rest graphite moderator and some neutron absorbers). These were continuously recycled on load and on average the fuel passed six times through the core. Fuel fabrication was on an industrial scale. • The Fort St Vrain reactor was the only commercial thorium-fuelled nuclear plant in the USA, also developed from the AVR in Germany, and operated 1976 - 1989. It was a high-temperature (700°C), graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor with a Th/HEU fuel designed to operate at 842 MWth (330 MWe). The fuel was in microspheres of thorium carbide and Th/U-235 carbide coated with silicon oxide and pyrolytic carbon to retain fission products. It was arranged in hexagonal columns ('prisms') rather than as pebbles. Almost 25 tonnes of thorium was used in fuel for the reactor, and this achieved 170,000 MWd/t burn-up. • Thorium-based fuel for Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) was investigated at the Shippingport reactor in the USA using both U-235 and plutonium as the initial fissile material. It was concluded that thorium would not significantly affect operating strategies or core margins. The light water breeder reactor (LWBR) concept was also successfully tested here from 1977 to 1982 with thorium and U-233 fuel clad with Zircaloy using the 'seed/blanket' concept. • The 60 MWe Lingen Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) in Germany utilised Th/Pu- based fuel test elements. India In India, both Kakrapar-1 and -2 units are loaded with 500 kg of thorium fuel in order to improve their operation when newly-started. Kakrapar-1 was the first reactor in the world to use thorium, rather than depleted uranium, to achieve power flattening across the reactor core. In 1995, Kakrapar-1 achieved about 300 days of full power operation and Kakrapar-2 about 100 days utilising thorium fuel. The use of thorium-based fuel was planned in Kaiga-1 and -2 and Rajasthan-3 and -4 (Rawatbhata) reactors. With about six times more thorium than uranium, India has made utilisation of thorium for large-scale energy production a major goal in its nuclear power program, utilising a three-stage concept: 147 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 148. • Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs, elsewhere known as CANDUs) fuelled by natural uranium, plus light water reactors, produce plutonium. • Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) use this plutonium-based fuel to breed U-233 from thorium. The blanket around the core will have uranium as well as thorium, so that further plutonium (ideally high-fissile Pu) is produced as well as the U-233. Then • Advanced Heavy Water Reactors burn the U-233 and this plutonium with thorium, getting about 75% of their power from the thorium. The spent fuel will then be reprocessed to recover fissile materials for recycling. This Indian program has moved from aiming to be sustained simply with thorium to one quot;drivenquot; with the addition of further fissile uranium and plutonium, to give greater efficiency. Another option for the third stage, while continuing with the PHWR and FBR programs, is the subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), - see below. Emerging advanced reactor concepts Concepts for advanced reactors based on thorium-fuel cycles include: • Light Water Reactors - With fuel based on plutonium oxide (PuO2), thorium oxide (ThO2) and/or uranium oxide (UO2) particles arranged in fuel rods. • High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR) of two kinds: pebble bed and with prismatic fuel elements. Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) - Research on HTGRs in the USA led to a concept using a prismatic fuel. The use of helium as a coolant at high temperature, and the relatively small power output per module (600 MWth), permit direct coupling of the MHR to a gas turbine (a Brayton cycle), resulting in generation at almost 50% thermal efficiency. The GT-MHR core can accommodate a wide range of fuel options, including HEU/Th, U-233/Th and Pu/Th. The use of HEU/Th fuel was demonstrated in the Fort St Vrain reactor (see above). Pebble-Bed Modular reactor (PBMR) - Arising from German work the PBMR was conceived in South Africa and is now being developed by a multinational consortium. It can potentially use thorium in its fuel pebbles. • Molten salt reactors - This is an advanced breeder concept, in which the fuel is circulated in molten salt, without any external coolant in the core. The primary circuit runs through a heat exchanger, which transfers the heat from fission to a secondary salt circuit for steam generation. It was studied in depth in the 1960s, but is now being revived because of the availability of advanced technology for the materials and components. • Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) - India is working on this, and like the Canadian CANDU-NG the 250 MWe design is light water cooled. The main part of the core is subcritical with Th/U-233 oxide, mixed so that the system is self-sustaining in U-233. A few seed regions with conventional MOX fuel will drive the reaction and give a negative void coefficient overall. • CANDU-type reactors - AECL is researching the thorium fuel cycle application to enhanced CANDU-6 and ACR-1000 reactors. With 5% plutonium (reactor grade) plus thorium high burn-up and low power costs are indicated. 148 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 149. • Plutonium disposition - Today MOX (U,Pu) fuels are used in some conventional reactors, with Pu-239 providing the main fissile ingredient. An alternative is to use Th/Pu fuel, with plutonium being consumed and fissile U- 233 bred. The remaining U-233 after separation could be used in a Th/U fuel cycle. Use of thorium in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) In an ADS system, high-energy neutrons are produced through the spallation reaction of high-energy protons from an accelerator striking heavy target nuclei (lead, lead-bismuth or other material). These neutrons can be directed to a subcritical reactor containing thorium, where the neutrons breed U-233 and promote the fission of it. There is therefore the possibility of sustaining a fission reaction which can readily be turned off, and used either for power generation or destruction of actinides resulting from the U/Pu fuel cycle. The use of thorium instead of uranium means that less actinides are produced in the ADS itself. (see paper on Accelerator- Driven Nuclear Energy). Developing a thorium-based fuel cycle Despite the thorium fuel cycle having a number of attractive features, development even on the scale of India's has always run into difficulties. Problems include: • the high cost of fuel fabrication, due partly to the high radioactivity of U-233 chemically separated from the irradiated thorium fuel. Separated U-233 is always contaminated with traces of U-232 (69 year half life but whose daughter products such as thallium-208 are strong gamma emitters with very short half lives); • the similar problems in recycling thorium itself due to highly radioactive Th- 228 (an alpha emitter with 2 year half life) present; • some weapons proliferation risk of U-233 (if it could be separated on its own); and • the technical problems (not yet satisfactorily solved) in reprocessing. Much development work is still required before the thorium fuel cycle can be commercialised, and the effort required seems unlikely while (or where) abundant uranium is available. In this respect international moves to bring India into the ambit of international trade will be critical. If India has ready access to traded uranium and conventional reactor designs, it may not persist with the thorium cycle. Nevertheless, the thorium fuel cycle, with its potential for breeding fuel without the need for fast-neutron reactors, holds considerable potential long-term. It is a significant factor in the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy. Sources: Thorium based fuel options for the generation of electricity: Developments in the 1990s, IAEA-TECDOC-1155, International Atomic Energy Agency, May 2000. The role of thorium in nuclear energy, Energy Information Administration/Uranium Industry Annual, 1996, p.ix-xvii. Nuclear Chemical Engineering (2nd Ed.), Chapter 6: Thorium, M Benedict, T H Pigford and H W Levi, 1981, McGraw-Hill, p.283-317, ISBN: 0-07-004531-3. See also: lead paper in Indian Nuclear Society 2001 conference proceedings, vol 2. 149 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 150. Kazimi M.S. 2003, Thorium Fuel for Nuclear Energy, American Scientist Sept-Oct 2003. Morozov et al 2005, Thorium fuel as a superior approach to disposing of excess weapons-grade plutonium in Russian VVER-1000 reactors. Nuclear Future? OECD NEA & IAEA, 2006, Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand. 150 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 151. Annex 22 SLN ship under siege off Pulmoddai coast [TamilNet, August 01, 2006 15:13 GMT] The Jetliner ship, which escaped Trincomalee attack Tuesday afternoon with 854 Sri Lanka Army (SLA) soldiers on board, bound for north, has come under attack again in the Pulmoddai sea from 6:00 p.m. Tuesday, military sources in Colombo said. Pulmoddai is located 49 km northwest of Trincomalee and 41 km southwest of Mullaithivu. Kfir jets took off from Colombo towards Pulmoddai in support of the ship under siege. Villagers of Kokilai, Pulmoddai and other areas close to the Pulmoddai Sea are fleeing from their houses. http://www.tamilnet.com/art.html?catid=13&artid=19014 Pulmoddai battle on but Sri Lankan ship `safe' B. Muralidhar Reddy COLOMBO: The Sri Lanka Navy has denied reports that the Jetliner ship, which escaped a Tiger attack in Trincomalee on Tuesday afternoon, came under attack again in the Pulmoddai sea. The ship had 854 Sri Lanka Army soldiers on board. However, a spokesperson of the SLA told The Hindu that a confrontation was on between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the Navy in the Pulmoddai sea. quot;[The] Jetliner is safe and the passengers on board disembarked in the afternoon. The claim by the LTTE about a second attack on the Jetliner is false and is a sign of desperation after its cadres suffered heavily in the Trincomalee as well as Pulmoddai confrontation,quot; the spokesperson said. Earlier, TamilNet claimed that the Jetliner, bound for the north, came under a second attack from the Tigers at 6 p.m. Pulmoddai is located 49 km northwest of Trincomalee and 41 km southwest of Mullaithivu. quot;Villagers of Kokilai, Pulmoddai and other areas close to the Pulmoddai sea are fleeing their houses,quot; it said. Rajapakse calls up Manmohan Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapakse telephoned Prime Minist er Manmohan Singh on Tuesday and exchanged views on the latest developments. He also thanked Dr. Singh for help in the evacuation of stranded Sri Lankans from Lebanon. http://www.hindu.com/2006/08/02/stories/2006080220261400.htm Pulmoddai mineral shipments to resume Shipments of mineral sands from the Pulmoddai beach deposit on the northeast coast, disrupted after Tamil Tiger rebels sank a bulk carrier, look set to resume now that the guerrillas and government forces are observing a truce and preparing for peace talks. Mineral sands at the Pulmoddai mine run by the Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd are known to be rich in ilmenite, monazite, rutile and zircon. Bulk shipments from Pulmoddai were suspended in September 1997 after Sea Tiger rebels blew up and sank a bulk carrier. Since then, small quantities of rutile and crude zircon brought by road have been exported in 40-kg bags through Colombo port mostly to China, India and the United Kingdom. quot;Now, there is a lot of demand for our mineral sands,quot; said Muhammad Nassar, chairman of Lanka Mineral Sands. quot;We hope to resume production shortly. The factory has been out of production for five years so a fair amount of maintenance is needed.quot; For bulk shipments to resume, the wreck of the bulk carrier lying in 75 feet 151 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 152. of water needs to be removed, the pier repaired and a conveyor installed. The Tigers had taken care not to damage the plant, which is in the region they claim as their homeland, but cut off the water supply required to process the mineral sands and disrupted bulk shipments. Big stocks of minerals have accumulated over the years, including 180,000 tonnes of ilmenite and 200,000 tonnes of crude zircon. The company processed about 300,000 tonnes of mineral sands a year. The Pulmoddai beach mine is known to have high concentrations of minerals and is a renewable deposit with sand being washed up by the sea. Shipments are not possible during the northeast monsoon from October to February because there is no sheltered anchorage at the site. http://lakdiva.org/suntimes/020519/bus.html#3 (Sunday Times, Colombo,19 May, 2002) Mineral processing was set to resume at Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd.’s Pulmoddai Beach Mine in northern Sri Lanka. The company planned to restart large-scale processing of 200,000 metric tons (t) of crude zircon, 180,000 t of ilmenite, and deposits of rutile and monazite that are present in the sand. Small-scale operations continued, with small quantities of crude zircon and rutile being exported through the port of Colombo to China, India, and the United Kingdom. The company processed 300,000 metric tons per year of mined sands (Industrial Minerals, 2002). The Mineral Industry of Sri Lanka in 2002 Historically, the Ceylon Mineral Sands Corporation was established in 1957 under the State Industrial Corporations Act of 1957. The Corporation located its plant for processing Ilmenite at Pulmoddai and the first export of Ilmenite to Japan took place in 1962. A new plant was commissioned in 1967 at China Bay, to process the more valuable minerals – Rutile, Zircon and monazite using the tailings of the Pulmoddai Ilmenite plant. In 1976, the Corporation established an integrated Ilmenite, Zircon and Rutile processing plant at Pulmoddai. In 1992, the Corporation was converted into a Government Owned Company under Act No. 23 of 1987 and re-named Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd., the company also established a facility for bulk loading into ships Pulmoddai. Cod Bay, in the Trincomalee Harbour is the station for its floating craft of tugs and barges. The sales and marketing office is in Colombo… Reserves In 1971 the company with the assistance of the Geological Survey Department carried out a survey of the present beach which revealed a heavy mineral content of 3.7 million tons with a cut off grade of 30%. Preussag AG of West Germany carried out a vibro coring programme in 1979 in the near shore area off Pulmoddai directly adjacent to the actual beach deposit covering an area of 12 km x 1.7 km. the data collected revealed the deposit extends for a distance of approximately 0.8km parallel to the beach line; in thickness varying from several centimeters to 100 cm in certain places. In 1987 Simec Ltd. a joint venture company of State Mining & Mineral Development Company of Sri Lanka and Intersit BV of Netherland surveyed an area of 45 miles between Mullativu and Nilaveli including the Pulmoddai beach. Table 4 – Mineral Sands Deposits in Pulmoddai Name of Deposit Surface Area Volume of Raw Sand Value 152 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 153. Pudaviakaddu South of Pulmoddai 1500 acres 30.9 million cubic meters US $ 5.65 – 7.55 Per cub meter Thavikallu South of Pulmoddai 1500 acres 8.9 million cubic meters US $ 3.6 – 5.20 Per cub meter Kokilai North of Pulmoddai 1500 acres 16.4 million cubic meters US $ 4.33 – 5.49 Per cub. meter Nayaru North of Pulmoddai 900 acres 7.9 million cubic meters US $ 8.65 – 10.54 Per cub. meter LMSL is 100% export-oriented with its products reaching counties such as Japan, China, Australia etc. (Page 38) The company has to-date only mined the Pulmoddai area and other untouched deposits in Kokilai, Nayaru etc., are in excess of 400% of the Pulmoddai deposit, ensuring a supply of raw material for several decades to come. Prior to the stoppage of production in 2004, the production figures of LMSL are in Annexure 6. (Page 40) Fuel can be supplied by road or transport via Trincomalee by sea. (Page 41). • Market Access LMSL is a 100% export oriented venture. Market access is therefore a prime consideration and any scheme of divestiture has to recognize this fact. Such a scheme would therefore have to ensure that marketability of mineral products is assured. • Security Since this enterprise is located close to the conflict zone and attempts have been made to disrupt production e.g., by damaging the water supply installation, the strategy should ensure attempts to disrupt production for political reasons is prevented. (Page 42). ANNEXURE - 3 UTILIZING THE FOUR MAIN MINERALS 153 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 154. Ilmenite It is used to manufacture Titanium Dixoide white Pigment which has its own peculiar characteristics such as pure whiteness and brightness than any other pigments can achieve, non-toxic in contrast to lead pigments, non corrosive, stand high temperature, does not change its colour when continuously exposed to sunlight and high hiding power. Therefore the ultimate use of this mineral is in paper, paint, plastic, rubber, textile industries and to make printing ink. Zircon Main properties of Zircon sand are resistant to corrosion and withstand high temperatures. Therefore, it is extensively used in furnaces as retractive liners and in foundry casings. Another major use is as an opacifier in glazing material in ceramic industry which is widely expanding today. Zirconium compounds extracted from Zircon are commonly used in television sets, leather, water proofing of fabrics, lacquers, drugs as catalysts in chemical processes and also in high temperature work. Monazite Monazite even though is a radio-active mineral due to the presence of thorium its main use is as a good source of rare-earth compounds. Monazite is therefore important for the electronic and computer industry. It is also used in glass manufacture and polishing lighter flints, high strength permanent magnets and in television sets as red phosphors. Rutile This mineral is the raw material for the manufacture of world’s “present and future” metal Titanium. Titanium metal is very light (as light as aluminum) very strong (as strong as steel), highly resistant to corrosion, withstand very high temperatures. Rutile is exclusively used in the mineral sand form itself as a flux in welding rod industry. (Page 48) Annex 6 : Year 1986 Production in Mt Ilmenite 129907 Rutile 8443 Zircon 910 Hi.Ti.Ilmenite 3996 Monazite 17 Crude Zircon – Total 143273 (1986) 47892 (1998) Monazite in 2004: 29 Mt (page 51) http://books.smenet.org/Surf_Min_2ndEd/sm-ch02-sc10-ss25-bod.cfm Industrial Minerals Richard H. Olson, Edwin H. Bentzen, III, and Gordon C. Presley, Editors 2.10.25. TitaniumFootnote 01 Elemental titanium has become famous as a space age metal, because of its high strength/weight ratio and resistance to corrosion. However, the major use is in the form of titanium dioxide pigment, which because of its whiteness, high refractive index, and resulting light-scattering ability, is unequaled for whitening paints, paper, rubber, plastics, and other materials. A relatively minor use is in welding rod coatings, in the form of the mineral rutile. The only commercially important titanium 154 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 155. ore minerals at the present time are ilmenite and its alteration products, and rutile. Titanium was discovered by Gregor in 1790, as a white oxide which he discovered from menaccanite, a variety of ilmenite occurring as a black sand near Falmouth, Cornwall. Barksdale (1966) stated that the fundamental chemical reactions on which the present-day titanium industry is based were known before 1800, although it was not until 1918 that these pigments were available commercially on the American market. .. The beginning of the modern titanium metal industry was in 1948, when Du Pont produced the first metal. U.S. Bureau of Mines reports, which gave details of the Kroll process, together with the attractive properties of the metal for military aircraft, led to a concerted effort by industry and government to develop a large-scale titanium metal industry, which reached a peak capacity of over 36,000 stpy from six producers by 1958 (Pings, 1972a)… Although titanium is the ninth most abundant element of the lithosphere, comprising an estimated 0.62% of the earth’s crust, there are only a few minerals in which it occurs in major amounts: rutile, anatase, and brookite (which are polymorphs of TiO2), ilmenite and its alteration products, including leucoxene, perovskite (CaTiO3), and sphene (CaTiSiO5). Anatase may be emerging as a significant ore mineral of the future, but ilmenite, altered ilmenite, leucoxene, and rutile have been the only large volume ore minerals through 1980. Sand deposits in which rutile is the only economically important titanium mineral occur along the eastern shore of Australia. Ilmenite, altered ilmenite, and rutile form inland elevated strand-line deposits in Western Australia and in older sands of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Ilmenite and altered ilmenite are the principal titanium ore minerals in other Western Australian districts; in Kerala, India; in deposits north of the Black Sea in the USSR; and in Florida and Georgia. Relatively unaltered ilmenite is found in large beach and dune occurrences along the northeastern coast of South Africa, in the Nile Delta of Egypt, and in still other Western Australian deposits, those closest to the present coast. Sand deposits of titaniferous iron ores occur as dune and beach deposits in many volcanic areas, of which those in New Zealand are the outstanding examples… Sand Deposits: Titanium-bearing black sands are found mainly in ancient or modern ocean and sea beaches around and occasionally within continental land masses. They frequently form highly visible surficial layers between the high and low water marks which may extend intermittently along coasts for miles, but such concentrations, containing perhaps 80% heavy minerals, are not mined on a large scale because they are usually too shallow and narrow to represent major reserves. Minable bodies are multilayered occurrences of a similar nature left behind by retreating seas, or coastal dunes formed when heavy minerals from black sand beaches were being transported inland by wind action. Heavy minerals tend to be disseminated within such dunes rather than layered as in beach-type deposits. The history of a black sand ore body may be simple or complex. The essential elements are: (1) a “hinterland” of crystalline rocks in which the heavy minerals were accessory constituents, (2) a period of deep weathering, (3) uplift with rapid erosion and quick dumping into the sea of the products of stream erosion, and (4) emergence of the coastline with longshore drift and high-energy waves acting during the process of shoreline straightening. There may be intermediate stages such as partial concentration of the heavy minerals in a coastal plain sediment and subsequent elevation, erosion, and reconcentration. The sand brought to the sea by rivers is picked up and carried away from their mouths by longshore currents, forming offshore bars and filling in bays between headlands, particularly during storms. Where bars are formed, the sand-carrying waves drag bottom and lose their energy so that the heavy minerals fall on the seaward side while the light minerals 155 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 156. are cast over the bar and into the quieter water beyond. Layer upon layer of varying concentrations of heavy minerals accumulates on the growing bar in this way. Where bays are being filled with sand, both heavy and light minerals are churned from the bottom by landward-rushing waves and are hurled up the beach slope. The smoother, slower retreat of each wave mobilizes the uppermost layer of sand deposited there, and draws away the light minerals, to be picked up again and again by waves as currents move them along the coast, while leaving the heavy minerals behind. Alternating periods of stormy and calm weather leave alternating layers of high and low concentrations of heavy minerals in the beach sand as it advances toward the sea..… India: At one time India was a leading producer of ilmenite from the state of Kerala (formerly Travancore-Cochin). The beach sands were mined in the Manavalakurichi (M.K.) area and later the Quilon deposit of ilmenite near Chavra was put into production. These deposits supplied the bulk of the titanium ore used by the U.S. prior to World War II. The two deposits have more differences than similarities. The ilmenite in the M.K. deposit analyzed only 54% TiO2 and the sand was rich in garnet and monazite. The ilmenite in the Quilon deposit analyzes about 60% TiO2. The sand carried almost no garnet and is high in monazite in only two places. .. Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka contains extensive beach deposits of titanium-bearing sands at Pulmoddai, Tirukkovil, Kelani River, Kalu River, Modoragam River, Kudremalai Point, Negombo, and Induruwa. The Pulmoddai area contains 5.6 million st of titaniferous material with 2.451 million st of contained TiO2. The deposit extends for a distance of 7 km (42 miles), has a maximum width of about 91 m (300 ft), and a thickness of about 2.4 m (8 ft) There is no overburden. The deposit contains about 80% ilmenite and rutile The separation of rutile has been adversely affected by the presence of excessive amounts of residual ilmenite and quartz in the tailings. The separation of zircon has been hampered by inadequate water and insufficient wet tabling equipment to handle the extremely fine-grained Pulmoddai ore… Sand Deposits Exploration: There are only a few large areas of the world where the granite-clan rocks and high-grade metamorphic gneisses which are likely to contain ilmenite (not titaniferous-magnetite) and rutile are close enough to continental margins to have contributed their erosion products to the sediments of coastal plains. Well-sorted sands are much more likely hosts than unsorted sands. These are the areas on which exploration efforts should be focused. Since the alteration of ilmenite to remove iron is aided by humic acid developed by the decomposition of organic material near the water table in hot and humid climates, it follows that the highest TiO2 ilmenites are more likely to be found in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Titanium minerals are dark-colored and their concentration, as in black beach sands, tends to be fairly readily noticeable against the light brown or white quartz. Many sand ore bodies, therefore, have been discovered through surface observation of high-grade placer zones formed on beaches and along the courses of streams, and by following their traces into the larger, lower grade concentrations which constitute economic ore bodies. There are areas in which potential heavy mineral concentrations in ancient beach sands may be masked by younger sand, gravel, or soil. Exploration under these circumstances then involves interpretation of geomorphic and subsurface geologic data to define areas which could have been beaches or dunes in the past, and then drilling to obtain samples. .. Evaluation of Deposits: An economic titanium mineral deposit must have reserves 156 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 157. large enough to support depreciation over a period of at least 10 to 20 or more years. The capital investment in 1980 was in the range of $75 to $80 million in the U.S. for a mine and mill plant with an output of 100 to 200 thousand stpy of ilmenite (or equivalent rutile) with given “normal” geologic parameters. Significant contributions can be made by zircon and other byproducts. Another general rule is that a new and separate ore body, if its production is to be all ilmenite which cannot be treated in an existing mill, should have a minimum reserve of about 1 million tons of recoverable TiO2 in the titanium minerals. Small, high-grade concentrations are uneconomic under the present conditions. The definition of economic reserves depends, of course, upon many factors, among them: Cost of mining and milling, as influenced by depth of overburden (if any); cost of surface and mineral rights; and availability of water, power, labor, and transportation facilities for bulk shipments. Recoverability in mining and milling. Cost of treatment and disposal of waste slimes. Cost of waste water treatment and land reclamation. Distance to markets and cost of transport. Ability of markets to absorb the type of titanium minerals to be produced, and prevailing prices for titanium minerals and byproducts. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES Anon., 1972, “Brazilian Titanium,” Mining Journal, Vol. 278, No. 7121, Feb. 11, pp. 118–119. Anon., 1974, “Pulmoddai’s Mineral Sands,” Industrial Minerals, No. 77, Feb., p. 27. Anon., 1974a, “U.S. TiO2 Mine on Stream,” Mining Magazine, Vol. 130, No. 1, Jan., p. 7. Anon., 1977, “RBM Progress Report,” Sep., Richards Bay Minerals, 4 pp. Anon., 1978a, “Titania: The Largest Producer of Titanium Minerals in Europe,” Mining Magazine, Vol. 139, No. 4, Oct., pp. 365–371. Anon., 1978b, “Rautaurunklci—A Major Force in World Vanadium Supplies Is Still Expanding,” World Mining, Mar., pp. 44–46. Anon., 1980a, “Titanio, Anuário Mineral Brasileiro,” Brasilia, Vol. IX, p. 358. Anon., 1980b, “Australia’s Mineral Resources: Mineral Sands,” Australian Department of Trade and Resources, 10 pp. Anon., 1980c, “Australian Mineral Sands Processing Industry—Potential for Expansion,” Commonwealth/State Joint Study Group on Raw Materials Processing, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, pp. 17–18. Anon., 1980d, “South Africa—Mining at Richards Bay,” Mining Journal, Vol. 295, No. 7579, Nov. 21, pp. 411–413. Anon., 1981, “Sierra Rutile,” Mining Magazine, Vol. 144, No. 6, June, pp. 458–465. Bachman, F.E., 1914, “The Use of Titaniferous Ores in the Blast Furnace,” Iron and Steel Industry Yearbook, pp. 370–419. Balsley, J.R., Jr., 1943, “Vanadium-Bearing Magnetite-Ilmenite Deposits Near Lake Sanford, Essex County, New York,” Bulletin 940-D, U.S. Geological Survey, pp. 99– 123. Barksdale, J., 1966, Titanium, Its Occurrence, Chemistry, and Technology, 2nd ed., Ronald Press, New York, 691 pp. Bateman, A.M., et al., 1951, “Formation of Late Magmatic Oxide Ores,” Economic Geology, Vol. 46, No. 4, June-July, pp. 404–426. Beals, M.D., and Merker, L., 1960, “Three New Single Crystal Materials,” Materials in Design Engineering, Jan., pp. 12–13. Bishop, E.W., 1956, “Geology and Ground-Water Resources of Highlands County, Florida,” Report of Investigation 15, Florida Geological Survey, 115 pp. 157 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 158. Brady, E.S., 1981, “China’s Strategic Minerals and Metals—Titanium,” The China Business Review, Vol. 8, No. 5, Sep.-Oct., pp. 62–65. Broadhurst, S.D., 1955, “The Mining Industry in North Carolina from 1946 through 1953,” Economic Paper No. 66, North Carolina Dept. of Conservation and Development, Div. of Min. Resources, pp. 26–27. Broderick, T.M., 1917, “The Relation of the Titaniferous Magnetites of Northeastern Minnesota to the Duluth Gabbro,” Economic Geology, Vol. 12, No. 8, Dec., pp. 663– 696. Brooks, H.K., 1966, “Geological History of the Suwanee River,” Geology of the Miocene and Pliocene Series in the North Florida-South Georgia Area, N.K. Olson, ed., Guidebook for Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Assn., 7th Field Trip and Southeastern Geological Society, 12th Field Trip, pp. 37–45. Brun, R.M., 1957, “The Tellnes Story,” Ilmeniten, TITANIA, A/S. Norway, Summer issue. Buddington, A.F., 1939, “Adirondack Igneous Rocks and Their Metamorphism,” Geological Society of America Memoir 7, pp. 19–48. Carstens, H., 1957, “Investigations of Titaniferous Iron Ore Deposits, Part I Gabbros and Associated Titaniferous Iron Ore in West-Norwegian Gneisses,” K Norske Vidensk Selsk Skr., No. 3, 67 pp. Cooke, C.W., 1941, “Two Shore Lines or Seven?” American Journal of Science, Vol. 239, No. 6, pp. 457–458. Cooke, C.W., 1945, “Geology of Florida,” Bulletin 29, Florida Geological Survey, 339 pp. Davidson, D.M., et al., 1946, “Notes on the Ilmenite Deposit at Piney River, Virginia,” Economic Geology, Vol. 41, No. 7, Nov., pp. 738–748. Diemer, R.A., 1941, “Titaniferous Magnetite Deposits of the Laramie Range, Wyoming,” Bulletin No. 31, Geological Survey of Wyoming, 23 pp. Evrard, P., 1949, “Differentiation of Titaniferous Magmas,” Economic Geology, Vol. 44, No. 3, May, pp. 210–232. Fine, M.M., and Frommer, D.W., 1952, “Mineral Dressing Investigation of Titanium Ore from the Christy Property, Hot Spring County, Arkansas,” Report of Investigations 4851, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 7 pp. Fine, M.M., et al., 1949, “Titanium Investigations … The Laboratory Development of Mineral Dressing Methods for Arkansas Rutile,” Mining Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 12, pp. 447–452. Fish, G.E., Jr., 1962, “Titanium Resources of Nelson and Amherst Counties, Virginia (In Two Parts) 1. Saprolite Ores,” Report of Investigations 6094, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 44 pp. Fish, G.E., Jr., and Swanson, V.F., 1964, “Titanium Resources of Nelson and Amherst Counties, Virginia (In Two Parts) 2. Nelsonite,” Report of Investigations 6429, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 25 pp. Flint, R.F., 1940, “Pleistocene Features of the Atlantic Coastal Plain,” American Journal of Science, Vol. 238, No. 11, pp. 757–787. Flint, R.F., 1942, “Atlantic Coastal ‘Terraces’,” Washington Academy of Sciences Journal, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 235–237. Flint, R.F., 1947, Glacial Geology and the Pleistocene Epoch, John Wiley, New York, 589 pp. Force, E.R., 1980, “Is the United States Geologically Dependent on Imported Rutile?” Presented at 4th Industrial Minerals International Congress, Atlanta, GA, 4 pp. Force, E.R., et al., 1976, “Geology and Resources of Titanium,” Professional Paper 959-A through F, U.S. Geological Survey. Frey, E., 1946, “Exploration of Iron Mountain Titaniferous Magnetite Deposits, Albany County, Wyoming,” Report of Investigations 3968, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 37 pp. 158 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 159. Fryklund, V.C., Jr., and Holbrook, D.F., 1950, “Titanium Ore Deposits of Hot Spring County, Arkansas,” Bulletin No. 16, Arkansas Research and Development Comm., Arkansas Div. Geology, 173 pp. Fryklund, V.C., Jr., et al., 1954, “Niobium and Titanium at Magnet Cove and Potash Sulphur Springs, Arkansas,” Bulletin 1015-B, U.S. Geological Survey, pp. 23–57. Garnar, T.E., Jr., 1980, “Heavy Minerals Industry of North America,” Presented at 4th Industrial Minerals International Congress, Atlanta, GA, 13 pp. Geis, H.P., 1971, “A Short Description of the Iron-Titanium Provinces of Norway, with Special Reference to Those in Production,” Minerals Science Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 13–24. Gillson, J.L., 1959, “Sand Deposits of Titanium Minerals,” Trans. SME-AIME, Vol. 214, pp. 421–429; Mining Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 4. Grogan, R.M., et al., 1964, “Milling at Du Pont’s Heavy Mineral Mines in Florida,” Milling Methods in the Americas, N. Arbiter, ed., Gordon and Breach, New York, pp. 205–229. Gross, S.O., 1968, “Titaniferous Ores of the Sanford Lake District, New York,” Ore Deposits in the United States, 1963/1967, John D. Ridge, ed., AIME, New York, Vol. 1, pp. 140–153. Guimond, R., 1964, “Quebec Iron and Titanium Corporation, A Study in Growth,” Canadian Mining Journal, Vol. 85, No. 11, pp. 47–53. Guise, F.P., et al., 1964, “Titanium in the Southeastern United States,” Information Circular 8223, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 30 pp. Hammond, P., 1949, “Allard Lake Ilmenite Deposits,” Canadian Mining & Metallurgical Bulletin, Vol. 42, pp. 117–121. Hammond, P., 1952, “Allard Lake Ilmenite Deposits,” Economic Geology, Vol. 47, No. 6, Sep.-Oct., pp. 634–649. Hargraves, R.B., 1959, “Petrology of the Allard Lake Anorthosite Suite and Paleomagnetism of the Ilmenite Deposits (Quebec),” Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, May, 193 pp. Harki, I., et al., 1956, “Discovery and Mining Methods at Finland’s Largest Fe-Ti-V Mine,” Mining World, Vol. 18, Aug., p. 62. Heyburn, M.M., 1960, “Geological and Geophysical Investigation of the Sanford Hill Ore Body Extension, Tahawus, New York,” Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 48 pp Hillhouse, D.M., 1960, “Geology of the Piney River-Roseland Titanium Area, Nelson and Amherst Counties, Virginia,” Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA, 169 pp. Hoyt, J.H., 1967, “Pleistocene Shore Lines: Guide to Tectonic Movements, Northern Florida and Southern Georgia,” Abstracts, 1967 Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America, New Orleans, LA, p. 104. Hubaux, A., 1956, “Various Types of Black Ores of the Egersund Norway Region,” Bulletin 79, Ann. Soc. Geol. Belg., pp. 203–215. Jennings, E.P., 1913, “A Titaniferous Iron Ore Deposit in Boulder County, Colorado,” AIME Trans, Vol. 44, pp. 14–25. Kays, M.A., 1965, “Petrographic and Modal Relations, Sanford Hill Titaniferous Magnetite Deposit,” Economic Geology, Vol. 60, No. 6, Sep.-Oct., pp. 1261–1297. Kish, L., 1972, “Vanadium in the Titaniferous Deposits of Quebec,” CIM Bulletin, Mar., pp. 117–123. Li, T.M., 1973, “Startup of Manchester Mine and Mill Boosts U.S. Production of Primary Ilmenite,” Engineering & Mining Journal, Dec., pp. 71–75. Lissiman, J.C., and Oxenford, R.J., 1973, “The Allied Mineral N.L. Heavy Mineral Deposit in Eneabba, W.A.,” Conference Volume, Australasian Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, pp. 153–161. 159 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 160. Lister, F.G., 1966, “The Composition and Origin of Selected Iron-Titanium Deposits,” Economic Geology, Vol. 61, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 275–310. Llewellyn T.O., and Sullivan, G.V., 1980, “Recovery of Rutile from a Porphyry Copper Tailings Sample,” Report of Investigations 8462, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 18 pp. Lynd, L.E., 1983, “Titanium,” Mineral Commodity Profile, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 17 pp. MacNeil, F.S., 1949, “Pleistocene Shore Lines in Florida and Georgia,” Shorter Contributions to General Geology, Professional Paper 221-F, U.S. Geological Survey, pp. 93–106. Markewicz, F.J., 1969, “Ilmenite Deposits of the New Jersey Coastal Plain,” Geology of Selected Areas of New Jersey and Eastern Pennsylvania and Guidebook of Excursions, S. Subitzky, ed., Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, pp. 363– 382. Martens, J.C.H., 1928, “Beach Deposits of Ilmenite, Zircon, and Rutile in Florida,” 19th Annual Report, Florida Geological Survey, pp. 124–154. Masten, A.H., 1923, The Story of Adirondac, Princeton Press, Princeton, NJ, 199 pp. McMurray, L.L., 1944, “Froth Flotation of North Carolina Ilmenite,” Trans. AIME, Vol. 173, 1947; Mining Technology, Jan. 1944. Merritt, C.A., 1939, “Iron Ores of the Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma,” Economic Geology, Vol. 34, No. 3, May, pp. 268–286. Michot, P., 1956, “The Deposits of Black Ores of the Egersund Region,” Bulletin 79, Ann. Soc. Geol. Belg., pp. 183–201. Moore, C.H., Jr., 1940, “Origin of the Nelsonite Dikes of Amherst County, Virginia,” Economic Geology, Vol. 35, No. 5, Aug., pp. 629–645. Nicholls, G.D., 1955, “The Mineralogy of Rock Magnetism,” Advances in Physics (Supplement to Philosophical Magazine), Vol. 4, p. 113. Nilsen, A.E., 1972, “Extraction of Iron from Titaniferous Ores,” U.S. Patent 3,647,414, Mar. 7. Osborne, F.F., 1928, “Certain Magmatic Titaniferous Ores and Their Origin,” Economic Geology, Pt. 1, Vol. 23, No. 7, Nov., pp. 724–761; Pt. 2, Vol. 23, No. 8, Dec., pp. 895–922. Parker, G.G., and Cooke, C.W., 1944, “Late Cenozoic Geology of Southern Florida,” Bulletin 27, Florida Geological Survey, 119 pp. Paulson, E.G., 1964, “Mineralogy and Origin of the Titaniferous Deposit at Pluma Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Mexico,” Economic Geology, Vol. 59, No. 5, Aug., pp. 753–767. Pings, W.B., 1972, “Titanium, Pt. 1,” Colorado School of Mines Industries Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 4, July, 13 p. Pings, W.B., 1972a, “Titanium, Pt. 2,” Colorado School of Mines Industries Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 5, Sep., 17 pp. Pinnell, D.B., and Marsh, J.A., 1954, “Summary Geological Report on the Titaniferous Iron Ore Deposits of the Laramie Range, Albany County, Wyoming,” Mines Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 30. Pirkle, E.C., and Yoho, W.H., 1970, “The Heavy Mineral Ore Body of Trail Ridge, Florida,” Economic Geology, Vol. 65, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., pp. 17–30. Pirkle, E.C., et al., 1974, “The Green Cove Springs and Boulougne Heavy Mineral Sand Deposits of Florida,” Economic Geology, Vol. 69, No. 7, Nov., pp. 1129–1137. Pirkle, F.L., 1975, “Evaluation of Possible Source Regions of Trail Ridge Sands,” Southeastern Geology, Vol. 17, No. 2, Dec., pp. 93–114. Ramdohr, P., 1956, “Die Beziehungen von Fe-Ti Erzen und Magmatischen Gesteinen,” Bulletin No. 173, Comm. Geol. Finlande, pp. 1–18. Reed, D.F., 1949, “Investigation of Christy Titanium Deposits, Hot Spring County, Arkansas,” Report of Investigations 4592, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 10 pp. Reed, D.F., 1949a, “Investigation of Magnet Cove Rutile Deposits, Hot Spring 160 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 161. County, Arkansas,” Report of Investigations 4593, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 9 pp. Retty, J.A., 1944, “Lower Romaine River Area, Saguenay County, Quebec,” Report 19, Quebec Dept. of Mines & Geology, pp. 3–29. Rose, E.R., 1969, “Geology of Titanium and Titaniferous Deposits of Canada,” Economic Geology Report No. 25, Geological Survey of Canada, Nuke deal and thorium as Bharatam's vanishing strategic mineral Let us look at the deal from Uncle Sam's perspective: Aim: desiccate Bharatam energy independence programme using thorium. Steps taken: 1. privatize mining operations including mining of monazite, ilmenite placer sands which yield thorium (the private greed will take over and allow the loot of the strategic mineral). 2. declare the sea-lane close to the placer deposits (Manavalakurichi - Tamilnadu, Aluva, Chavara -- Kerala, Pulmoddai -- Srilanka area, 30 kms. from Trincomalee under LTTE control) as international waters (disregarding historic waters status under the UN Law of the Sea 1958; follow-up with operational assertions by sending US naval vessels into the Gulf of Mannarto assert the international waters claim. 3. effectively create an international waters boundary between India and Srilanka by the alignmen chosen – a mid-ocean channel passage disregarding Sir A Ramaswamy Mudaliar Committee report of 1958 which said that such an idea should be abandoned for specific reasons. 4. by creating a channel, allow the next tsunami and cyclones to devastate the coastline south and west of Rama Setu so that the thorium reserves will get lost into the mid-ocean making it difficult and expensive to retrieve the strategic mineral. This is geopolitics in action with the world's supercop calling the shots. Deal? What deal? Read Dr. Prasad's views on how the much-publicised thorium as the sheet anchor of Bharatam's nuclear strategy has been given the short shrift. Is there someone out there caring about preserving nation's wealth and not allow it to be looted or desiccated? Will the nation's energy independence goal by fast-tracking thorium-based reactors which have been highlighted by the brilliant work of scientist Jagannathan, by Dr. Baldev Raj of DAE and by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam be facilitated by the nuke deal? Govt. of India has to answer the question. Of course, the policy makers and legislators have to raise the question, in the first place and enforce an answer. Who will bell the cat? I don't think the Communit legislators will do it because they will find a Hegelian dialectic to support the deal. I suppose it has to be done by the likes of Dr. Prasad who have contributed so much to the nation's nuke power status. kalyan Nuclear deal: India has no leverage *A N Prasad | *August 06, 2007 | 18:53 IST Ever since it was released on August 3, the much-awaited text of the India-United States nuclear deal has been profusely commented upon and covered in the media. It is obvious the text has tried to accommodate diverging interests and constraints of both the parties by clever use of language -- to give an illusory impression that the concerns are duly reflected. For the sake of public comfort, both parties are saying loudly that they are free to hold on to their respective rights and legal positions. It means hardly anything as far as India is concerned. Up against the Hyde Act standing like a Rock of Gibraltar, India has no leverage to force any of the issues during the innumerable consultations suggested in the text. In fact, our case was compromised to a large extent when this American act was passed, our prime minister's assurances to the contrary notwithstanding. We are now in effect reduced to a mere recipient State mandated by the Hyde Act to carry out a set of dos and don'ts and to strive to earn a good behaviour report card to become eligible to continue receiving what the Americans can offer. In the process, slowly but surely, they can gain control and remotely drive our nuclear programmes in the long run. This deal, through the Hyde Act, gives far too many opportunities to penetrate deep into and interfere even in our three-stage programme to slow down the realisation of our goal of harnessing our vast resources 161 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 162. of thorium for long-term energy security. Two points in support of this, which have largely missed notice: *One*, the revelation by Nicholas Burns, US under secretary of state during his interview to the Council on Foreign Relations: 'It had been an easy quot;strategicquot; choice for Washington when faced with the question -- should we isolate India for the next 35 years or bring it in partially now (*under safeguards inspection*) and nearly totally in the future.' *Two*, Article 16.2 of the text says the 123 Agreement shall remain in force for a period of 40 years and at the end of this initial period each party may terminate by giving six month's notice. There is no in- built provision for terminating before 40 years even if we were to suffer for any reason in the implementation of the deal. These 40 years are expected to cover the period by which we intend to take thorium utilisation to a commercial reality. A coincidence? It is naive to judge the merits of the deal based purely on the language of the text. The underlying undercurrents and intentions of the controlling party are important and cannot be wished away as hypothetical or as their internal matter when they do actually have serious repercussions on our long-term interests. There has been a careful balancing of US commercial interests with the goal of bringing India into the non-proliferation hold, an American obsession ever since the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty came into existence in 1970. There have been overt suggestions in the Hyde Act to the American administration to not only attempt to cap but also try to eventually roll back our strategic programme and report to the US Congress. Try they will; but whether we are smart enough to thwart their designs or they manage to succeed -- given the tremendous access they get through this deal is something time will tell. Let me turn to some of the most contentious issues that have not been satisfactorily resolved. *Reprocessing* This has been stated to be the most hotly debated issue. Let me therefore deal with it in some detail in simple terms to put things in perspective. Reprocessing is at the core of our three-stage nuclear power programme. It is the interface between the first and the second stage and again between the second and the third stage. In the first step, it facilitates extracting plutonium from the spent uranium fuel and feeding to the fast breeder reactors in the second stage as fuel -- where thorium fuel is also introduced. When thorium is converted into fissile uranium in the fast reactors, the same is extracted by reprocessing to be fed into third stage reactors where large-scale thorium utilisation occurs. It was once estimated that with the limited resources of uranium in the country more than 350,000 MW of electricity could be produced through thorium utilisation, ensuring long-term energy security. The steady progress India is making with starting the construction of the first 500 Mwe prototype fast breeder reactor is an envy of many in the advanced world. Recognising the key role of reprocessing, development activities were started as early as 1959 -- much before even the first nuclear power reactor became operational at Tarapur in 1969. While the first power reactor was imported from the US, the first reprocessing facility was built entirely through indigenous efforts and went into operation in 1965. The irony is, the US -- knowing fully well our four decades of experience in reprocessing and aware of its importance in our three-stage programme -- has sought to create impediments and make us beg for reprocessing consent, that too after accepting us as strategic partner. What hypocrisy! Should we call this nuclear cooperation or non-cooperation? Is it not obvious that their intention is to place hurdles on our thorium-utilisation programme right from the beginning? In fact, even though there is what is called a fast reactor nuclear fuel cycle, not a word is mentioned in the Agreement on fast- reactor cooperation. The text calls for all future fast breeder reactors to be put under the civilian list for applying safeguards in perpetuity -- just because plutonium extracted from imported uranium spent fuel is fed into these reactors. It is a pity our negotiators have chosen not to pursue extending the cooperation into the area of fast reactors at least to the extent that we should be able to access the international 162 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 163. market for equipment and components which otherwise have to be produced by Indian industry with considerable effort The way the reprocessing issue has been resolved certainly does not give any comfort. What has been agreed to is consent in principle, with the arrangements and procedures to be agreed in the future. Having offered a dedicated facility for reprocessing imported fuel, we should have got unconditional upfront consent to be made effective on satisfactory conclusion of safeguards. The intent of the American legislation is to deny reprocessing rights to NPT countries that don't already have this technology. We cannot be equated with Japan, which Burns reportedly said has been used as a model for resolving this issue. I can say from personal knowledge that Japan was totally unhappy in dealing with the US while negotiating procedures and arrangements in the late 1970s for their reprocess. 163 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 164. Annex 23 An overview of world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration and forecast for thorium requirements in the near future Jayaram, K.M.V. (Department of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India). Atomic Minerals Div.) Abstract Thorium occurs in association with uranium and rare earth elements in diverse rock types. It occurs as veins of thorite, uranothorite and monazite in granites, syenites and pegmatites. Monazite also occurs in quartz-pebble conglomerates, sandstones and fluviatile and beach placers. Thorium occurs along with REE in bastnaesite, in the carbonatites. Present knowledge of the thorium resources in the world is poor because of inadequate exploration efforts arising out of insignificant demand. But, with the increased interest shown by several countries in the development of Fast Breeder Reactors using thorium, it is expected that the demand will increase considerably by the turn of the century. The total known world reserves of Th in RAR category are estimated at about 1.16 million tonnes. About 31% of this (0.36 mt) is known to be available in the beach and inland placers of India. The possibility of finding primary occurrences in the alkaline and other acidic rocks is good, in India. The other countries having sizeable reserves are Brazil, Canada, China, Norway, U.S.S.R., U.S.A., Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey and Sri Lanka. Considering that the demand for thorium is likely to increase by the turn of this century, it is necessary that data collected so far, globally, is pooled and analysed to identify areas that hold good promise. Reference: Proceedings of a technical committee meeting on utilization of thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives held in Vienna, 2-4 December 1985 International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria) IAEA-TECDOC--412, pp:8-21 http://hinduthought.googlepages.com/thoriumdeposits.pdf The accumulation of thorium reserves of India is party attributed to the reworking of beachsands by seawaves (almost like a cyclotron or sieving operation to remove small stones from fresh husked paddy by women in India) given the nature of the ocean currents and the Rama Setu (Adam’s bridge) acting as a barrier to the ocean currents inducing countercurrents. Views of Prof. Rajamanickam, geomorphologist and mineralogist: “The coast between Nagapattinam to Nagore, Nagore to Poompuhar, Colachal and Madras were the places where the strong impact from the Tsunami was noticed. These were also the places where a high order of ilmenites was found soon after the Tsunami. For example in the Nagore coast, the pre- Tsunami heavy mineral content of 14 per cent jumped to 70 per cent of ilmenites after the Tsunami.” http://soma-fish.net/stories.php?story=05/08/14/4004215 Monazite, a radioactive material, contains 3 to 7% thorium by weight. Ilmenite less radioactive, contains .05% thorium. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3186552 164 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 165. Chavara mineral division, India Rare Earths Limited. Corporate office: Plot No.1207,Veer Savakar Marg, Near Siddhi Vinayak Temple, Prabhadevi,Mumbai - 400 028 +91 22 24382042/ 24211630/ 24211851, 24220230 FAX +91 22 24220236 Major Activity : Mining and separation of Heavy Minerals like, Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Sillimanite, Garnet and Monazite from beach sand. Also engaged in chemical processing of Monazite to yield Thorium compounds, Rare Earth Chlorides and Tri-Sodium Phosphate. Dr. S. Suresh Kumar, Head Tel. No: (0476) 268 0701 – 05 Located 10 Km north of Kollam, 85 Km from Thiruvananthapuram capital of Kerala and 135 Km by road from Kochi is perhaps blessed with the best mineral sand deposit of the country.The plant operates on a mining area containing as high as 40% heavy minerals and extending over a length of 23 Km in the belt of Neendakara and Kayamkulam. The deposit is quite rich with respect to ilmenite, rutile and zircon and the mineral-ilmenite happens to be of weathered variety analyzing 60% TiO2. The present annual production capacity of Chavara unit engaged in dry as well as wet (dredging/ up-gradation) mining and mineral separation stands at 1,54,000t of ilmenite, 9,500t of rutile, 14,000t of zircon and 7,000t of sillimanite. In addition the plant has facilities for annual production of ground zircon called zirflor (-45 micron) and microzir (1-3 micron) of the order of 6,000t and 500t respectively. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm MANAVALAKURICHI (MK) MINERAL DIVISION: Plant is situated 25 Kms north of Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin), the southern most tip of the Indian sub-continent. All weather major seaport Tuticorin and the nearest airport at Thiruvananthapuram are equidistant, about 65 kms from the plant site. Nagercoil at a distance of about 18 kms from the plant, is the closest major Railway station. MK plant annually produces about 90,000t ilmenite of 55%. TiO2 grade, 3500t rutile and 10,000t zircon in addition to 3000t monazite and 10,000t garnet based primarily on beach washing supplied by fishermen of surrounding five villages. IREL has also mining lease of mineral rich areas wherein raw sand can be made available in large quantities through dredging operation. In addition to mining and minerals separation, the unit has a chemical plant to add value to zircon in the form of zircon frit and other zirconium based chemicals in limited quantities. RARE EARTHS DIVISION (RED) Aluva: Unlike the three units of IREL as described earlier, RED is an exclusively value adding chemical plant wherein the mineral monazite produced by MK, is chemically treated to separate thorium as hydroxide upgrade and rare earths in its composite chloride form. It is located on the banks of river Periyar at a distance of 12 Km by road from Kochi. This plant was made operational way back in 1952 to take on processing of 1400t of monazite every year. However over the years, the capacity of the plant was gradually augmented to treat about 3600t of monazite. Elaborate solvent extraction and ion exchange facilities were built up to produce individual R.E. oxides, like oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr and La in adequate purities. Today RED has built up large stock pile of impure thorium hydroxide upgrade associated with rare earths and unreacted materials. Henceforth, RED proposes to treat this hydroxide upgrade rather than fresh monazite to convert thorium into pure oxalate and rare earth as two major fractions namely Ce oxide and Ce oxide free rare earth chloride. 165 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 166. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm#MK The total known world reservesof Thi nRA R category are estimated at about 1.16 million tonnes. About 31% of this (0.36 mt) is known to be available in the beach and inland placers of India…Prior to the second world war thorium was used widely in the manufacture of gas mantles, welding rods, refractories andin magnesium based alloys .Its use as fuel in nuclear energy, in spite of its limited demand as of now and low forecast, is gaining importance because of its transmutation to 233 u. Several countries like India, Russia, France and U.K. have shown considerable interest in the development of fast breeder reactors (FBR) anditisexpected thatbytheturnof this century someofthe countries would have started commissioning large capacity units… Beach sands: Although monazite occurs associated with ilmenite and beach sands, skirting the entire Peninsular India, its economic concentration is confined to only some areas where suitable physiographic conditions exist.The west coast placers are essentially beachorbarrier deposits with development of dunes where aeolin action is prominent in dry months… Origin of West Coast deposits: …The deposits are formed in four successive stages:(i) lateritisation of gneissic complexes, (ii) successive mountain uplift and simultaneous seaward shift of strand line., (iii) reworking of the beach sands by sea waves, which rise often to a height of 3m.in 12s.period and (iv) littoral drift caused by the breaking of thewaves faraway from the shore and consequent northerly movement of lighter minerals along the reflected waves… In Manavalakurchi, Tamil Nadu, the depositis formed by the quot;southerly tilt of the tip of the peninsula [9] aided by seasonal variation of sea currents, both in direction and magnitude [Udas, G.R.,Jayaram, K.M.V., Ramachandran, M and Sankaran,R.,Beach sand placer deposits of the world vs. Indian deposits. Plant maintenance and import substitution.1978.35.] … The reasonably assured resources of thorium in India, form about 31% of the world's estimated deposits.The reserves could have been several times more if systematic surveys are carried out… http://www.iaea.org/inis/aws/fnss/fulltext/0412_1.pdf Indian ocean currents both east to west and counter currents result in a churning operation and consequent deposition of heavy minerals such as thorium or titanium. 166 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 167. +This is a colour version of Figure 11.3 of Regional Oceanography: an Introduction by M. Tomczak and S. J. Godfrey (Pergamon Press, New York 1994, 422 p.). http://www.lei.furg.br/ocfis/mattom/regoc/text/11circ.html http://maritime.haifa.ac.il/departm/lessons/ocean/wwr205.gif This map shows the unique phenomenon of two ocean currents in two opposing direcions operating like a cyclotron/sieve to isolate heavier minerals with heavy atomic weights such as Thorium 232 and Titanium. 167 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

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