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  1. 1. Rama Setu to Cochi: strategic security zone National security imperative is that coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi should be declared as Strategic Security Zone; under the direct control of India’s armed forces. The coastal sands of this coast contains (1) 32% of the world’s thorium reserves vital for nuclear energy program and (2) also titanium, a space age metal. Setusamudram channel project has internationalized the historic waters (recognized under UN Law of the Sea, 1958) in Gulf of Mannar and jeopardised rights commonly, historically enjoyed by India and Srilanka with serious consequences to national sovereignty and integrity. (USA refuses to recognize the ‘historic waters’ declaration of India and Srilanka and operationally asserted the refusal by sending warships to Gulf of Mannar in 1994, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002). The recent reports of export of coastal sands containing strategic minerals have highlighted the strategic security implications if the coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi is not immediately protected by India’s Defence forces. This coastal zone contains in just three villages (Manavalakurichi of Tamil Nadu and Aluva, Chavara of Kerala) 32% of the world’s thorium reserves. The urgent demand, in view of the present and imminent danger to India’s national security and reported exports of sands containing strategic minerals, is that: • An immediate notification be issued by the President of India, banning the private leases of coastal sands and declaring these as national treasure to be protected and used only indigenously to support the nation’s strategic nuclear and space programs. • Considering the national security imperative, the entire coastal zone between Rama Setu and Cochi with titanium-containing sands and the world’s largest reserves of thorium containing sands (called ilmenite, monazite, rutile, garnet, zircon) should be declared as Strategic Security zone and brought under the direct security control of the Joint Command of the Indian Army, Navy and Airforce. See court papers related to alleged export of the coastal sands from this coastal zone at http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ There are four places on earth which are the target for exploitation of the richest mineral resources on earth: Manavalakurichi, Tamil Nadu Chavara, Kerala Chatrapur, Orissa Pulmoddai, Sri Lanka These four locations have coastal sands containing ilmenite and monazite among other minerals. Ilmenite and Monazite sands yield Titanium and Thorium. In his speech to the Parliament in March 2007, the President of India said that the current electricity generation capacity in India is 120000 MW and is expected to increase to 400000 MW by the year 2030. Bhaba Atomic Research Center (BARC) estimates that about 30 % of world's thorium deposits, or about 225000 tons of thorium, are found on the beaches of Kerala. This will support about 387 years of electricity generation at 2030 capacity levels! http://www.ivarta.com/columns/OL_070508.htm Ilmenite Sand export from Tuticorin port increased from 0.21 lakh tonnes in 2000-01 to 0.62 lakh tonnes in 2001-02 registering an increase of 195.24%. http://www.tamilnadunri.com/docs/tn/infrastructure/TuticorinPort.doc 1 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  2. 2. Similar exports of strategic mineral sands occur from Pulmoddai (near Trincomalee) in Srilanka which is now under LTTE control. This leads to a possibility that the Setu channel as a mid-ocean passage is likely to be used such export operatives, particularly after it gets recognized as international waters under pressure from USA. Annex 1 Protect Rama Setu, the historic and holy monument: Statement issued by Shri. V.R.Krishna Iyer former Supreme Court Judge on 14 August 2007 Annex 2 Rama Setu in richest thorium coast of the world Annex 3 Geological and Mineral map of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, 1995 Scale 1: 500,000 (Published by Director General, Geological Survey of India) Annex 4 Needed: Mines and minerals regulatory authority of India Annex 5 Why Thorium? Annex 6 Notice sent to Secy., DAE, Govt. of India and Hon’ble PM of India Annex 7 First Information Report and related court papers (19 pages) may be downloaded from: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ Annex 8 Failure to protect thorium and Ramsetu (intertwined earth science phenomena) Annex 9 Former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: thorium for energy independence Annex 10 1st thorium unit in India soon Annex 11 India's importance in global nuclear renaissance up: Chidambaram Annex 12 RSS for use of thorium deposits Annex 13 A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India Annex 14 Foreign firms interested in India’s thorium deposits Annex 15 Fast-breeder reactors more important for India Annex 16 Design and development of the AHWR—the Indian thorium fuelled innovative nuclear reactor Annex 17 Thorium: UIC Briefing Paper # 67 Annex 18 Sensitivity analysis for AHWR fuel cluster parameters using different WIMS Annex 19 Role of small and medium-sized reactors Annex 20 India's nuclear power programme moves ahead Annex 21 Nuclear power using thorium Annex 22 SLN ship under siege off Pulmoddai coast Annex 23 An overview of world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration and forecast for thorium requirements in the near future (KMV Jayaram) S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D. Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank, Director, Sarasvati Research Centre, 3 Temple Avenue, Chennai 600015 kalyan97@gmail.com 4 September 2007 2 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  3. 3. Annex 1 Protect Rama Setu, the historic and holy monument: Statement issued by Shri. V.R.Krishna Iyer former Supreme Court Judge on 14 August 2007 According to Mr.Cardoze, famous U.S legal luminary, ''Means un lawful in their inception do not become lawful by relation when suspicion turns in to discovery.'' These words come to me when I talk of the Sethusamudaram Canel Project. The callousness with which such a big project is conceptualized and implemented is an unpardonable act. First of all I would like to state that neither I nor any patriotic citizen could support this project. It is a serious fault that neither scientists, technocrats nor Indian Navy had been consulted and sought their opinions before this project was conceptualized. More over the project is an open challenge to age old Hindu beliefs. At least the opinion that the implementation of this project as envisaged now may lead to oceanic eruptions like Tsunami should be considered and studied. According Shri Kalyanaraman, the reputed researcher, this project would invite disasters like Tsunami to our southern coast and pose as a threat to the valuable mineral sand deposits along this coast. Unlike in the case of Suez Canal, this canal penetrates deep in to the seabed. All this testifies that the construction of the canal is unwarranted. I suspect that the haste with which the project is proposed to be completed, ignoring the welfare and progress of he people of India may be to further the interests of countries like America. About this I had send an emergency message to our Hon. Prime Minister. What ever it maybe, it is the duty of every Indian to see that this historic and holy monument is protected. With out succumbing to the pressures from foreign forces all should strongly oppose this project. I call upon each Indian to come forward and fight for such an important cause with out compromise. Malayalam original; Sd. VR Krishna Iyer Letter of Hon'ble V.R . Krishna Iyer (Former Judge, Supreme Court) to Hon'ble Prime Minister of India. http://hinduthought.googlepages.com/krishnaiyer13april2007.jpg/krishnaiyer13april 2007-full.jpg Paper attached to Hon'ble VR Krishna Iyer's letter http://rapidshare.com/files/26060268/pilsupremecourtramsethu1.doc.html 3 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  4. 4. Annex 2 Rama Setu in richest thorium coast of the world http://kalyan97.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/monazitemap1.jpg http://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/08/29/581/ Resources map: Geology and minerals, Geological Survey of India (Based upon Survey of India toposheet No. 58H First Edition 1969) Explanatory note: Mineral resources (heavy minerals – beach placers) Heavy mineral concentrations (including ilmenite, rutile, garnet and monazite) occur in beach sands as localized pockets along the east coast and between Kolachel and Kanniyakumari on the west coast over a distance of nearly 75 km. Significant concentration occurs between Vattakottai and Lipuram and the famous Manavalakurichi deposit, which extends over a length of 5 to 6 km. With a width of 3 to 5 m from the mouth of Valliyur River. The beach placers on an average contain 45 to 55% ilmenite, 7 to 14% garnet, 4 to 5% zircon, 3 to 4% monazite. 2 to 3% sillimanite, 2 to 3% rutile, 0.5 to 1% leucoxene and 10 to 25% others, including silica. (Database 1984) 4 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  5. 5. Annex 3 Geological and Mineral map of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, 1995 Scale 1: 500,000 (Published by Director General, Geological Survey of India) 5 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  6. 6. Annex 4 Needed: Mines and minerals regulatory authority of India With the privatisation of mines in 2002, there is an urgency to create a Mines and Minerals Regulatory Authority of India, particularly for strategic minerals. Strategic minerals are monazite, ilmenite and rutile sands which contain thorium and titanium. Titanium is a space age mineral; thorium is the mainstay of the nation’s nuclear program with the potential to make the nation energy independent. Minerals policy is coming up for discussion in the Parliament in the current session (from August 2007). This issue of national security and sovereignty and the imperative of attaining a developed nation status will necessitate the conservation of the mineral wealth of the nation and NOT allow it to be looted for temporary gains. For example, instead of merely producing titanium oxide in the Tata plants at Sattankulam (Tamilnadu) or Chattarpur (Orissa) using the mineral placer deposit sands, there should be plants to produce thorium and titanium metals and reserve them for the nation’s strategic development imperatives. Some notes follow which will have an impact on development of SEZs ensuring sustainable development for an essentially agrarian nation living in over 6 lakh villages. Thorium has been extracted chiefly from monazite through a multi-stage process. In the first stage, the monazite sand is dissolved in an inorganic acid such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4). In the second, the Thorium is extracted into an organic phase containing an amine. Next it is separated or quot;strippedquot; using an anion such as nitrate, chloride, hydroxide, or carbonate, returning the thorium to an aqueous phase. Finally, the thorium is precipitated and collected. Source: Crouse, David; Brown, Keith (December 1959). quot;The Amex Process for Extracting Thorium Ores with Alkyl Aminesquot;.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 51 (12): 1461. Retrieved on 2007- 03-09 K.M.V. Jayaram. An Overview of World Thorium Resources, Incentives for Further Exploration and Forecast for Thorium Requirements in the Near Future Mirror: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/thoriumdeposits/ Under the prevailing estimate, Australia and India have particularly large reserves of thorium. Thorium reserves: Australia 300,000 India 290,000 Norway 170,000 United States 160,000 Canada 100,000 South Africa 35,000 Brazil 16,000 Malaysia 4,500 Other Countries 95,000 1,200,000 World Total 6 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  7. 7. Source: US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries (1997-2006); ^ U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries - Thorium. Information and Issue Briefs - Thorium. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved on 2006-11-01. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium Vanishing thorium and nuke deal; are they interlinked? Of course, according to scientists, the accumulation of placer deposits is substantially contributed by Rama Setu acting as a sieve and the unique pattern of ocean currents in Hindumahaasaagar. Who will take care of the nation's wealth so essential to the nation's nuke programme? 7 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  8. 8. Annex 5 Why Thorium? -India has 1/3 of the world's reserves of Thorium Thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium or plutonium reactors. Thorium comes out of the ground as a 100% pure, usable isotope, which does not require enrichment, whereas natural uranium contains only 0.7% fissionable U235. http://www.indembassyathens.gr/India- nuclear%20energy/India_nuclear%20energy_thorium.htm http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/scripts98/9820/thoriumscpt.htm A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that consumes fissile and fertile material at the same time as it creates new fissile material. Production of fissile material in a reactor occurs by neutron irradiation of fertile material, particularly Uranium-238 and Thorium-232. In a breeder reactor, these materials are deliberately provided, either in the fuel or in a breeder blanket surrounding the core, or most commonly in both. Production of fissile material takes place to some extent in the fuel of all current commercial nuclear power reactors. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breeder_reactor The present status of various fuel-resources in India is given in the table 1. The domestic mineable coal (about 38 BT) and the estimated hydrocarbon reserves (about 12 BT) together may provide about 1200 EJ of energy. The electricity potential from thorium-metal in breeders is shown as 155,502 GWe- yr. This metal alone has the potential to ensure energy independence for India. Thus, the conservation and safeguarding of the thorium reserves becomes a strategic responsibility. Table 1: Primary energy & electricity resources Electricity Amount Thermal energy potential EJ TWh GWYr GWe-Yr Fossil Coal 38 -BT 667 185,279 21,151 7,614 Hydrocarbon 12 -BT 511 141,946 16,204 5,833 Non-Fossil Nuclear Uranium-Metal 61,000 -T In PHWRs 28.9 7,992 913 328 In Fast breeders 3,699 1,027,616 117,308 42,231 Thorium-Metal 2,25,000 -T In Breeders 13,622 3,783,886 431,950 155,502 Renewable Hydro 150 -GWe 6.0 1,679 192 69 Non-conventional renewable 100 -GWe 2.9 803 92 33 Assumptions for Potential Calculations 8 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  9. 9. Fossil 1. Complete Source is used for calculating electricity potential with a thermal efficiency of 0.36. 2. Calorific Values: Coal: 4,200 kcal/kg, Hydrocarbon: 10,200 kcal/kg. 3. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas [7]has set strategic goals for the next two decades (2001-2020) of ‘doubling reserve accretion’ to 12 BT (Oil + Oil equivalent gas) and “improving recovery factor’ to the order of 40%. Considering the fact that exploration is a dynamic process and India is one of the les explored countries, reference [3] assumes that cumulative availability of hydrocarbons up to 2052 will be 12 BT. Non-Fossil Thermal energy is the equivalent fossil energy required to produce electricity with a thermal efficiency of 0.36. Nuclear 1. PHWR burn-up = 6,700 MWd/T of U-oxide, thermal efficiency 0.29 2. It has been assumed that complete fission of 1kg. of fissile material gives 1000 MWd of thermal energy. Fast reactor thermal efficiency is assumed to be 42%. Fast breeders can use 60% of the Uranium. This is an indicative number. Actual value will be determined as one proceeds with the programme and gets some experience. Even if it is half of this value the scenario presented does not change. 3. Breeders can use 60% Thorium with thermal efficiency 42%. At this stage, type of reactors wherein thorium will be used are yet to be decided. The numbers are only indicative. Hydro 1. Name plate capacity is 150 GWe. 2. Estimated hydro- potential of 600 billion kWh and name plate capacity of 150,000 MWe gives a capacity factor of 0.46. Non-conventional renewable 1. Includes: Wind 45 GWe, Small Hydro 15 GWe, Biomass Power/ Co-generation 19.5 GWe and Waste to Energy 1.7 GWe etc. 2. Capacity factor of 0.33 has been assumed for potential calculations. http://www.dae.gov.in/iaea/ak-paris0305.doc 9 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  10. 10. Annex 6 Notice sent to Secy., DAE, Govt. of India and Hon’ble PM of India http://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/08/31/ Chennai, 31 August 2007 To: Secretary, DAE, Govt. of India, New Delhi Dr. Anil Kakodkar Fax. 02222048476 Cc: Prime Minister of India, Hon’ble Dr. Manmohan Singh 01123019545 Fax. 01123016857 cc: Principal Scientific Adviser, 01123022113 Re: Alleged export of sands containing thorium from the richest nuclear material coastline of the world The coastline between Rama Setu (Rameshwaram) and Cochin constitutes the richest nuclear material coastline of the world yielding thorium (nuclear mineral) and titanium (space age mineral). Both these are strategic for the nation’s development and to achieve India Vision 2020 with energy independence (avoidance of dependence upon imported uranium by developing thorium-based breeder reactors) and autonomous space development programmes. In India, both Kakrapar-1 and - 2 units are loaded with 500 kg of thorium fuel in order to improve their operation when newly-started. Thorium occurs in several minerals, the most common being the rare earth-thorium-phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium oxide, but average 6-7%...There are also reports of loss of thorium from Indian Rare Earths Limited stocks. Destruction of Rama Setu will severely impact the accumulation of such placer deposits of rare earths and next tsunami through the mid-ocean channel will devastate the placer deposits and move them, almost irretrievably, into the depths of the ocean. I am bringing this to the notice of Govt. of India under Section 26 of the Atomic Energy Act 1962 and other sections detailed below, a cognizable offence related to stockpiling/trading in nuclear minerals containing monazite and ilmenite/rutile/garnet placer deposits along Tamilnadu and Kerala coast (Manavalakurichi, Aluva, Chavara and other places such as Sattankulam where titanium dioxide plant is sought to be set up using sands which also contain thorium 233/urainin 233). Uranium-233 is a fissile artificial isotope of uranium, which is proposed as a nuclear fuel. It has a half-life of 160,000 years. Uranium-233 is produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium-232. When thorium-232 absorbs a neutron, it becomes thorium-233, which has a half-life of only 22 minutes. Thorium-233 decays into protactinium-233 through beta decay. Protactinium-233 has a half life of 27 days and beta decays into uranium-233. Hence, thorium in monazite, ilmenite and other coastal placer deposits is a mineral as defined in the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. Since thorium is vital for the nation’s atomic energy program and for achieving energy independence, Govt. of India should advice on the steps proposed to be taken to conserve and protect these stockpiles of nuclear deposits. Yours sincerely, S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D., Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank, Director, Sarasvati Research Centre, Chennai 600015 kalyan97@gmail.com 31 August 2007 10 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  11. 11. http://justsamachar.com/local/7/vaikundarajan-gets-preventive-bail/ Brief summary in English of Tamil news report: Vaikundarajan, owner of VV Minerals gets and his two brothers Jegadeesan and Chandresan, were granted anticipatory bail by Madurai Bench of Madras HC (Justice Rajasuria). He is exporting, without Govrnment permission, nuclear deposits in coastal sands of Tuticorin, Kanyakkumari coasts. }, ”z }  ி ¶t” «} ீ }!! ˆy 28, 2007 http://thatstamil.oneindia.in/Pictures/images_02/vaikundarajasn.jpg ¢ : œ ி ி} u”  ”z } „ ிy 3  ீ¢   t y{} … ~y t ƒ «} ீ} u ~ yž„ ¢. £{¢t”œ y , t }y v | ி. ி. ƒ } ¾  ”z }.  ƒ , £{¢t”œ, } ி ”¾ yt ‚ ிƒ § ிƒ ƒ „ ி ¯|¢   t t ¢ ~ ி¾{¢ ி ž ¶t” ‚² €¢ | . ƒ  tƒ y ƒ« „ ி ´ t . | « y ிƒ ƒ t ž | €¢ | ”z §t”, « y |º} ž ‚ y ¢.  ீ ¢, ƒ , £{¢t”œ, } ி ”¾ yt ‚ ிƒ } § ிƒ ƒ ¢ ž{¢ ி¾{¢ ி‚ ி {¢ ¢ t”  ” ¾ y { ”‚ ~ ி¾º ீ ƒ©  ž{ . } ¾ƒ   t y{} … ”z }, ¢ „ ீ} ‚² | }  ீ¢ t”~ º € ~ y ¢. ¢ ² u ிƒ { ¢ }, ிœ{¢ ி ¾t º «œº € ¢. ž{¢ ¢2 ி¶}  ”z . «} ீ} ¾ „ ¢ ீ }t ிƒ § tƒ € . 11 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  12. 12. | § ி ¾{ ீ }t ீ ™ ,3 ¯t” «} ீ} ி{¢ { ிy . ´ } ீ¢ ~y t „¶ œ € zž }² ”z } ‚ § tƒ € ¯| . | § ­ ி ¾{ ீ ™ }” u ¶t”{ „ ி {¢ , { ிy . http://justsamachar.com/local/7/vaikundarajan-gets-preventive-bail/ News report in the New Indian Express of August 11, 2007 Vaikundarajan directed to surrender in court Friday August 10 2007 09:18 IST MADURAI: Vaikundarajan, owner of V V Minerals and a shareholder of Jaya TV, was on Thursday, directed by the Madurai Bench of the High Court to surrender at Eraniel court. The bench also allowed the police to question him for two days. Vaikundarajan had filed 20 petitions seeking anticipatory bail. The petitions came up for hearing before Justice G Rajasuria. The judge observed that the police had doubts as to where the sand was sent as it contained nuclear deposits. Vaikundarajan has claimed that he was not aware of the fact that the sand he mined contained nuclear particles. The judge said that the case was significant because of the nuclear content in the sand. http://tinyurl.com/33nc8t Vaikundarajan’s office premises raided Staff Reporter (The Hindu, August 20, 2007) He is facing the charge of having quarried thorium-rich sand — Photo: A. Shaikmohideen http://www.thehindu.com/2007/08/20/images/2007082057461001.jpg C. Sridar, Superintendent of Police, Tirunelveli (left) and Additional Superintendent Muthusamy conducting a raid in the office of V.V. Minerals at Keeraikkaranthattu in Tirunelveli district on Sunday. TIRUNELVELI: The police raided the factory and office premises of Subbiah Vaikundarajan at Keeraikaaranthattu near Thisaiyanvilai on Sunday in a case of alleged export of sand rich in thorium, a radioactive material, to foreign countries. 12 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  13. 13. Revenue Department officials of Kanyakumari district seized six sand-laden lorries at Meignanapuram. After analyzing the sample, they found that the sand contained “considerable quantity” of thorium, which cannot be exported by individuals to foreign countries. As export of thorium in any form is punishable under the Atomic Energy Commission Act, Deputy Director (Mines) Manimaran registered a case against Mr. Vaikundarajan, a leading garnet exporter. When the officials filed case against Mr. Vaikundarajan for allegedly quarrying the thorium-rich sand, he challenged it in the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court, contending that the Tamil Nadu police could not register a case relating to supposed violation of the Atomic Energy Commission Act. Dismissing his plea on August 9, the court told Mr. Vaikundarajan to surrender before a court and that the police would be free to take him into custody for interrogation. However, there was no progress in the case, as the garnet exporter failed to surrender before any court, and the police has spread a dragnet for him. The team, led C. Sridar, Superintendent of Police, Tirunelveli, and Additional Superintendent of Police Muthusamy, sifted through documents and other files in the office of V.V. Minerals at Keeraikaaranthattu, and seized some files and computers. When the police came out of the office premises, factory workers tried to block their vehicles. Some workers pelted the vehicles with stones. P. Kannappan, Deputy Inspector General of Police, Tirunelveli Range, came to Thisaiyanvilai shortly before 3.30 p.m. and held discussions with the officials who conducted the raid, examined the documents seized and the data stored in the computers. http://www.thehindu.com/2007/08/20/stories/2007082057461000.htm I am not an enemy of DMK: Vaikundarajan (The Hindu, August 23, 2007) CHENNAI: S. Vaikundarajan of V.V. Minerals, facing charges in several cases, on Wednesday said he was neither against the ruling Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party nor an “enemy” of Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi. He was well aware that as a businessman it would be difficult to work against the Government and appealed to his well wishers not to politicise the case against him. Mr. Vaikundarajan is a shareholder of Jaya TV. — Special Correspondent http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/23/stories/2007082353620400.htm Police raid Jaya TV partner’s office 13 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  14. 14. Madurai, August 20: Police have carried out raids at the factory and office premises of V V Minerals, owned by Jaya TV shareholder R Vaikundarajan, facing charges of illegal mining of thorium, in Tirunelveli district, about 200 km from here. Police today said they had seized several documents and computer hard discs during the raid at Keeraikaranthattu yesterday, but declined to give more details, adding the materials needed to be analysed. An official of the V V Minerals claimed that the police had seized only some of the award certificates won by the company and described the raid as an abuse of power. The police team faced some resistance from employees of the company when they came out of the office after the raid. A police vehicle was pelted with stones and slogans were raised against police for filing quot;false case against Vaikundarajanquot;. They also heckled police for quot;trying to trace proof after filing the casequot;. A case was registered in June last under the Atomic Energy Act against Vaikundarajan and his company after Kanyakumari district revenue officials found that sand transported by the company contained thorium and monosite. On August 9 last, the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court, directing Vaikundarajan to surrender in the case while dismissing his plea to quash the FIR, had posed a series of questions about the nature of exports done by V V Minerals and whether they were actually usable in atomic energy production. The court also asked whether the police had any proof that the company exported sand to an atomic firm and whether the sand actually contained thorium. It had said police could take Vaikundarajan into custody for further investigations. However, Vaikundarajan has so far not surrendered before any court and the police had spread a dragnet for him. V V Minerals had contended they exported only sand for extraction of garnet and they were innocent. They alleged that police were harassing them because Vaikundarajan was a Jaya TV partner. (Agencies) Published: Monday, August 20, 2007 http://tinyurl.com/2uxng7 ATOMIC ENERGY ACT 1962 NO. 33 OF 1962 26. Cognizance of offences (1) All offences under this Act shall be cognizable under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898, but no action shall be taken in respect of any person for any offence under this Act except on the basis of a written complaint made - 14 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  15. 15. (a) in respect of contravention of section 8, 14 or 17 or any rule or order made thereunder, by the person authorised to exercise powers of entry and inspection; (b) in respect of any other contravention, by a person duly authorised to make such complaints by the Central Government. 2. Definition and Interpretation (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) quot;atomic energyquot; means energy released from atomic nuclei as a result of any process, including the fission and fusion processes; (b) quot;fissile materialquot; means uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium or any material containing these substances or any other material that may be declared as such by notification by the Central Government; (c) quot;mineralsquot; include all substances obtained or obtaining from the soil (including alluvium or rocks) by underground or surface working… 8. Power of entry and inspection (1) Any person authorised by the Central Government may, on producing, if so required, a duly authenticated document showing his authority, enter any mine, premises or land - (a) where he has reason to believe that work is being carried out for the purpose of or in connection with production and processing of any prescribed substances or substances from which a prescribed substance can be obtained or production, development or use of atomic energy or research into matters connected therewith, or (b) where any such plant as is mentioned in clause (b) of section 7 is situated, and may inspect the mine, premises or land and any articles contained therein. (2) The person carrying out the inspection may make copies of or extracts from any drawing, plan or other document found in the mine, premises or land and for the purpose of making such copies or extracts, may remove any such drawing, plan or other document after giving a duly signed receipt for the same and retain possession thereof for a period not exceeding seven days… 10. Compulsory aquisition of rights to work minerals (1) Where it appears to the Central Government that any minerals from which in its opinion any of the prescribed substances can be obtained are present inor any land, either in a natural state or in a deposit of waste material obtained from any underground or surface working, it may be order provide for compulsorily vesting in the Central Government the exclusive right, so long as the order remains in force, to work those minerals and any other minerals which it appears to the Central Government to be necessary to work with those minerals, and may also provide, by 15 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  16. 16. that order or a subsequent order, for compulsorily vesting in the Central Government any other ancillary rights which appear to the Central Government to be necessary for the purpose of working the minerals aforesaid including (without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions)- (a) rights to withdraw support; (b) rights necessary for the purpose of access to or conveyance of the minerals aforesaid or the ventilation or drainage of the working; (c) rights to use and occupy the surface of any land for the purpose of erecting any necessary buildings and installing any necessary plant in connection with the working of the minerals aforesaid; (d) rights to use and occupy for the purpose of working the minerals aforesaid any land forming part of or used in connection with an existing mine or quarry, and to use or acquire any plant used in connection with any such mine or quarry, and (e) rights to obtain a supply of water for any of the pur-poses connected with the working of the minerals aforesaid, or to dispose of water or other liquid matter obtained in consequence of working such minerals. (2) Notice of any order proposed to be made under this section shall be served by the Central Government - (a) on all persons who, but for the order, would be entitled to work the minerals affected; and (b) on every owner, lessee and occupier (except tenants for a month or for less than a month) of any land in respect of which rights are proposed to be acquired under the order… 14. Control over production and use of atomic energy (1) The Central Government may, subject to such rules as may be made in this behalf, by order prohibit except under a license granted by it - (i) the working of any mine or minerals specified in the order, being a mine or minerals from which in the opinion of the Central Government any of the prescribed substances can be obtained; (ii) the acquisition, production, possession, use disposal, export or import- (a) of any of the prescribed substances; or (b) of any minerals or other substances specified in the rules, from which in the opinion of the Central Government any of the prescribed substances can be obtained; or (c) of any plant designed or adopted or manufactured for the production, development and use of atomic energy or for research into matters connected therewith; or (d) of any prescribed equipment. 16 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  17. 17. Annex 7 First Information Report and related court papers (19 pages) may be downloaded from: http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/courtpapers1/ 17 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  18. 18. Annex 8 Failure to protect thorium and Ramsetu (intertwined earth science phenomena) The extraordinary fact that the largest reserves of thorium in the world occur on Kerala sands should force a pause in studying, examining, exploring and evaluating the geological forces and ocean currents at work in accumulating these placer deposits which are vital for the nation's nuclear programme. Any project in the region should be subjected first to this imperative study and evaluation. http://maritime.haifa.ac.il/departm/lessons/ocean/wwr205.gif This map shows the unique phenomenon of two ocean currents in two opposing direcions operating like a cyclotron/sieve to isolate heavier minerals with heavy atomic weights such as Thorium 232 and Titanium. Strategic importance of Ramasetu: thorium Ramasetu and Indian ocean currents contribute to the accumulation of placer deposits of thorium minerals in Tamilnadu, Kerala beaches. Tsunami protection measures are required in the belt between Nagore (Tamilnadu) and Kayamkulam (Kerala) since the last tsunami impacted the mouth of kayamkulam canal. As Prof. Tad Murthy (an expert on tsunami who was engaged by Govt. of India to set up a tsunami warning system) apprehends, if the present Sethusamudram 18 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  19. 19. channel project alignment is implemented, the next tsunami will destroy this part of Kerala since the channel pointing to the epicenter of the tsunami will absorb the tsunami energy and funnel into the channel which will move in a narrow arc to destroy the coastline of Tamilnadu and Kerala. The accumulation of thorium reserves of India is party attributed to the reworking of beachsands by seawaves (almost like a cyclotron or sieving operation to remove small stones from fresh husked paddy by women in India) given the nature of the ocean currents and the Ramasetu (Adam’s bridge) acting as a barrier to the ocean currents inducing countercurrents. Views of Prof. Rajamanickam, geomorphologist and mineralogist: “The coast between Nagapattinam to Nagore, Nagore to Poompuhar, Colachal and Madras were the places where the strong impact from the Tsunami was noticed. These were also the places where a high order of ilmenites was found soon after the Tsunami. For example in the Nagore coast, the pre-Tsunami heavy mineral content of 14 per cent jumped to 70 per cent of ilmenites after the Tsunami.” http://soma-fish.net/stories.php?story=05/08/14/4004215 Monazite, a radioactive material, contains 3 to 7% thorium by weight. Ilmenite less radioactive, contains .05% thorium. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3186552 Chavara mineral division, India Rare Earths Limited. Corporate office: Plot No.1207,Veer Savakar Marg, Near Siddhi Vinayak Temple, Prabhadevi,Mumbai - 400 028 +91 22 24382042/ 24211630/ 24211851, 24220230 FAX +91 22 24220236 Major Activity : Mining and separation of Heavy Minerals like, Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Sillimanite, Garnet and Monazite from beach sand. Also engaged in chemical processing of Monazite to yield Thorium compounds, Rare Earth Chlorides and Tri-Sodium Phosphate. Dr. S. Suresh Kumar, Head Tel. No: (0476) 268 0701 – 05 Located 10 Km north of Kollam, 85 Km from Thiruvananthapuram capital of Kerala and 135 Km by road from Kochi is perhaps blessed with the best mineral sand deposit of the country.The plant operates on a mining area containing as high as 40% heavy minerals and extending over a length of 23 Km in the belt of Neendakara and Kayamkulam. The deposit is quite rich with respect to ilmenite, rutile and zircon and the mineral-ilmenite happens to be of weathered variety analyzing 60% TiO2. The present annual production capacity of Chavara unit engaged in dry as well as wet (dredging/ up-gradation) mining and mineral separation stands at 1,54,000t of ilmenite, 9,500t of rutile, 14,000t of zircon and 7,000t of sillimanite. In addition the plant has facilities for annual production of ground zircon called zirflor (-45 micron) and microzir (1-3 micron) of the order of 6,000t and 500t respectively. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm MANAVALAKURICHI (MK) MINERAL DIVISION:Shri K.P.Sreenivasan, Head & General ManagerTel. No: (04651) 237 255- 57 E-mail: iremk@vsnl.com , ngc_iremk@sancharnet.in Plant is situated 25 Kms north of Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin), the southern most tip of the Indian sub-continent. All weather major seaport Tuticorin and the nearest airport at Thiruvananthapuram are equidistant, about 65 kms from the plant site. Nagercoil at a distance of about 18 kms from the plant, is the closest major Railway station. MK plant annually produces about 90,000t ilmenite of 55%. TiO2 grade, 3500t rutile and 10,000t zircon in addition to 3000t monazite and 10,000t garnet based primarily on beach washing supplied by fishermen of surrounding five villages. 19 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  20. 20. IREL has also mining lease of mineral rich areas wherein raw sand can be made available in large quantities through dredging operation. In addition to mining and minerals separation, the unit has a chemical plant to add value to zircon in the form of zircon frit and other zirconium based chemicals in limited quantities. RARE EARTHS DIVISION (RED) Aluva: Shri L.N.Maharana, Chief General Manager Tel. No: (0484) 254 5062 - 65 E-mail: irered@vsnl.com Unlike the three units of IREL as described earlier, RED is an exclusively value adding chemical plant wherein the mineral monazite produced by MK, is chemically treated to separate thorium as hydroxide upgrade and rare earths in its composite chloride form. It is located on the banks of river Periyar at a distance of 12 Km by road from Kochi. This plant was made operational way back in 1952 to take on processing of 1400t of monazite every year. However over the years, the capacity of the plant was gradually augmented to treat about 3600t of monazite. Elaborate solvent extraction and ion exchange facilities were built up to produce individual R.E. oxides, like oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr and La in adequate purities. Today RED has built up large stock pile of impure thorium hydroxide upgrade associated with rare earths and unreacted materials. Henceforth, RED proposes to treat this hydroxide upgrade rather than fresh monazite to convert thorium into pure oxalate and rare earth as two major fractions namely Ce oxide and Ce oxide free rare earth chloride. http://irel.gov.in/companydetails/Unit.htm#MK The total known world reservesof Thi nRA R category are estimated at about 1.16 million tonnes. About 31% of this (0.36 mt) is known to be available in the beach and inland placers of India…Prior to the second world war thorium was used widely in the manufacture of gas mantles, welding rods, refractories andin magnesium based alloys .Its use as fuel in nuclear energy, in spite of its limited demand as of now and low forecast, is gaining importance because of its transmutation to 233 u. Several countries like India, Russia, France and U.K. have shown considerable interest in the development of fast breeder reactors (FBR) anditisexpected thatbytheturnof this century someofthe countries would have started commissioning large capacity units… 20 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  21. 21. Beach sands: Although monazite occurs associated with ilmenite and beach sands, skirting the entire Peninsular India, its economic concentration is confined to only some areas where suitable physiographic conditions exist.The west coast placers are essentially beachorbarrier deposits with development of dunes where aeolin action is prominent in dry months… Origin of West Coast deposits: …The deposits are formed in four successive stages:(i) lateritisation of gneissic complexes, (ii) successive mountain uplift and simultaneous seaward shift of strand line., (iii) reworking of the beach sands by sea waves, which rise often to a height of 3m.in 12s.period and (iv) littoral drift caused by the breaking of thewaves faraway from the shore and consequent northerly movement of lighter minerals along the reflected waves… In Manavalakurchi, Tamil Nadu, the depositis formed by the quot;southerly tilt of the tip of the peninsula [9] aided by seasonal variation of sea currents, both in direction and magnitude [Udas, G.R.,Jayaram, K.M.V., Ramachandran, M and Sankaran,R.,Beach sand placer deposits of the world vs. Indian deposits. Plant maintenance and import substitution.1978.35.] … The reasonably assured resources of thorium in India, form about 31% of the world's estimated deposits.The reserves could have been several times more if systematic surveys are carried out… http://www.iaea.org/inis/aws/fnss/fulltext/0412_1.pdf Mining of raw beach sand containing the six heavy minerals and separation of the later in adequate purities happen to be the common activity of all the three Mineral Division namely Chavara, MK (Manavalakurichi) and OSCOM (Orissa Sand Complex, Chatrapur, 150 kms. from Bhubaneswar). As per as mining practice is concerned, they do differ from one division to other. For example at MK, all the raw sand required to operate the plant at its full capacity is collected by the fisherman of surrounding villages from near by beaches and supplied to the unit at a cost. At Chavara also beach washing is available but not in adequate quantity to meet the full requirement of the plant. The heavy mineral rich sand feed either in the form of beach washings or dredge concentrate is subjected to final concentration in a facility provided with a host of spirals to enrich the feed with 97-98% heavy minerals. Such upgraded material is next dried in a fluid bed drier to take on the separation of individual minerals/ores by taking advantage of the difference in their electrical, magnetic properties as well as specific gravity. http://irel.gov.in/activity/Mineral.htm Strategic Value addition Recovery from thorium value Chemical processing of monazite to separate the contained thorium value (~8% ThO2) in the form of thorium hydroxide concentrate happen to be the most fundamental value addition activity of the company carried out for last 50 years or so. In the recent time thorium is separated as its pure oxalate form. A part of it is taken to OSCOM for its further processing by solvent 21 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  22. 22. extraction to produce about 150-200 TPA of its thorium nitrate for its mantle application. A small part of the purified thorium nitrate is covered to nuclear grade thorium oxide powder to meet the requirement of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) for developing thorium based fuel for our nuclear reactors. Recovery of Uranium value. Recovery of Uranium value. In recent time IREL has got engaged through its Rare Earths Division, in activity involving recovery of uranium value present in Indian monazite in the form of Nuclear grade ammonium diuranate (ADU) to supplement the indigenous supply scenario for uranium as required in the Indian Nuclear Power programme. In addition to monazite, RED has developed facilities for recovering uranium value from other secondary resource as well. http://irel.gov.in/activity/Strategic.htm Indian ocean currents both east to west and counter currents result in a churning operation and consequent deposition of heavy minerals such as thorium or titanium. This is a colour version of Figure 11.3 of Regional Oceanography: an Introduction by M. Tomczak and S. J. Godfrey (Pergamon Press, New York 1994, 422 p.). http://www.lei.furg.br/ocfis/mattom/regoc/text/11circ.html 22 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  23. 23. Major ocean currents of the world. On this illustration red arrows indicate warm currents, while cold currents are displayed in blue. (Source: PhysicalGeography.net) http://www.eoearth.org/article/Ocean_circulation Indian Ocean Tsunami Model, December 26, 2004 http://sos.noaa.gov/gallery/ Movie - Indian Ocean view (8 mb) Beaches of Kerala with thorium sands. http://www.mcdonald.cam.ac.uk/genetics/images/kerala_lowres.jpg The issue of thorium as the nuclear fuel which will unleash the nuclear potential of Bharatam has been underscored in the BARC website. One of the principal earth science reasons for the accumulation of thorium resources on Kerala beaches is the oscillating, sieving action of the ocean currents around Ramasetu. Incursive channel in an arbitrarily drawn medial line between Bharatam and Srilanka as a defacto boundary of international waters, discarding the age-old rights as 'historic waters' 23 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  24. 24. under the UN Law of the Sea, is a serious dereliction of responsibility on the part of the Sethusamudram Channel Project designers. PM and UPA Chairperson have to explain to the nation for the undue haste and carelessness in choosing an alignment impacting on Ramsethu while five other alternative channels closer to the Bharatam coastline were available. Was the new, arbitrarily drawn medial line as the channel alignment influenced by US Navy Operational Directives of 23 June 2005? Is it mere coincidence that the inauguration of SSCP takes place within a week thereafter, on 2 July 2005 ignoring the imperative subjecting the impact of a future tsunami on the integrity of the coastline if the present chosen alignment is implemented? Together with the destruction of Kerala, will it impact on the harnessing of the thorium resource as the foundation fuel for the nuclear programme of Bharatam? As the trial for treason unravels, in case Bharatam succumbs to US geopolitical pressures, a lot of questions will have to be raised and answered. Was the PM satisfied by the answers (provided on 30 June 2005) to the 16 questions raised by PMO on 8 March 2005? Something is fishy in the state of Bharatam. Importance of Thorium for Bharat, f rom BARC website: Thorium deposits - ~ 3,60,000 tonnes •The currently known Indian thorium reserves amount to 358,000 GWe-yr of electrical energy and can easily meet the energy requirements during the next century and beyond. •India 's vast thorium deposits permit design and operation of U-233 fuelled breeder reactors. •These U-233/Th-232 based breeder reactors are under development and would serve as the mainstay of the final thorium utilization stage of the Indian nuclear programme. http://www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/about/anu1.htm The US study can be downloaded from www.carnegieendowment.org/publications: Tellis notes that India reserves f 78,000 metric tons of uranium. •eight reactors allocating a quarter of their cores for the production of weapons- grade material, uranium needed would be: 19,965 to 29,124 tons. T two research reactors will need 938 to 1,088 tons. • These would yield India 12,135 to 13,370 kilograms of weapons-grade plutonium. •Thorium blanket as fuel will be the nuclear fuel of the future for Bharatam, which has the largest reserves of thorium in the world. A team of scientists led by Dr. VJ Loveson of the CISR New Delhi, studying placer deposits in the area, says an estimated 40 million tonnes of Titanium alone has been deposited in the entire stretch of 500 km. coastline. Bye-bye to historic waters US Navy operational directive, 23 June 2005: Historic waters, intl. Waters; 30 June 2005, Chairman TCPT replies to PMO; 2 July 2005, inauguration. The haste is fishy. Aug 76 Act No. 80 Enables government to declare waters as historic. June 79 Law No. 41 Waters of Palk Bay between coast and boundary with Sri Lanka claimed as internal waters; waters of Gulf of Mannar between coast and maritime boundayr claimed as historic waters. This claim is not recognized by the United States. US conducted 24 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  25. 25. operational assertions in 1993 and 1994, to Gulf of Mannar claim in 1999 (jiski laathi uski bhains; tadi eduttasvan tandalkaaran). UN Conf. on the Law of the Sea (1958), Convention of the Territorial Sea and and contiguous zone recognizes HISTORIC waters Agreement between Sri Lanka and India on the Maritime Boundary between the two countries in the Gulf of Mannar and the Bay of Bengal and Related Matters 23 March 1976 on Historic Waters. Implications of intrusive identification of 'international waters boundary' drawn as the Setu channel passage just 3 kms. west of the medial line recognized in ‘historic waters’ by an agreement of June 1974 between the late PM of India Smt. Indira Gandhi and President of India Smt. Sirimavo Bandaranaike has been stated succinctly by Arulanandam: http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2201/images/20050114005902402.jpg U. Arulanandam, President, Singaravelar Fishermen's Forum : the project is being implemented to enforce the international boundary line in the waters. Once the canal is a reality, it will become an unofficial boundary line on the sea between India and Sri Lanka. Fisherpeople are afraid: the catch is that it is in the Sri Lankan waters that fish thrive. The canal would seal their entry into those waters for fishing. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2201/stories/20050114005902400.htm 25 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  26. 26. Annex 9 Former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: thorium for energy independence Chennai: July 27, 2007 India's former president A.P.J Abdul Kalam returned to a profession he likes the most a day after he demitted office on Thursday (July 26). Kalam interacted with the students and faculty members of southern Anna University in Chennai, capital city of Tamil Nadu state. Credited with substantial contribution to India's missile technology, Kalam on Thursday said the country should go for thorium-based nuclear reactors to feed the energy hungry economy. quot;India has to go nuclear generation in a big way using thorium-based research reactors. Thorium, of course, is a non-fissile material for research available in abundance in our country. Intensive research is essential for converting thorium for maximizing its utilization for electricity generation through thorium-based reactors,quot; Kalam said. India's nuclear power capacity of 14 reactors is presently 3900 MW. It is expected to go to 7400 MW by 2010 with the completion of nine reactors, which are now in progress. http://tvscripts.edt.reuters.com/2007-07-26/34a2b1ff.html http://www.andhranews.net/India/2007/July/27-Thorium-based-nuke-9527.asp 26 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  27. 27. Annex 10 1st thorium unit in India soon Chennai, Aug 2: India is on the verge of setting up the world’s first Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) which uses thorium as fuel. “We have the design and the technology to install a 300 MW thorium based reactor. It is going through the process of regulatory clearance. We will start work on it in the eleventh plan period. And we hope to complete the work within seven years,” Dr Baldev Raj , director, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam said on Thursday. In an exclusive interview with this newspaper, Dr Baldev Raj, an internationally acclaimed metallurgist, said that the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay near Mumbai has been doing research into Thorium based reactors for the last 50 years. He explained that India was the only country with adequate reserves of thorium to make the use of the reactors based on it viable financially. “As of today, no other country in the world is doing any research on thorium based reactors as they do not have adequate thorium reserves,” Dr Raj added. This would be a major technological achievement for the country as thorium based reactors would see the completion of India’s nuclear fuel cycle, according to him. The first stage of India’s nuclear programme saw pressurized heavy water reactors which created plutonium. “The Fast Breeder Reactors coming up at Kalpakkam and other places will use this plutonium as fuel. This in turn will help us build up an inventory of Uranium- 233 which could be used along with Thorium-232 to run the thorium reactors,” Dr Raj explained. He said that within three decades the country’s thorium reactors would start generating power for the national grid. “I am sure by 2037 we will have thorium reactors in place,” he said. With its vast thorium resources along the Kerala and Tamil Nadu coast, the country would not need to worry about its fuel needs in the future, according to him. Former President Dr A P J Abdul Kalam, himself a scientist of international repute, had recently spoken about the neccessity to develop thorium based reactors to make the country energy independent. With the commissioning of the thorium based reactor, the country is expected to make a quantum leap towards economy and safety in power generation. Since thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium or plutonium reactors, chances of any radiation hazards are lesser in Thorium reactors, experts point out. According to Dr Raj work on the 500 MW Fast Breeder Reactor at Kalpakkam was progressing as per schedule. “ We are sure that the FBR will be commissioned by September 2010. It will start supplying power to the national grid by March 2011. We have almost finished the civil construction work. The reactor vault has been completed without any problems. The main vessel of the reactor, safety vessel, core structure, control rod drives, fuel-handling mechanism are all in various stages of completion. From the end of September, we will start loading all components into the building,” he added. He said that his team of scientists and engineers were working on a goal to produce power at the rate of Rs 2 per unit. “As of today the power from FBR costs Rs 3. 20 per unit. Our dream is to bring it down by a rupee,” he disclosed http://www.deccan.com/chennaichronicle/Home/HomeDetails.asp#1st thorium unit in India soon 27 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  28. 28. Annex 11 India's importance in global nuclear renaissance up: Chidambaram Mumbai, Sept. 3 (PTI): The importance of India in global nuclear renaissance is increasing as the country will be needed by the international community in the long run, Principal Scientific Advisor to Government of India Dr R Chidambaram said here today. Although India wants the world in the short-term in nuclear energy the world is going to need India in the long term, he said while inaugurating a day-long seminar on `Recycling for Electronic and automotive Industry at the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education. quot;This is what I say in my lectures abroadquot;, he said talking about the closed fuel cycle which is adopted by India which helps in a comprehensive nuclear waste management. In many countries, nuclear technology has stagnated and when nuclear technology stagnates, knowledge management becomes a problem, Chidambaram said. Whereas India and China are the two main countries where nuclear industry growth is seen due to surging energy demand, he added. The knowledge management in nuclear energy is booming and young people still take a lot of interest in joining the field in India while there is slow R and D growth in other parts of the world, including where there is stagnation, he said. So for us, nuclear knowledge management is not a problem, Chidambaram said. While talking about nuclear waste management, he said India uses closed fuel cycle and this is also required because the same amount of uranium, when you recycle it through fast breeder reactors (FBRs), will give you 50 times more power and if you close the fuel cycle with thorium, maybe it will give you 600 times more power. quot;So if you want to optimally utilise nuclear fuel resources of the world uranium and thorium, you will have to close the nuclear fuel cycle. So, the importance of the three-stage programme goes beyond just building the first generation of reactorsquot;, Chidambaram said. Americans have access to cheaper uranium but now they are also looking at reprocessing but the plutonium stored over a period as waste disposal Yucca mountain is actually a plutonium mine and since the half-life of plutonium is over 24,000 years, it could be used later as other radioactive products in the spent fuel would have died down. On the automotive and electronic waste management, he said he was interested in evolving guidelines as an immediate step to handle these hazardous waste in an 28 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  29. 29. organized and safe manner which could later on be recommended for country legislation. Since India has developed a throwing away culture recently and with the exponential growth of electronic and automotive production and consumption, if steps and precautions are not taken to manage them, India will end up facing a serious crisis, he added. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200709032044.htm See also: http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/sep/03india2.htm 29 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  30. 30. Annex 12 RSS for use of thorium deposits Dipankar Chakraborty (Statesman, Kolkata, Sept. 4, 2007) NEW DELHI, Sept. 3: In a categorical rejection of the Indo-US nuclear deal and taking note of “apprehensions” in the BJP on the matter, the RSS has reminded the party of the need to strictly adhere to its 2006 national executive resolution in Nagpur which termed the deal as against national interest. The assertion of the RSS stand on the nuclear agreement and its apparent rejection of the opinion of Mr LK Advani in an interview on 26 August, has appeared in the 9 September issue of Panchajanya, the RSS mouthpiece. Mr Advani said in the interview that there was no problem with the 123 agreement if an amendment to the Indian Atomic Energy Act was brought about. The Sangh magazine, which published last year’s Nagpur resolution in its latest issue, said it had been done to ensure that “there is no misconception (brahm) or apprehension (shanka)” in anyone’s mind on the RSS stand on the nuclear deal. The RSS Nagpur Pratinidhi Sabha resolution last year while expressing concern over the serious ramifications of the Indo-US nuclear deal said it would scuttle India’s nuclear programme and put an end to all future nuclear tests by the country. It said the deal would bring India’s nuclear sector under total American control. As long as India is not officially recognised as a nuclear state opening up nuclear installations for international inspection would be a step fraught with dangerous consequences for the strategic and foreign policy of the country. The RSS resolution also expressed its opposition to the separation of the country’s civil and military nuclear programme and said it would be against national interest as more than three fourth of nuclear units would directly come under international inspection. The RSS advised the government to focus on huge deposits of thorium available within the country for the country’s nuclear fuel needs. The resolution paid rich tribute to the expertise of Indian nuclear scientists and congratulated them for raising their objections to the deal. Alongside the resolution, Panchajanya also carries an interview with senior BJP leader and an expert on nuclear issues Mr Murli Manohar Joshi. Reiterating the RSS stand on the nuclear agreement, Mr Joshi said the deal was not only against the country’s energy and nuclear sovereignty but would have a far reaching impact on the foreign policy. He said despite spending crores of rupees and becoming dependent on the USA for technical support and fuel for nuclear reactors, the country would not be able to make use of nuclear energy in at least next 10 years. He said even after making such a huge investment, the nuclear plants would not be able to meet more than 20 per cent of the country’s energy requirements. He said the country’s thorium cycle research work had reached a crucial stage and the deal would put a spanner in it. Pointing to the financial and other consequences of the deal, Mr Joshi said setting up 50 nuclear reactors would cost the country about Rs 25,000 crore. http://tinyurl.com/28uymf 30 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  31. 31. Annex 13 A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India loc. cit. R. B. Grover and Subash Chandra, “A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India”, Document No 10, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai, India, August 2004 reproduced below: (Source: http://www.dae.gov.in/iaea/ak-paris0305.doc ) A strategy for growth of electrical energy in India introduction Abstract: Energy, particularly electricity, is a key input for accelerating economic growth. The present per capita electricity generation in India is about 600 kWh per year. Since 1990s, India’s gross domestic product (GDP) has been growing quite fast and it is forecast that it will continue to do so in the coming several decades. GDP growth has to be accompanied by growth in consumption of primary energy as well as electricity. India’s population continues to rise and could reach 1.5 billion by the middle of the century. Our estimate indicates that even after recognizing that energy intensity of GDP would continue to decline as in the past, the total electricity generation by the middle of the century would be an order of magnitude higher than the generation in the fiscal year 2002-03. This calls for developing a strategy for growth of electricity gener-ation based on a careful examination of all issues related to sustainability, particularly abundance of available energy resources, diversity of sources of energy supply and technologies, security of supplies, self sufficiency, security of energy infrastructure, effect on local, regional and global environment, health externalities and demand side management. Introduction: India, the largest democracy with an estimated population of about 1.04 billion, is on a road to rapid growth in economy. During the period 1981-2000, it has witnessed an impressive GDP growth rate of around 6%/yr . Policy initiatives of the Government of India during the past decade have resulted in a faster growth of GDP and forecasts by several agencies point towards continued growth of Indian economy. Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman of Goldman Sachs in their paper write, “India has the potential to show the fastest growth over the next 30 to 50 years. Growth could be higher than over the next 30 years and close to 5% as late as 2050 if development proceeds successfully.” To ensure that the development proceeds successfully, Government of India has been very proactive and several steps have been taken in the recent past. These include policy initiatives as well as planning and launching of projects aimed at improving energy, transport and communication infrastructure in the country. The Electricity Act – 2003, notified in June 2003, is one such important initiative. All these are the steps towards achieving an average annual growth of 8% in GDP during the ongoing 10th five year plan (April 2002 to March 2007). As elsewhere in the world, the energy and electricity growth in India is closely linked to growth in economy. One may notice this by comparing per capita electricity consumption and GDP in PPP US $ (purchasing power parity US $) of various countries in the neighbourhood as well as in other regions of the world. Key World Energy Statistics published by the International Energy Agency gives detailed information about electricity consumption in various countries and GDP in 1995 PPP US $. India’s electricity consumption based on data from utilities is given as 408 kWh per year per capita for the year 2001, while GDP per capita in PPP US $ is given as 31 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  32. 32. 2138. Corresponding figures for Indonesia are 423 and 2684, for Thailand 1563 and 5833, for Malaysia 2824 and 7645, and for Singapore 7677 and 20426. For OECD countries these numbers are 7879 and 21785. Here one may note a correlation between per capita GDP and per capita electricity consumption. At the time of independence in the year 1947, total installed electricity generation capacity was 1,363 MWe. It rose to 30,214 MWe in the year 1980-81, to 66,086 MWe in the year 1990-91 and to 138,730 MWe on 31st March 2003 , the corresponding growth rates being 9.54%/yr, 8.14%/yr and 6.26%/yr. The average growth rate over the entire period, thus, has been an impressive 8.6%/yr. In spite of this impressive growth, per capita electricity as well as primary energy consumption are still very low. In addition, the share of non-commercial energy resources continues to be much higher than what it is in developed countries . Domestic production of commercial energy has registered an average growth of about 5.9%/yr during the period 1981-2000. Various constraints, particularly poor hydrocarbon resource base, have forced an increased reliance on energy imports, which have grown at the rate of about 7.1%/yr . The electricity sector also has experienced severe shortages during the above period despite an impressive growth. During the year 2000-01, there was an average electricity shortage of 7.8% and a peak power demand shortage of 13% . It has now increased to 10% and 15% respectively . The growth rate of electricity has been substantially higher than other forms of energy, the reason being convenience of use and cleanliness at the user end. Electricity generation in India during the fiscal year 2002-03 was about 532 billion kWh from electric utilities and about 104 billion kWh from captive power plants . On per capita basis it turns out to be about 610 kWh per year. As already mentioned, India’s GDP has been growing quite fast and it is forecast that it will continue to be so in the coming decades. GDP growth has to be accompanied by growth of primary energy consumption as well as electricity consumption. A number of organs of the Government of India (GOI) are engaged in energy production and we felt it desirable to look at all the fuel resources, the plans of all the organs of GOI and examine the energy scenario as it might emerge in the decades to come. Long-term forecast is always full of uncertainties; still it is necessary to build scenarios for the future so as to identify available alternatives. In case of energy technologies, electrical energy in particular, lead times for developing new technologies are very long and, therefore, scenario building is desirable to identify problem areas and initiate R&D on relevant topics. The present study has been carried out with this objective. In this study, after making brief remarks on the population projection, we review projections about India’s energy demand growth rates based on other studies and present our projection about electricity growth rate and a strategy to meet the projected demand. 1. 2. Statistical Outline of India, page 11, 2001- 2002, Tata Services Limited, Mumbai. Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman, “Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 3. 2050”,Global Economics Paper No: 99, Goldmann Sachs, 1st Oct. 2003 4. (http://www.gs.com/insight/research/reports/99.pdf). Key World Energy Statistics, 2003, International Energy Agency. 5. RKD Shah, “Strategies for Growth of Thermal Power”, Energy for Growth and Sustainability, Indian National Academy of Engineering, 1998. i) Power from Utilities: Thermal, Hydro, Nuclear and Wind: 107,972.8 MWe (http://cea.nic.in/exec_summ/chapters.htm#GENERATION%20INSTALLED%20 6. CAPACITY(MW)), accessed on 23.4.03 32 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  33. 33. ii) Captive Power: 29,000 MWe PowerLine, November 2001 gives estimates of captive power installed capacity in India and these have been extrapolated based on data given in PowerLine, December 2002. 7. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear and hydro and other renewable forms of energy constitute commercial energy. Traditional or non-commercial energy 8. resources include biomass such as fuel wood, crop-residue and animal-waste. 9. Data about non-commercial energy usage is not so well documented as that 10.about the commercial energy. In the present study we are mainly concerned with the commercial form of energy and unless otherwise stated the term energy would mean the commercial form of energy. 11.Estimated from data given in ‘Energy’, published by the Centre for Monitoring 12.Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, page 4, April 2002,. TERI Energy Data Directory & Yearbook, 2000/2001, TERI, New Delhi, India. http://www.teriin.org/features/art195.htm accessed on 23.04.03 Throughout the report, we have preferred to talk about generation and not consumption as it is difficult to separate theft from technical losses. It is expected that by the middle of the century theft will be near zero and with technological inputs technical losses will also come to below 10%. Personal communication, Central Electricity Authority, May 2003. Using the data of captive power plants given in “Energy”, published by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, April 2002, a capacity factor of 41% has been estimated. At the same capacity factor and an estimated captive power base of 29,000 MWe the electric power generated is 104 billion kWh Population projection According to the recent census , India’s population has increased from 0.843 billion in the year 1991 to 1.027 billion in the year 2001. It represents an average annual growth rate of 1.99%/yr for the ten years. Although the population is increasing, the growth rate has been decreasing for the last many decades. According to a study published by the United Nations , depending on the population growth scenario, India’s population will cross 1.88 billion (high variant), 1.57 billion (medium variant) or 1.2 billion (Low variant) in the year 2050. For this to happen, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) will have to go down from the present 2.9 children per woman to 2.6 by the year 2020 for the high variant, to 2.1 by the year 2020 for the medium variant or to 1.6 by the period 2010-15 for the low variant. In the case of the low variant, the population will be passing through a peak of nearly 1.3 billion around the year 2040. The national population policy (NPP), 2000, recently adopted by the Government of India states that ‘the long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045’. The policy document assumes that the medium term objective of bringing down the total fertility rate (TFR) to the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman by the year 2010 will be achieved. In tune with the long term objective of the Government of India, the present study assumes that India’s population will stabilize by the year 2050 at a level of 1.50 billion. A decreasing growth rate of population (1.5%/yr till 2011, 1.1%/yr till 2021, 0.7%/yr till 2031, 0.4%/yr till 2041, 0.2%/yr till 2051 and then zero) has also been assumed (Table 1). Primary energy & its components 33 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  34. 34. During the fiscal year 2002-03 the estimated total available energy was 18.96 EJ (Domestic 15 EJ, Imported 3.96 EJ). Out of the total, about 71% (13.46 EJ) was the commercial component and 29% (5.49 EJ) non-commercial . During the year 2001, the commercial primary energy consum-ption in the world was about 382 EJ. India’s consumption was merely 3.4% (U.S.A. 24.5%) of world’s commercial energy consumption, while its population stood at nearly 16.6% (U.S.A. 4.6%) of the world’s population. Per capita commercial energy consumption in India stood at nearly 1/5th of the world average and 1/26th of that of the U.S.A . Table 2 gives contribution of various fuels to primary commercial energy and to electrical generation during the year 2002-03. 3.1 Coal and Lignite India has large reserves of coal and is the third largest coal producing country of the world. As per the estimates of the Geological Survey of India, total gross in situ coal reserves in the country are 245.53 BT (Proven: 93.79, Indicated: 109.50 and Inferred: 42.24). Following the procedure assigning reserves with 90% confidence level to the proven category, 70% to the indicated category and 40% to the inferred category and then applying the criterion of reserve to mineable resource ratio of 4.7:1, the working group on coal & lignite for the 10th five year plan tentatively projected the extractable coal to be only 37.86 BT. India’s requirements of coking coal are almost entirely fulfilled by imports. Even the non-coking coal is being increasingly imported in order to blend it with Indian coal having high ash content and use in power plants at certain coastal locations due to commercial reasons. During 2001-02 domestic production of coal was about 323 MT, while the net import was at 22.8 MT. In view of the large dependence on coal and its stagnating production, it may be necessary to increase its import. Production of lignite was about 24.8 MT during the same period. The currently known lignite reserves in the country, much less than coal, are estimated to be 34.6 BT (Proven 3.69, Indicated 11.14 and Inferred 19.76). It is relatively a small quantity and cannot make a significant contribution towards long-term energy security. 3.2 Oil and Natural Gas During the year 2001-02, domestic crude oil production was 32.03 MT as compared to net import of 75.63 MT. In the same year, about 29.7 billion cubic metres of natural gas (NG) was produced domestically. To meet the increasing demand, the government has permitted private sector participation in this field. In November 2002, discovery of a large gas field in Karnataka estimated to contain about 0.2 trillion cubic metre gas was made by a private entrepreneur. There is a high potential for discoveries offshore, particularly in deep waters. Exploration has so far taken place in only about one-quarter of India’s 26 sedimentary basins. It is estimated that these basins may contain as much as 30 BT of hydrocarbon reserves , . India’s recoverable reserves of crude oil and natural gas were till recently considered to be about 600 MT and about 650 billion cubic metres respectively . The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has set strategic goals for the next two decades (2001-2020) of ‘Doubling Reserve Accretion’ to 12 BT (O+OEG)’ and ‘Improving Recovery Factor to the order of 40%’ . Exploration is a dynamic process and one could expect further growth in reserves in the years to come. Considering that India is one of the least explored countries for oil and gas and the present thrust by GOI in this area, it is assumed that cumulative availability of hydrocarbons up to the year 2052 would be nearly 12 BT of (O+OEG). 34 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  35. 35. Coal Bed Methane (CBM), primarily a methane gas occurring in coal seams, is being harnessed in USA for more than a decade. Resource potential of CBM in our country has been conservatively estimated at 850 billion cubic metres . Exploration and exploitation of CBM is complex and exposure to this technology in India is limited. Efforts are being made to acquire technical know how to harness CBM from on-going mines as well as from virgin coal bearing areas. In near future this new source of energy is expected to come on stream from 8 CBM blocks . 3.3 Hydro Energy The hydro electric potential in India has been estimated to be 600 billion kWh annually, corresponding to a name-plate capacity of 150 GWe . It is mostly located in the northern and north-eastern regions of the country. As of March 2003, only about 27 GWe has either been developed or is being developed. A vision paper prepared by the Ministry of Power envisions harnessing of entire balance hydro power potential of India by the year 2025-26. It is proposed to add 16 GWe of new capacity in the Tenth Plan and 19.3 GWe in the Eleventh Plan . 3.4 Non-conventional Renewable Energy The estimated potential of non-conventional renewable energy resources in our country is about 100 GWe. Wind, small Hydro and Biomass Power/ Co-generation have potentials of 45 GWe, 15 GWe and 19.5 GWe respectively ; Solar PV, Solar Thermal and Waste-to-Energy being the other important components. All these resources will be increasingly used in future especially in remote areas. The medium term goal is to ensure that 10% of the installed capacity to be added by the year 2012, i.e. about 10 GWe, comes from renewable sources. Good progress has been made in the field of wind power and installed capacity additions in the recent years have been quite impressive. However, the wind mills have, so far, reported very poor capacity factors, (14% for wind power during the year 2002-03). 3.5 Nuclear Energy As in case of coal, uranium reserves are also given certain categorisation. These are Reasonable Assured Resources (RAR), Estimated Additional Resources-I (EAR-I), Estimated Additional Res-ources-II (EAR-II) and Speculative Resources (SR). Uranium reserves in India pertaining to categories RAR, EAR-I and EAR-II are estimated to be about 95,000 tonnes of metal. Speculative reserves are over and above this quantity and with further exploration, could become available for nuclear power programme. After accounting for various losses including mining (15%), milling (20%) and fabrication (5%), the net uranium available for power generation is about 61,000 tonnes. Thorium reserves are present in a much larger quantity. Total estimated reserves of monazite in India are about 8 million tonnes (containing about 0.63 million tonnes of thorium metal) occurring in beach and river sands in association with other heavy minerals. Out of nearly 100 deposits of the heavy minerals, at present only 17 deposits containing about ~4 million tonnes of monazite have been identified as exploitable. Mineable reserves are ~70% of identified exploitable resources. Therefore, about 2,25,000 tonnes of thorium metal is available for nuclear power programme. The present indigenous nuclear power plants are of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type, having heavy water as moderator and coolant, and working on the once-through-cycle of natural uranium fuel. Based on such reactors nearly 330 GWe-yr of electricity can be produced from domestic uranium resource. This is equivalent to about 10 GWe installed capacity of PHWRs running at a life-time 35 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  36. 36. capacity factor of 80% for 40 years. This uranium on multiple recycling through the route of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) has the potential to provide about 42,200 GWe- yr assuming utilisation of 60% of heavy metal, percentage utilisation being an indicative number. Actual value will be have the potential of about 150,000 GWe-yr, which can satisfy our energy needs for a long time. A three-stage nuclear power programme has been chalked out in the Department of Atomic Energy to systematically exploit all these resources. It is planned to install a nuclear power capacity of about 20 GWe by the year 2020. The second stage of the nuclear power programme envisages building a chain of fast breeder reactors multiplying fissile material inventory along with power production. Approval of the Government for the construction of the first 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) was obtained in September 2003 and it is scheduled for completion in the year 2011. It is envisaged that four more such units will be constructed by the year 2020 as a part of the programme to set up about 20 GWe by the year 2020. Subsequently FBRs will be the mainstay of the nuclear power programme in India. The third stage consists of exploiting country’s vast resources of thorium through the route of fast or thermal critical reactors or the accelerator driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) . A 300 MWe Advan-ced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), designed to draw about two-third power from thorium fuel, is under development and will provide experience in all aspects of technologies related to thorium fuel cycle. A beginning is being made towards developing an accelerator needed for ADS. 3.6 New Fuel Resources and Technologies With enhanced exploration and mining, in tune with the trend so far, it is likely that new deposits of coal and hydrocarbons will be discovered, thereby increasing our resource base in future. New technologies such as in situ coal gasification will make more efficient use of the present resources and will enable the country to tap resources presently considered uneconomical. A recent article in Nature gives account of hydrocarbons and how the energy- returned-on-energy-invested (EROI) has tended to decline over time for all energy resources. For example, the EROI of oil in the US has decreased from a value of at least determined as one proceeds with the progra-mme and gets some experience. Issues involved are fuel burn-up, extent of multiple recycling possible, cycle losses during reprocessing and re-fabrication, and out-of-pile period consisting of transportation, storage, reprocessing, re-fabrication etc. FBR generation potential indicated above is equivalent to an installed capacity of about 530 GWe operating for 100 years at a life-time capacity factor of 80%. The thorium reserves, on multiple recycling through appropriate reactor systems, 100 to 1 for oil discoveries in 1930s to about 17 to 1 today for oil and gas extraction. The paper also says that the alternate liquid fuels such as ethanol from corn have a very low EROI. An EROI of much greater than 1 to 1 is needed to run a society. For a country like India having a high density of population, non-conventional renewable energy resources would continue to be important, but low EROI and competing pressures on the use of land would not permit them to contribute a significant share to the total energy mix. US Department of Energy has funded eight projects under the Clean Coal Initiative and has also ann-ounced plan to develop a pollution free coal fired power plant (Code named ‘FutureGen’) of the future . Similar proactive efforts are needed in India in the areas of coal mining as well as coal based power plant technologies. 36 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  37. 37. Many countries have interest in exploiting the gas hydrates. Gas hydrates or methane hydrates are ice-like solids in which water molecules form cages around molecules of methane, the chief component of natural gas. Reserves of hydrates may offer more energy than coal . However, this resource needs to be precisely evaluated. In India also these resources are being identified. Estimates of this rather newly identified energy resource in India vary by orders of magnitude. According to a press report , various agencies in India have mapped out 6150 trillion cubic meters of gas hydrates along the southern coastline of the Indian peninsula. However, the technology of gas production from hydrates is yet to be commercially proven. The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is pursuing a proposal to develop technologies for exploiting gas hydrates in collaboration with Russian Federation. Fusion is another attractive long-term energy option and R&D on fusion is being done worldwide including in India at the Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat. Fusion based reactor systems may become a reality by middle of the century. 13. 14.Provisional Population Totals, page 34, Census of India 2001, Registrar General & 15.Census Commissioner, India. 16.World Population: Major Trends- A Study by United Nations, (www. iiasa.ac.at / Research / LUC /Papers) accessed on 19.08.2002 Provisional Population Totals, page 31, Census of India 2001, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 17.Estimated from the Annual Reports 2002-03 of various ministries of the government of India, EJ = Exa Joule =1018 Joules. Other commonly used units 18.are MTOE and MTCE. 1 EJ = 23.9 MTOE = 34.5 MTCE. World Energy Assessment: 19.Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, 2000, page 139 gives definition of all 20.the energy units. MTOE is based on the assumption that calorific value of oil 21.i10,000 kcal/kg. Similarly MTCE is based on the assumption that calorific value of coal is 6,930 kcal/kg. 22.Report of the Steering Committee on Energy Sector for 12th Five Year Plan, 23.Government of India, Planning Commission (Sr. No. 1/2001, March-2002). BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2002. 24.Report of Working Group on Coal & Lignite for The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002- 25.2007), July 2001. 26.An Energy Overview of India, DOE, USA, 27.(www.fe.doe.gov/international/indiover.html) accessed on11.06.2002. Vision Hydrocarbon-2025, 2000, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, 28.Government of India - Strategy Paper for Development of the Hydrocarbon 29.Sector, February 2000. 30.BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2002, (www.bp.com/centres/energy/) accessed on 15.07.2002. 31.Annual Report, 2002-2003, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India page 13. ‘O+OEG’ stands for ‘Oil’ and ‘Oil Equivalent Gas’ 32.Disha - Green India 2047, page 283,TERI 2001. Annual Report 2002- 2003, page 3, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India 33.Annual Report 2001- 2002, page 6, Ministry of Power, Government of India. Report of the Steering Committee on Energy Sector for 10th Five Year Plan, 34.Government of India, Planning Commission (Sr. No. 1/2001, March-2002). 35.Annual Report, page 4, 2001-02, Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Resources, 36.Government of India. 37 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  38. 38. 37.A.B.Awati, Internal note, July 24, 2003, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. 38.It consists of two components: 80,000 tonnes from Reasonably Assured Resource (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources-I (EAR-I) and 15,000 tonnes from 39.Estimated Additional Resource-II (EAR-II). Out of 3.93 MT of monazite ore about 70% is available for further processing 40.which contains 9% of ThO2 of which 87.87 % is thorium metal. One viewpoint is that ongoing research to increase the fuel burn-up could enable 41.achieving burn-up of the order of 200,000 MWd/T a reality in the next one decade. To achieve 60% heavy metal utilization would, thus, require only 3 cycles, which should be achievable. Anil Kakodkar, “Perspective of a Developing Country with Expanding Nuclear Power Programme”, International Conference on Innovative Technologies for Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Nuclear Power, June 2003, IAEA, Vienna. Charles Hall et al, “Hydrocarbons and the evolution of human culture” Nature, vol 426, 20 November 2003. “Bush takes the Initiative on Clean Coal”, Modern Power Systems, April 2003, page 3. “Methane extraction and carbon sequestration” ORNL Review, No. 2, 2002, page 4. “Massive gas-hydrate reserves discovered” Financial Express, Nov. 15, 1998 (http://www.indian-express.com/fe/daily/19981115/31955104.html) accessed on 15.07.2002. Proposed Indo-Russian Centre for Gas Hydrate Studies, Integrated Long Term Programme for Cooperation in Science & Technology between India and Russia, Department of Science and Technology, October 2002, page 59. Koji Tokimatsu et.al. ‘Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties’ Energy Policy 31 (2003) 775-797. ‘An Outline Roadmap for Fusion Energy Science: A Portfolio Approach- Discussion Draft’ 11-13-1998 (http://www.math.nyu.edu/mfdd/imre/roadmap.pdf) accessed on 10.10.2003. Peter Rodgers, “Waiting for the power of the sun”, Physics World, July 2002, page 45. Electricity Demand Projection Many national and international agencies have made projections of energy demands of India. We first present a survey of various studies and then give our projections. 4.1. A Survey of Various Studies There is a considerable spread in energy demand forecasts made for India by various investigators. Some important forecasts/scenarios are summarized in Table 3. Various working groups of the steering committee on energy sector for the 10th five year plan projected an average primary commercial energy demand growth rate of 5.74%/yr for the two forthcoming five year plans. In view of (a) the increased emphasis on energy efficiency and energy conservation, (b) an expected higher contribution of the service sector to the GDP in future and (c) the impact of information technology and e-commerce, the steering committee came up with a lower figure of 4.25%/yr for the demand growth rate . The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) , carried out an analysis of the Indian energy scenario and suggested strategies for sustainable development . In their base case scenario the primary energy growth rate was taken as 4.4%/yr during the 38 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com