Legacy
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  • We want to network with you about our Film 'JAIN ENLIGHTENMENT - A Way of Life' for America and the world

    We are New York documentary filmmakers who have produced a beautiful 10 min DEMO film 'JAIN ENLIGHTENMENT - A Way of Life' and also working on 'Palitana - City of Temples on the Hill' to inform and educate America about Ahimsa, Anekantvad, Aparigrah ... involving Forgiveness, Compassion, and Peace.

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  • 1. Legacy of Sarasvati Writing System http://www.ling.hawaii.edu/austroasiatic/AA/pinnow-map.jpg The regions related to Munda languages are the regions with mineral resources and hence, the economic zones of early smiths (kaula mengro), mleccha- speakers. Legacy of the writing system on Bharhut ligatures Makara as a ligature of alligator, elephant, tiger, snail, fish-fin, wing; (it.ankar) makara, 1 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 2. ibha, kol, kavd.a_, ayo, er-aka Rebus: (d.hangar) mengro ‘merchant, smith’, ib ‘iron’, kol ‘pancaloha’, kaulo ‘kolla, furnace’, ayas ‘metal’, eraka ‘infusion of metal’. Top register: pair of rams: med.ho ‘ram’; rebus: med. ‘iron’; barea ‘pair’; rebus: barea ‘merchant’ Photo of a cephalopod fossil. http://www.gc.maricopa.edu/earthsci/imagearchive/fossils.htm The coiled end of the cephalopod is mirrored on a makara glyph composition. Makara Bharhut, c. 100 BCE Indian Museum, Calcutta Something of the origin of the makara, or at least its early composition in India, can be seen here. The water beast, confined beneath a ledge with kneeling rams that represent the realm of land, is pictured here with the snout of a crocodile, the head and forequarters of an elephant, the body of a snake, and the fins and tail of a fish. http://www.art-and- archaeology.com/india/calcutta/cm13.html The shell component of this motif may be read as: ha_ngi snail (K.); sa~_khi possessing or made of shells (B.); ho~gi pearl oyster shell, shell of any aquatic mollusc (K.); ha_ngi snail (K.)(CDIAL 12380). gongha = snail’s shell (Santali). Cf. conch (English). Cypraea moneta or a cowrie used as a coin. Rebus: kangar ‘portable furnace’ (K.) A possible depiction of a kaula mangra ‘blacksmith’ working with s’ankha ‘shell’ and and indicaton of jhasa ‘fish’; rebus: jasa ‘prosperity, fame’. Kavd.a_ ‘cowrie; Kaulo-mengro, s. A blacksmith; Kaulo ratti. Black blood, Gypsy blood (Gypsy). Kerri mangro 'workman' (Gypsy) Kahlo / Kahli / Kahle – Black (male / female / Plural) (From Punjabi - 'Kahla' / 'Kahli' / 'Kahle') Spanish Romma call themselves 'Kahla' http://www.gypsyjournal.com/ForumReply.asp?ForumID=1 kola_ ‘flying fish’ (Ta.); ayo = fish; rebus: ayas ‘metal’ Pa. makara -- m. `sea -- monster'; Pk. magara -- , mayara m. `shark', Si. muvara, mora, Md. miyaru. -- NIA. forms with -- g -- ( e.g. H. G. magar m. `crocodile') or -- ng (S. mangar -- macho m. `whale', manguro m. `a kind of sea fish' } Bal. mangar `crocodile') are loans from Pk. or Sk. or directly from non -- Aryan sources from which these came, e.g. Sant. mangar `crocodile'. Early coinage and copper plate inscriptions in India as a survival of Sarasvati hieroglyphs of prehistoric Indian civilization. (Mirrored, together with slide show of figures mentioned in the text at http://spaces.msn.com/members/sarasvati97 ) There are remarkable parallels between the Sarasvati heiroglyphs and the symbols used on punch-marked coins and on the sign graphs employed on Sohgaura copper plate inscription – which becomes an explanatory Rosetta stone in two scripts: Sarasvati hieroglyphs and brahmi script. Many examples have been taken from coin auction sites. Such a similarity has been noted by many scholars, some also suggested that the devices on punch-marked coins are a survival of the Sarasvati (Harappan) Civilization: Dr. Pran Nath had noticed the resemblance between the signs on punch-marked coins and the Sarasvati epigraphs (Indus inscriptions) and had 2 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 3. published his study of punch-marked coins in the British Museum in: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. vii, 1931, Supplement, pp. 11 f. Bhattacharya, P.N., A hoard of silver punch-marked coins from Purnea, MASI, No. 62, pp. 5ff; Durga Prasad, Classification and significance of the symbols on the silver punch-marked coins of ancient India, JASB, 1934, pp. 217 ff.; Observations on different types of silver punch-marked coins, their period and locale, JASB, 1937, pp. 322 ff.; Suryavamshi, Bhagwan Singh, Interpretation of some symbols of the punch- marked coins, Journal of the Oriental Institute of Baroda, Vol. XII, No. 2, Dec. 1962, pp. 152 ff.; Fabri, C.L., The punch-marked coins: a survival of the Indus civilization, JRAS, 1935, p. 307 ff.; Altekar, AS, Symbols on the copper band in the Patna museum, JNSI, Bombay, Vol. IX, Part II, pp. 88-92. K.N. Dikshit noted in Numismatic Society and United Provinces History Society meetings that certain metal pieces recovered during the excavations at Mohenjo-daro agreed in shape and in weight-system with the punch-marked coins. (Reported by KP Jayaswal in: JRAS, 1935, p. 721). Some excerpts from CL Fabri’s article which appeared in JRAS, 1935 (pp. 307- 318) are presented hereunder: “Punch-marked coins are the earliest Indian archaeological ‘document’ that exists,” wrote Mr. EHC Walsh in 1923 in a thorough study of these interesting remains of Indian proto-historic times. (Indian Punch-marked Coins (a Public coinage issued by Authority), in Centenary Supplement, JRAS, 1924, pp. 175-189. At the time when he wrote his article, very litt,e if anything, was known of the freshly discovered prehistoric civilization in the Indus Valley, at Harappa and Mohenjo- daro…Mr. Walsh said in 1923: “Until our present sources of information are added to, the significance of the marks on punch-marked coins must remain the subject of speculation and surmise.”… “The significance of these symbols, however, is of paramount importance. That they have some meaning, no one doubts. It is obvious that a few of them are solar, lunar, and such-like symbols; but these are only a fraction of the great mass. It is not impossible that they hold the clue to early Indian history, and if one day scholars can ‘read’ these signs, they will be able, probably, to reconstruct a period of Indian history of which we do not know anything at present. I am writing not to explain these symbols, but to show that the solution of this problem is closely connected with the deciphering of the Indus Valley script. “While going through the signs published in the plates of Cunningham, Theobald, and Walsh, I was immediately struck by certain animal representations. The most frequent ones are those of the humped Indian bull, the elephant, the tiger, the crocodile, and the hare. Now all these animals occur also on the seals of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Not only are the subjects similar, but there are 3 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 4. similarities in such small details that one must necessarily suppose that they are not due to mere chance or to ‘similar working of the human mind’. “Here is, e.g., the surprising identity of subject and execution in Fig. 1 (presented in Punch1.jpg): a crocodile, holding a fish. The large open jaws show the teeth, and the fish is not shown between them, but in a somewhat peculiar way, ‘hanging’ as it were just in front of the mouth. Not only is the subject similar, but both animals face right, and a number of small details agree perfectly. “Both the humped and the non-humped bull are represented in Mohenjo-daro. The same is the case with the punch-marks. Fig. 2 (presented in Punch1.jpg) shows a ‘European’ bull before a ‘trough’ facing right. The parallel from Mohenjo- daro also faces right, and has a trough in exactly the same position as its late descendant. The humped bull occurs in many varieties, and we reproduce only one, in Fig. 3 (presented as Punch1.jpg), with an equivalent from the Indus Valley opposite it. “Elephants are represented in Fig. 5 (presented as Punch2.jpg); they never occur with a trough on coins, and in Mohenjo-daro, as far as I am aware of it, there is only one single seal where a trough is put before an elephant. Another remarkable agreement in detail. In Fig. 4 (presented as Punch1.jpg) humped bull is standing before or next to a tree or plant; a well-known element in the prehistoric civilizations of India and Mesopotamia. The two examples given will suffice to show that the old tradition was kept alive up to proto-historic times. Nor is the motif of the ‘Tiger and Sacred Tree’ unknown on the punched coins; Fig. 6 (presented as Punch2.jpg) presents what must be a tiger before a Sacred Tree in a railing. The parallel seal of Mohenjo-daro shows a tree, on a branch, of which a figure is seen – probably the Tree Spirit. Last but not the least, out of the many punch-marks that could be shown here, we reproduce in Fig. 7 (presented as Punch2.jpg) one more bull of the surprising similarity of the general arrangement with that of the Indus seals: a bull facing right; before him a trough, consisting of an upper and a lower portion; and, in the upper left corner, a ‘pictogram’, or, anyhow, all that is left of an old tradition! All these are placed in a square area, and the whole must strike everyone as a survival of the old seals. “Less convincing will be the representation of the hare as seen in Fig. 8 (presented in Punch2.jpg). No small details agree here, but the fact remains that the symbol of this animal appealed to the inhabitants of Mohenjo-daro as well as to those of proto-historic India. And if none of the above examples would carry persuasion if it stood alone, the sum total of the comparisons is certainly impressive… “We are able to recognize a large number of Indus script pictograms among the punch-marks published by previous writers – too large a number, indeed, to ascribe it to mere coincidence. It is well known that the ru_pas on the punch- marked coins are very numerous, and out of them I have selected only thirty-six that show a remarkable similarity to Indus Valley pictograms. 4 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 5. “Here is the ‘fish-sign’, our Fig. 9 (presented in Punch3.jpg) found in three different varieties among the punch-marks, and in a number of similar ‘diacritic’ varieties in the Indus script (Nos. 331, 341 of the Sign Manual – from Mohenjo- daro, vol. iii). Fig. 10 (presented in Punch3.jpg) shows a collection of the ‘man- sign’; it will be seen that both in the punched coins and at Mohenjo-daro distinction is made among men with arms hanging down or raised, a man carrying an object, and a row of men holding each other’s hands (No. 371; cp. Also seal with six men, pl. cxvi, 1 or cxviii,7). It seems to me that all these little details must strike everyone as something more than accidental agreement. “The arrow sign (Fig. 11) has its counterpart in Indus sign No. 324; that an arrow is meant with this pictogram is evident from Sign No. 378, which I have added for ready reference. The mountain symbol is well known in punch-marks…; the Mohenjo-daro sign No. 157 (copied from seal 495, pl. cxiv) is as near an equivalent as possible. Our Fig. 13 shows the perfectly identical ‘comb-signs’; they have seven ‘teeth’ both in the Indus script and in the punch-mark. Fig. 14 is a very frequent symbol and coule be termed the ‘thunderbolt’ or ‘axe’ sign. (For this explanation see Contenau, Manuel, vol. I, figs. 144 and 145, and compare with these Theobald’s fig. 166). The whole illustrations, Figs. 9 to 14, presents a remarkable collection of similarities that would be difficult to explain as separate invention. “Fig. 15 (presented in Punch4.jpg) shows five different square punch signs with their pictographic equivalents, and Fig. 16 five round signs which all agree entirely in such minor details as the dots in the four compartments (No. 301), or the number of spokes in Nos. 73 and 77. I do not see how such differences can be explained by any other surmise but that they are ‘diacritic’ marks, or different pictograms; the squares certainly are neither lunar nor solar symbols. Then follows the so-called ‘taurine’ symbol (or is it a moon and a sun together?), the equivalent of which is probably No. 99 or 217 in the Indus script. Our Fig. 18 shows again two perfectly identical pictograms, the Mohenjo-daro sign being No. 200 of the Manual. “Birds are among the symbols shown upon punch-marked coins, either in a semicircle or as flying above a mountain (Fig. 19); there are quite a number of signs in the Indus script representing birds, and we reproduce here only two, viz., Nos. 364 and 355 of the List. Plants are figured rather similarly in Fig. 20; a ‘staff’ of three circles united in the middle or on the sides is a peculiar sign shown in Fig. 21. The snake is a symbol both on the coins and in the Indus script (No. 192). Figs, 23-4 show crosses of different description; but 23 will seem to be more convincing than the far-spread and common symbols of the cross and the svastika_. However, Nos. 25-6 show again two such peculiar signs that their invention cannot be easily be ascribed to mere coincidence. It will be seen that they have perfect equivalents in the Indus script in Nos. 53 and 178. “Bu certainly the most convincing one in this whole mass of evidence is the sign shown in Fig. 27 (presented in Punch5.jpg). The three signs in the left half of the 5 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 6. drawing are ONE SINGLE PUNCH-MARK, and shown in Theobald’s plates as fig. 55. Their equivalents in the Indus script are shown in the right-hand compartment. It is obvious that none of the rather simple explanations offered for punch-marks by my predecessors can give a satisfactory interpretation to such a ru_pa. The fact is that we have here to do with a regular pictographic inscription, the significance of which must have been evident to all merchants, shroffs, and moneylenders… “There is another point worth mentioning. The seals, after all, were also a kind of instrument by means of which an impression was made. The same is the case with punching tool by means of which these punch-marks were made on the metal. Moreover, a number of copper plates have been found at Mohenjo-daro with signs similar to those of the seals; consequently, the same material has been used there already as in later times for the punch-marked coins. The question arises anew, whether the seals or sealings of the Indus Valley were intended to represent money, or, anyhow, some forerunner of currency, replacing barter. To this question, however, I feel unable to give a reply. But I must say that it does not seem impossible to me that these sealings were a sort of I.O.U. One cannot exclude this possibility, especially if we consider that a large number of early Mesopotamian documents were of a commercial character. “All these problems can only be solved when the Indus Valley script is deciphered. Our present paper does not bring this problem any nearer to its solution. Not is it intended to do so. It is intended to draw attention afresh to the early coinage of India as a survival of prehistoric Indian civilization. “There remains only one point to be dealt with. It is the question whether one can suppose that these signs could have survived 2,000 years or more. The answer is in the most emphatical affirmative. A large number of signs of Mesopotamia have remained practically unchanged for 2,500 years; here is our own capital alphabet, practically the same as was 2,000 years ago that of the Romans; the symbols of the zodiac are unaltered since 4,000 years; and there is Chinese writing, although slightly changed, still surviving after 3,000 years. The life of symbols, once accepted, is almost unlimited. The sand-glass, although used only as an egg- boiler now, is still the symbol of Time as it was in Athens 2,500 years ago; the Cross still has a sacred meaning for us; a sword is a symbol of war, and a palm- branch that of peace; even an illiterate person will understand that a heart means love and anchor hope, although this symbolism would not be quite as evident in another civilization. “And who knows, how old some of the punch-marked coins may be? In 327 BC Alexander the Great was already presented at Taxila with 80 Talents of this silver coinage. Cunningham says: ‘They were certainly current in the time of Buddha, that is, in the sixth century BC. But I see no difficulty in thinking that they might mount as high as 1,000 BC. They certainly belong to the very infancy of coinage.’ (Op. laux., p. 43). 6 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 7. “We should like to add now that, in our opinion, they preserve a number of pictograms and symbols of the prehistoric period that preceded the Aryan invasion. (Sir Richard Burton kindly draws my attention to the fact that some of the symbols in the present article persist even on Muhammadan coins down to the eighteenth century. This is another good proof in fvour of my thesis that symbols have a very long life. If these symbols have been in use in historical times since about 600 BC up to AD 1800, then there is no reason to doubt that they could have lived two thousand years earlier already.) – January 1934. Source for Theoboald’s study: Notes on some of the symbols found on the punch-marked coins of Hindustan, in JASB, lix, pt.i, Nos. iii-iv, 1890. The arguments of Fabri are strong indeed to aver continuity of the writing system which evolved on Sarasvati epigraphs into the historical periods represented by the punch-marked coins. A remarkable feature of the punch-marked coins listed in a Catalogue of the British Museum (as coins issued by native rulers from the earliest times to about 300 CE) is that they come from all parts of Bharat. The majority of the weights of the punch-marked silver coins fall between 51.5 and 52.5 grains; some specimens are also found to be 54 grains and 50 grains. “The find spots…The first is in the extreme north-west: Peshawar, Taxila, Thatta, Shahpur, and Kangra. The second belongs to the Ganges valley: Indor Khera, Pa_d.ham, Paila, Etawa, Sankisa, Chiriyakot, Mirzapur, Ballia, Patna, Trogna, Belwa, Bodh Gaya, and Bhagalpur…In the west we have a third group: Palanpur, Tambavati Nagari, Jhalra Patan, Sarangpur, Besnagar, and Eran – in southern Rajputana and Malwa, the area between the Aravalli and Vindya mountains, drained by tributaries of the Jumna. The Hingaghat, Thaithari, Karimnagar, and Bimlipatan finds belong to the basin of the Godavari. The Kolhapur, Coimbatore, and Trichinopoli finds appear rather isolated in the south, although the two last are not so remote from each other. This tells us little more than that punch- marked coins are found in what were in ancient times also the most important and thickly populated parts of India.” (John Allan, 1936, Catalogue of Indian Coins in the British Museum, London, British Museum, pp. liv to lv). See map after Dr. Dilip Rajgor on findspots of punch-marked coin hoards: http://www215.pair.com/sacoins/public_html/maps_chronology.htm] An average of five punches, of five symbols each, are found on the obverse of many coins, with another group of four punches are found on the reverse of some coins. Sohgaura copper plate inscription as a survival of Sarasvati hieroglyphs and writing system The Sohgaura copper plate refers to a pair of kos.t.ha_ga_ra (dva_ra kot.t.haka); the two 7 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 8. storehouses described as tri-garbha (i.e. having three rooms) are illustrated on line 1. (Fleet, JRAS, 1907). The illustrations indicate that the three rooms are in three storeys, with supporting pillars clearly seen. The inscription refers to the junction of three highways named Manavati, in two villages called Dasilimita and Usagama. The storehouses were made at this junction for the goods of people using the highways, which are indicated in line 3 by mentioning the three places to and from which they led. One of the names give is reognized by Fleet as Chanchu. (Fleet, JRAS, 63, 1894 proceedings, 86, plate, IA 25. 262; cf. Sohgaura copper plate/B.M. Barua. The Indian Historical Quarterly, ed. Narendra Nath Law. Reprint. 41) Some glyphs on line 1: kut.hi = tree; rebus: kut.hi = smelting furnace; kos.t.ha_ga_ra = storehouse; s'u_la = spear; cu_l.a = kiln; kan.d.kanka = rim of jar; rebus: copper furnace; bat.a = quail; rebus: kiln. The top line is a set of hieroglyphs (from left to right). Tree = kut.i; rebus: kut.hi ‘smelter, furnace’ Warehouse = kot. (kos.t.hagara) Spear = cu_la; rebus: cu_lha ‘furnace’ Mountain-summit = ku_t.amu ; rebus : ku_t.a ‘workshop’ Wide-mouthed pot on mountain-summit = bat.i; rebus: bat.hi ‘furnace’) Rim of jar = kan.d.; rebus: kand. ‘fire-altar’ Tree = kut.i; rebus: kut.hi ‘smelter, furnace’ Bird on branch: bat.a ‘quail’; rebus: bat.a ‘furnace’; d.a_l. ‘branch of tree’; rebus: d.ha_l.ako ‘large metal ingot’ [The glyptic composition refers to a kut.hi which can produce metal ingots] Warehouse = kot. (kos.t.hagara) The brahmi epigraph on the lines following the top line refers to two kos.t.hagara set up for itinerant merchants (smiths?) at the junction of three roads. Some devices used on punch-marked coins also occur as the first line of the Sohgaura copper plate inscription. ( Fleet, J.F., The inscription on the Sohgaura Plate, JRAS, 1907, pp. 509-532; B.M. Barua, Sohgaura copper plate, Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. X, 41). Sohgaura or Soghaura is a village on the right bank of River Rapti, about fourteen miles south-east from Gorakhpur. The plate measures 2 ½ X 1 7/8 inches. The copper plate was cast in a mould. The writing is NOT incised, but in bold, high relief. (JRAS 1907, p. 527). “In the first place, this archaeological find affords the oldest known and clear example of the use of a copper-plate as a material for writing, especially for inscribing a record in Brahmi characters…Secondly, the record has its uniqueness and importance for the standard of Brahmi characters which it presents, the standard which, in the opinion of Dr. Fleet, ‘refers it to at any rate an early date in the Maurya period, BC 320 to about 180’… Non-religious nature of sign graphs on Sohgaura copper plate “Lastly, with regard to its subject-matter, the inscription is found to be a public notification about the judicious use of certain things in two storehouses by 8 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 9. persons carrying on traffic along the high roads leading to S’ra_vasti, or it may be, by persons carrying on traffic by all the three kinds of vehicles along the high roads, in times of urgent need…What we owe to Dr. Fleet’s study of the nature of the devices (used on the top line of the copper plate) is the recognition in all of them a significance other than that of religious symbols. To quote him in his words: ‘Two of them obviously represent the storehouses themselves, which are shown as shed with double roofs. The lower roof in each case is supported by four rows of posts; and these perhaps stand for four rows of posts, the front posts hiding, those behind them. In the other devices I recognize, not religious emblems, Buddhist or otherwise, -- (I mean, not religious emblems employed here as such), -- nor Mangalas, auspicious symbols, but the arms of the three towns mentioned in L3 of the record.’…” (BM Barua, 1929, The Sohgaura copper- plate inscription, ABORI, vol. 11, 1929, pp. 31-48). The text of the inscription (which is considered by some to of pre-Mauryan days, i.e. circa 4th century BCE) refers to some famine relief measures and notifies the establishment of two public storehouses at a junction of three great highways of vehicular traffic to meet the needs of persons (apparently merchants and metal- workers) using these roads. The first line which is full of glyphs or devices should relate to the inscription and the facilities provided to the traders. Next to the symbol of the kos.t.haagaara is a s’u_la (spear). This is phonetically cuula ‘kiln’ for metals to be heated and copper/bronze/brass vessels and tools, worked on by metalsmiths. Similarly, the first glyph of a tree on a platform can be read as kuti ‘tree’; another word kuti in Santali means a ‘furnace’ for melting metals. The other devices are: three peaks mounted by a rimless pot, a rim of a jar, a tree branch with a bird perched on top. These can also be explained in the context of Sarasvati heiroglyphs and the context of metals/minerals-trade. The second symbol from the left and the second symbol from the right may refer to a kos.t.haagaara. Ko.s.thaagaara is a pair of storehouses are referred to by this name in the Sohgaura plaque inscription, and illustrated on the same plaque (Fleet, The tradition about the corporeal relics of Buddha, JRAS, 1907, pp. 341-363: I find a mention of a place named Chanchu, which I take to be the same one, in the Sohgaura plate (JASB, 63, 1894. proceedings, 86, plate; IA, 25. 262). That record, as I understand it, is a public notification relating to three great highways of vehicular traffic…It notifies that at the junction, named Manavasi, of the three roads, in two villages named Dasilimata and Usagama, storehouses were made for the goods of people using the roads. It indicates the roads by mentioning in line 3, the three places to and from which they led; as regards the junction of them.). They are described as trigarbha, having three rooms; Fleet discusses this at length, but it is evident from the illustrations that these rooms are on three storeys, for the storehouses are represented as small three-storeyed pavilions; it is true that the roof of the top storey is quot;out of the picture,quot; but its supporting pillars can be clearly eeen. For another use of garbha as designating chambers of a many-storeyed building, see Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 48, no. 3, SEPT 1928, pp.250-275. 9 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 10. The devices on the top line of the Sohgaura copper plate can be read rebus as hieroglyphs, as in the case of Sarasvati hieroglyphs: 1. tree, kut.i (as smelting furnace); 2. tree twigs, kut.i (as smelting furnace); 3. cup, bat.i (as a furnace for melting iron ore); 4. bird, bat.a (as iron or metal); 4. two kos.t.ha_ga_ra (as storehouses), comparable to a sign graph with four posts used on Sarasvati epigraphs (so called Indus inscriptions); three mountains with a U graph on top summit. The presence of furnace facilities for working with metal tools in the two warehouses can be explained in the context of the types of conveyances, parts of which may require mending and to work/tinker on metallic articles and wares of itinerant merchants who need such publicly provided facilities in times of emergency as the s’a_sana in Brahmi writing notes. kut.hi kut.a, kut.i, kut.ha a tree (Kaus'.); kud.a tree (Pkt.); kur.a_ tree; kar.ek tree, oak (Pas;.)(CDIAL 3228). kut.ha, kut.a (Ka.), kudal (Go.) kudar. (Go.) kut.ha_ra, kut.ha, kut.aka = a tree (Skt.lex.) kut., kurun: = stump of a tree (Bond.a); khut. = id. (Or.) kut.a, kut.ha = a tree (Ka.lex.) gun.d.ra = a stump; khun.t.ut = a stump of a tree left in the ground (Santali.lex.) kut.amu = a tree (Te.lex.) kut.i, ‘smelting furnace’ (Mundari.lex.).kut.hi, kut.i (Or.; Sad. kot.hi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kut.ire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of e_kut.i has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kut.hi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari.lex.) cf. kan.d.a = furnace, altar (Santali.lex.) kut.i = a woman water-carrier (Te.lex.) kut.i = to drink; drinking, beverage (Ta.); drinking, water drunk after meals (Ma.); kud.t- to drink (To.); kud.i to drink; drinking (Ka.); kud.i to drink (Kod.); kud.i right, right hand (Te.); kut.i_ intoxicating liquor (Skt.)(DEDR 1654). The bunch of twigs = ku_di_, ku_t.i_ (Skt.lex.) ku_di_ (also written as ku_t.i_ in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kaus'ika Su_tra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badari_, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177). bat.i = a furnace for melting iron-ore (Santali.lex.) bhat.t.hi_ = [Skt. bhr.s.ti frying; fr. bhrasj to fry] a kiln, a furnace; an oven; a smith’s forge; a stove; the fireplace of a washer-man;a spirit still; a distillery; a brewery (G.lex.) 10 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 11. bat.i = a metal cup or basin; bhat.i = a still, a boiler, a copper; dhubi bhat.i = a washerman’s boiler; jhuli bhat.i = a trench in the ground used as a fireplace when cooking has to be done for a large number of people (Santali.lex.) bat.a = a quail, or snipe, coturuix coturnix cot; bon.d.e bat.a = a large quail; dak bat.a = the painted stripe, rostraluta benghalensis bengh; gun.d.ri bat.a = a small type, coloured like a gun.d.ri (quail); ku~k bat.a = a medium-sized type; khed.ra bat.a = the smallest of all; lan.d.ha bat.a = a small type (Santali.lex.) bat.ai, (Nag.); bat.er (Has.); [H. bat.ai or bat.er perdix olivacea; Sad. bat.ai] coturnix coromandelica, the black-breasted or rain-quail; two other kinds of quail are called respectigely: hur.in bat.ai and gerea bat.ai (Mundari.lex.) vartaka = a duck (Skt.) batak = a duck (G.lex.) vartika_ = quail (RV.); wuwrc partridge (Ash.); barti = quail, partridge (Kho.); vat.t.aka_ quail (Pali); vat.t.aya (Pkt.); bat.t.ai (N.)(CDIAL 11361). varta = *circular object; *turning round (Skt.); vat.u = twist (S.)(CDIAL 11346) bat.er = quail (Ku.B.); bat.ara, batara = the grey quail (Or.)(CDIAL 11350). bat.ai = to divide, share (Santali) [Note the glyphs of nine rectangles divided.] bat.a; rebus, bat.a ‘iron’ bat.a = a kind of iron (G.lex.) bhat.a = a furnace, a kiln; it.a bhat.a a brick kiln (Santali) This note has presented two continuities from Sarasvati civilization: 1. use of punches to mark devices on punch-marked coins and 2. use of copper plate to convey message related to an economic transaction. This continuity of tradition is linked by the metallurgical tradition of s’reni/artisan guilds working with metals, minerals and furnaces to create copper/bronze artifacts and terracotta or s’ankha bangles and ornaments of silver, copper or semi-precious stones such as agate, carnelian or lapis lazuli. The code of the writing system which was employed on Sarasvati hieroglyphs with 5 or 6 sign graphs constituting an inscription, is the same code which was employed on devices of punch-marked coins (produced in mints belonging to guilds) and on copper plate s’a_s’ana-s or historical periods of pre-mauryan times in India, like the evidence presented by Sohgaura copper plate. Since this plate contains a Brahmi inscription, this constitutes a Rosetta stone to explain the meanings of the sign graphs or glyphs employed on the top line of the plate in the context of the facilities provided in two warehouses to traveling caravan merchants or rive-faring merchants. Ancient India Coinage Silver karshapana of the Mauryan Empire A hill, a bull and an elephant 11 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 12. Mauryan Empire, 3rd century BC Northern India The first coinages of India used the same technology as the bent bars of the north-west regions, that is, pieces of silver, of any shape but of a specific weight, were struck with punches on one side. The earliest coins show great regional variation in design and in the number of punches used, but under the Mauryans smaller round or square coins with five random punch marks became standard. These coins circulated well beyond Mauryan borders; they have been excavated at sites from northern Afghanistan to Sri Lanka. In Indian texts they are called karshapana. Two of the punches are always a sun and a six-armed symbol. The other three may include representations of plants, animals, auspicious or religious symbols and everyday objects. This coin, for example has a tree on a hill, a bull and the rear part of an elephant. According to the Indian text Visuddhimagga, these marks enabled a money changer to know who issued each coin and where it was struck. P.L. Gupta and T.R. Hardaker, Ancient Indian silver punchmar (Nasik, 1985) J. Williams (ed.), Money: a history (London, The British Museum Press, 1997) http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/cm/s/silv er_karshapana_of_the_maury.aspx The first documented coinage is deemed to start with 'Punch Marked' coins issued between the 7th-6th century BC and 1st century AD. These coins are called 'punch-marked' coins because of their manufacturing technique. Mostly made of silver, these bear symbols, each of which was punched on the coin with a separate punch. Punch Marked Coin, Silver Bentbar Issued initially by merchant Guilds and later by States, the coins represented a trade currency belonging to a period of intensive trade activity and urban development. They are broadly classified into two periods : the first period (attributed to the Janapadas or small local states) and the second period (attributed to the Imperial Mauryan period). The motifs found on these coins were mostly drawn from nature like the sun, various animal motifs, trees, hills etc. and some were geometrical symbols. 12 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 13. Description Obverse Reverse Seven Symbols Five Symbols Five Symbols Representative Symbols appearing on Punch Marked Coins Description Coin 13 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 14. Asmaka Janapada Imperial Series Imperial Series Imperial Series Silver Punchmarked Coins 14 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 15. Satavahana The Satavahanas were the early rulers of the region between the rivers, Godavari and the Krishna. They were also referred to as the Andhras. They soon brought under their control, both the Western-Deccan and Central India. The dates of their coming in to power are contentious and are variously put between 270 BC to 30 BC. Their coins were predominantly of copper and lead, however, silver issues are also known. These coins carried the motifs of fauna like elephants, lions, bulls, horses, etc. often juxtaposed against motifs from nature like hills, tree, etc. The silver coins of the Satavahanas carried portraits and bilingual legends, which were inspired by the Kshatrapa types. Coins of the Satavahana 15 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 16. Western Kshatrapa The term Western Kshatraps alludes to the set of rulers who ruled Western India between the 1st and 4th Century AD. The legends on the coins were generally in Greek and Brahmi. Kharoshti too was used. The Western Kshatrap coins are reckoned to be the earliest coins bearing dates. The common copper coins are the 'bull and hill' and the 'elephant and hill' types. Description Obverse Reverse Rudrasimha I, 180-196 AD Viradaman, 234-238 AD Coins of the Western Kshatrapas Other Coins In the interregnum between the fall of the Maurayans and the rise of the Guptas various tribal republics in the Punjab and monarchies in the Indo-Gangetic plain issued coins. Most coins were issued in Copper. The coins of the Yaudheyas were influenced in design and motif by the coins of the Kushans. They followed the weights of the Indo-bacterian rulers. 16 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 17. Coin of the Yaudheyas Gupta Gupta coinage (4th-6th centuries AD) followed the tradition of the Kushans, depicting the king on the obverse and a deity on the reverse; the deities were Indian and the legends were in Brahmi. The earliest Gupta coins are attributed to Samudragupta, Chandragupta II and Kumaragupta and their coins often commemorate dynastic succession as well as significant socio-political events, like marriage alliances, the horse sacrifice, etc (King and queen type of coin of Chandragupta 1, Asvamedha type, etc.), or for that matter artistic and personal accomplishments of royal members (Lyrist, Archer, Lion-slayer etc.). Description Obverse Reverse King as Horseman 17 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 18. King as Lion Slayer King & Queen Type Fan-Tailed Peacock Coins of the Guptas Post-Gupta Coinage Post-Gupta coinage (6th-12th centuries AD), is represented by a monotonous and aesthetically less interesting series of dynastic issues including those of Harsha (7th century AD, Kalachuri of Tripuri (11th century AD) and early medieval Rajputs (9th-12th centuries AD). Gold coins struck between this period are rare. These were revived by Gangeyadeva the Kalachuri ruler who issued the 'Seated Lakshmi Coins' which were copied by later rulers both in gold as well as in debase form. The Bull & Horseman type of coins were the most common motif appearing on coins struck by the Rajput clans. In western India, imported coins like the Byzantine solidi were often used reflecting trade with the Eastern Roman Empire. Description Obverse Reverse 18 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 19. Seated Lakshmi Bull & Horseman South Indian Coinage The symbols and motifs on South Indian coin issues were confined to dynastic crests such as the boar (Chalukya), bull (Pallava), tiger (Chola), fish (Pandya and Alupas), bow and arrow (Cheras) and lion (Hoysala) etc. The Yadavas of Devagiri issued 'Padmatankas' with an eight-petalled lotus on the obverse and a blank reverse. Coin legends refer to names or titles of the issuer in local scripts and languages. Decorative features are rare and divinities are almost absent till the medieval Vijayanagar period (14th - 16th centuries AD). Description Obverse Reverse Coins of the Cheras 11th - 13th Centuries 19 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 20. Coins of the Cheras 11th - 13th Centuries Coins of the Cholas 9th - 13th Centuries Coins of the Alupas of Udipi 11th - 13th Centuries Padmatankas, Coins of the Yadavas of Devagiri 12th - 14th Centuries http://www.rbi.org.in/currency/museum/c-ancient.html 20 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 21. p.79 Kothari, Narendra, 2006, History and background of the coinage and the Ujjain symbol with catalog of Malwa, Avanti, Surasena, and Ujjain series of cast copper and silver punchmarked coins. 128p. 21 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 22. +Punch-marked coin Punch-marked coins 22 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 23. http://sarasvati97.spaces.live.com/photos/cns!A74A2ADBFA0A3358!529/ 23 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 24. Ujjain coin (Obverse and reverse) Audumbura coin Pandya coins Chera coins 24 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 25. 25 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 26. 26 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 27. Ujjain Jeweller’s 6 in. square seal (Showing three-peaks and vedika glyphs) 27 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 28. Ancient and Medieval Indian Coins @ www.AncientCoins.ca RARE and superb! Earliest large silver shatamana (double siglos or bent bar) issue, Gandhara (ca.600-500 BC) - FIRST Indian coin US$ issue every struck! Long concave silver bar, 41mm 230.00 long, 10mm wide, struck with a 6-armed Gandharan symbol on each end. 11.5 grams. Rajgor 540-545 var. Stock #24211 RARE and superb! Earliest large silver shatamana (double siglos or bent bar) issue, Gandhara (ca.600-500 BC) - FIRST Indian coin US$ issue every struck! Long concave silver bar, 41mm 225.00 long, 10mm wide, struck with a 6-armed Gandharan symbol on each end. 11.5 grams. Rajgor 540-545 var. Stock #24210. RARE and superb! Earliest large silver shatamana (double siglos or bent bar) issue, Gandhara (ca.600-500 BC) - FIRST Indian coin US$ issue every struck! Long concave silver bar, 38mm 210.00 long, 11mm wide, struck with a 6-armed Gandharan symbol on each end. 11.2 grams. Rajgor 540-545 var. Stock #24209. RARE and superb! Earliest large silver shatamana (double siglos or bent bar) issue, Gandhara (ca.600-500 BC) - FIRST Indian coin US$ issue every struck! Long concave silver bar, 37mm 240.00 long, 11mm wide, struck with a 6-armed Gandharan symbol on each end. 11.5 grams. Rajgor 540-545 var. Stock #24212. Rare and superb silver cup-shaped 1/8th shatamana (shana) from Gandhara Janapada, US$ ca.500-400 BC. Punchmark (6-armed Gandharan 60.00 symbol with a dot between two of the arms) / blank. SOLD 15mm, 1.5 grams. Rare. Rajgor 578. Stock #24243. US$ 46.00 Rare! Early punch silver drachm, Kasala Kingdom, ca.600-470 B Irregular flat silver plachet. Number of various punched symbols / Various punch sy 28 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 29. Nice quality metal. Rare pre-Maurian silver. 20x16mm, 3.0grams. Stock #24220. First issue HUGE silver karshapana, Bhattiya to Ajatashatru (ca. BC), Magadha. Five various punchmarks / Blank. HUGE silver sqaure pl rare 1st issue karshapana. 21x20mm, 3.4 grams. Gupta and Hadraker I X (#165). Stock #24208. Note: A wonderful huge silver coin from the lifeti Buddha. First issue Karshapanas are very rare, and are hard to find. First issue HUGE silver karshapana, Bhattiya to Ajatashatru (ca. BC), Magadha. Five various punchmarks / Blank. HUGE silver sqaure pl rare 1st issue karshapana. 22x25mm, 3.4 grams. Gupta and Hadraker I X 2 (#259). Stock #24207. Note: A wonderful huge silver coin from the life Buddha. First issue Karshapanas are very rare, and are hard to find. Extremely rare! Second issue HUGE silver karshapana, times of Uddayina (ca.461-445 BC), Magadha. Five various punchmarks / blank. silver planchet, rare 2ndissue karshapana. 24x20mm, 3.5 grams. Gupta Hadraker II IX A 2 (#281). Stock #24206. Note: A wonderful huge silver from the lifetime of Buddha. First issue Karshapanas are very rare, and to find. Rare early punch silver drachm, Magadha Kingdom, Successors Ajatashatru (462 - 414 BC). 22mm. Irregular flat silver planchet. Traces least 9 punched symbols including: 2 suns; 6-armed symbol; elephant; d surrounded by taurine symbols /Various bankers marks. VF, nice metal nice and large! Rare pre-Maurian silver. These high quality large karsha are very rare and fairly expensive. Mitchiner ACW 3997v.; Gupta/Harda 305 var. Stock #23547. Silver drachm of Ashoka (ca.272-232 BC), Mauryan Empire. Squ punch drachm. Various marks and Ashoka's royal symbol / Ashoka's ro symbol. G/H-557. 11x16mm, 3.0grams. VF. Stock #23995. 29 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 30. RARE and superb! Earliest large silver shatamana (double siglos or bent bar) issue, Gandhara (ca.600-500 BC) - FIRST Indian coin issue every struck! Long concave silver bar, 37mm long, 11mm wide, struck with a 6- armed Gandharan symbol on each end. 11.5 grams. Rajgor 540-545 var. Stock #24212. http://www.ancientcoins.ca/india.html Rare and superb silver cup-shaped 1/8th shatamana (shana) from Gandhara Janapada, ca.500-400 BC. Punchmark (6-armed Gandharan symbol with a dot between two of the arms) / blank. 15mm, 1.5 grams. Rare. Rajgor 578. Stock #24243. 30 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 31. Early punch silver drachm, Kasala Kingdom, ca.600-470 BC. Irregular flat silver plachet. Number of various punched symbols / Various punch symbols. Nice quality metal. Very nice and large! Rare pre-Maurian silver. 19x14mm, 2.7grams, Murphy Kasala IIIc.1.3.2. Stock #v181. Early punch silver drachm, Kasala Kingdom, ca.600-470 BC. Irregular flat silver plachet. Number of various punched symbols / Various punch symbols. Nice quality metal. Rare pre-Maurian silver. 16x15mm, 3.0grams. Stock #24221. 31 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 32. First issue HUGE silver karshapana, Bhattiya to Ajatashatru (ca.550- 461 BC), Magadha. Five various punchmarks / Blank. HUGE silver sqaure planchet, rare 1st issue karshapana. 21x20mm, 3.4 grams. Gupta and Hadraker I XIV A 1 (#165). Stock #24208. Note: A wonderful huge silver coin from the lifetime of Buddha. First issue Karshapanas are very rare, and are hard to find. First issue HUGE silver karshapana, Bhattiya to Ajatashatru (ca.550- 461 BC), Magadha. Five various punchmarks / Blank. HUGE silver sqaure planchet, rare 1st issue karshapana. 22x25mm, 3.4 grams. Gupta and Hadraker I XXXVI A 2 (#259). Stock #24207. Note: A wonderful huge silver coin 32 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 33. from the lifetime of Buddha. First issue Karshapanas are very rare, and are hard to find. Extremely rare! Second issue HUGE silver karshapana, times of Uddayina (ca.461-445 BC), Magadha. Five various punchmarks / blank. Large silver planchet, rare 2ndissue karshapana. 24x20mm, 3.5 grams. Gupta and Hadraker II IX A 2 (#281). Stock #24206. Note: A wonderful huge silver coin from the lifetime of Buddha. First issue Karshapanas are very rare, and are hard to find. Successors of Ajatashatru (ca. 445-414 BC) 33 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 34. Rare early punch silver drachm, Magadha Kingdom, Successors of Ajatashatru (462 - 414 BC). 22mm. Irregular flat silver planchet. Traces of at least 9 punched symbols including: 2 suns; 6-armed symbol; elephant; dog surrounded by taurine symbols /Various bankers marks. VF, nice metal. Very nice and large! Rare pre- Maurian silver. These high quality large karshapanas are very rare and fairly expensive. Mitchiner ACW 3997v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 305 var. Stock #23547. Rare early punch silver drachm, Magadha Kingdom, Successors of 34 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 35. Ajatashatru (462 - 414 BC). 28mm. Irregular flat silver planchet. Traces of at least 9 punched symbols including: 2 suns; 6-armed symbol; elephant; dog surrounded by taurine symbols /Various bankers marks. VF, nice metal. Very nice and large! Rare pre-Maurian silver. Mitchiner ACW 3997v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 305 var. Stock #23548. Eight Sons of Mahapadma Nanda (circa 340 - 320 BC) Rare early punch silver drachm, Period of the Eight Sons of Mahapadma Nanda (circa 340 - 320 BC). At least 6 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, plant on hill symbol, humped bull, elephant and taurine (?) symbol / A number of punchmarks. aEF, rare. Mitchiner ACW 4054v. Stock #23543. Early silver Karshapana. Period of Chandragupta (circa 321 - 297 BC). Various symbol / Four bull heads around pellet. aF, rare. Stock #23631. 35 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 36. Early silver Karshapana. Period of Chandragupta (circa 321 - 297 BC). Various symbol / uncertain punch-marks on reverse. 13x17mm, 3.2grams. VF, rare. Stock #23985. Early silver silver karshapana of Bindusara (ca.297-272 BC), Mauryan Empire. Round flat silver planchet (15mm, 3.3g). Various punch-mark symbols / A single small punch-mark. Scarce. G/H-519. Stock #23964. 36 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 37. Drachm of Ashoka (ca.272-232 BC), Mauryan Empire. Square punch drachm. Two symbols on obverse - an elephant, various marks around, and Ashoka's royal symbol / Ashoka's royal symbol, uncertain punch-marks on reverse. Unpublished!!! 16x10mm, 2.9grams. VF. Stock #23534. Excellent silver drachm of Ashoka (ca.272-232 BC), Mauryan Empire. Square punch drachm. Various marks and Ashoka's royal symbol / Ashoka's royal symbol. G/H-552. 14x14mm, 3.5grams. VF. Stock #23989. Ujjain mint silver drachm, Period of Ashoka (272-232 BC), Mauryan 37 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 38. Empire Five punched symbols: Sun, three-armed symbol, thee-arched hill, Ashoka's symbol and a figure of a warrior, holding spear and a small shield / Ashoka's symbol. 14x12 mm, 3.3 grams. Malwa mint (Ujjain). VF. Rare. Stock #23858 Ujjain mint silver drachm, Period of Ashoka (272-232 BC), Mauryan Empire Five punched symbols: Sun, three-armed symbol, thee-arched hill, Ashoka's symbol and a figure of a warrior, holding spear and a small shield / Ashoka's symbol. 10x16 mm, 3.0 grams. Malwa mint (Ujjain). VF. Rare. Stock #23862 Silver drachm of Samprati (ca.216-207 BC), Mauryan Empire. Irregular square punch drachm. Various symbols on obverse / central dot surrounded with two crescents and two arrowheads. G/H 574 16x12mm, 3.4 grams. aVF, scarce this nice. Stock #23987. 38 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 39. Later Sungas, bronze half karshapana (ca.150 BC-100 AD), Sunga Kingdom (187-75 BC). Cross left, three-arched hill (chaitya) with crescent, above; railed tree, right / Elephant left; symbol. 16mm, 3.0 grams. Mitchiner ACW 4381v. Stock #23946. US$ 18.00 Later Sungas, bronze half karshapana (ca.150 BC-100 AD), Sunga Kingdom (187-75 BC). Cross left, three-arched hill (chaitya) with crescent, above; railed tree, right / Elephant left; symbol. 16mm, 3.1 grams. Mitchiner ACW 4381v. Stock #22904. US$ 7.00 39 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 40. Later Sungas, bronze half karshapana (ca.150 BC-100 AD), Sunga Kingdom (187-75 BC). Cross left, three-arched hill (chaitya) with crescent, above; railed tree, right / Elephant left; symbol. 16mm, 3.1 grams. Mitchiner ACW 4381v. Stock #22913. Early punch 1/4 karshapana, Sunga Kingdom (187-75 BC). Various [punch marks / Ashoka's royal symbol. Early type, imitating Mauryan silver karshapanas. aVF for the type. Stock #23638. US$ 6.00 SOLD Superb and rare silver drachm, Kuninda, 2nd century BC. 18mm. Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by Lakshmi holding a lotus flower. Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script): quot;Rajnah Kunindasya 40 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 41. Amoghabhutisya maharajasyaquot; / Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a quot;Yquot; symbol, and a tree in railing. Kharoshti legend. Superb EF, rare, especially this nice! 18mm, 2.1 grams. MACW 4440-4441; ACC #4. Stock #24247. US$ 145.00 Superb and rare silver drachm, Kuninda, 2nd century BC. 18mm. Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by Lakshmi holding a lotus flower. Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script): quot;Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasyaquot; / Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a quot;Yquot; symbol, and a tree in railing. Kharoshti legend. Superb EF, rare, especially this nice! 18mm, 2.1 grams. MACW 4440-4441; ACC #4. Stock #24248. US$ 145.00 41 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 42. Superb and rare silver drachm, Kuninda, 2nd century BC. 18mm. Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by Lakshmi holding a lotus flower. Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script): quot;Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasyaquot; / Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a quot;Yquot; symbol, and a tree in railing. Kharoshti legend. Superb EF, rare, especially this nice! Superb EF, rare, especially this nice! 18mm, 2.2 grams. MACW 4440-4441; ACC #4. Stock #24246. US$ 145.00 SOLD Superb and rare silver drachm, Kuninda, 2nd century BC. 18mm. Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by Lakshmi holding a lotus flower. Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script): quot;Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya 42 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 43. maharajasyaquot; / Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a quot;Yquot; symbol, and a tree in railing. Kharoshti legend. Superb EF, rare, especially this nice! AIC pg. 146, 1; MACW 4442; Senior pg. 233. Stock #23696. US$ 160.00 SOLD http://www.ancientcoins.ca/india.html This is a Yadava-type silver coin of Bhoja Deva, the Paramara ruler of Vidarbha-North Telingana who was a Rastrakuta feudatory . The 'peacock' is a part of the Yadava-style lion, what one sees as the neck of the bird is actually a raised front leg, when turned upside downv The legend that appears above is 'Sri Bho ja De va'. 43 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 44. 1) Ruler : Shilaharas of Kolhapur , King Bhoja ? 2) Year : 12 th Century AD 3) Unit : Unknown , Silver 4) Obverse : Garuda standing to right, fighting with Serpent, three dots behind the head of Garuda. 5) Reverse : Inscription in Kannada script the larger is 'Bh' and the smaller, placed inside the larger, is ‘Ra’, which accompanied with Sun and Moon symbol. Coins of Gandhara Janapada - 1/8 Satamana : 44 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 45. 1) Ruler : Gandhara Janapada : Taxila-Gandhara region . 2) Year : 600 BC - 450 BC 3) Unit : 1/8 Satamana , Silver 4) Obverse : Circular design composed of six tridents and a pole radiating from a central circle 5) Reverse : Blank , Counterstruck on rev http://www.geocities.com/ancientcoinsofindia/earlya.html Early Cast Copper Coins of Kausambi region : 45 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 46. 1) Ruler : Unknown , Copper Cast Coin , Kausambi 2) Year : Unknown ? 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Elephant standing to left , Swastika , taurine , triangular headed standard 5) Reverse : Tree in railing , Wheel , Ujjain symbol , 46 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 47. 1) Ruler : Unknown , Copper Cast Coin , Kausambi 2) Year : Unknown ? 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Elephant standing to left 5) Reverse : Ujjain Symbol Early Cast Copper Coins of Vidarbha region : 1) Ruler : Unknown , Copper Cast Coin , Vidarbha 2) Year : Unknown ? 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Hollow cross 5) Reverse : Tree in railing 47 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 48. 1) Ruler : Unknown , Copper Cast Coin , Vidarbha 2) Year : Unknown ? 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Hollow cross 5) Reverse : Blank Uninscribed coins of Narmada Valley: 48 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 49. 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Narmada Valley 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : A group of four nandipadas with common orb with one ujjain symbol at the centre and two taurine symbols between each nandipadas 5) Reverse : Blank 49 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 50. 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Narmada Valley 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Hollow cross with whirl ? inside , beaded square. 5) Reverse : Blank 6) Reference : Nil 50 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 51. 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Narmada Valley 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Tree in railing , river below 5) Reverse : Blank http://www.geocities.com/ancientcoinsofindia/early7kau.html 51 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 52. Uninscribed coins of Ujjain or Ujjaini : 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Ujjain or Ujjaini : Anonymous/Symbol series 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. ( circa 150 - 75 BC ) 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Male and Female Figures standing , small dot between both figures River with fishes and tortoises/frog below . 5) Reverse : Ujjain symbol with taurine symbol in each orb . 6) Reference : Nil 52 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 53. 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Ujjain or Ujjaini : Anonymous/Symbol series 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. ( circa 150 - 75 BC ) 3) Unit : AE Half Karshapana (?) , Copper 4) Obverse : 6-armed symbol, railed tree to left, rectangle containing tortoises/frog and fish above, other symbols. 5) Reverse : Ujjain symbol 53 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 54. 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Ujjain or Ujjaini : Anonymous/Symbol series 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. ( circa 150 - 75 BC ) 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Hexaradiate symbol 5) Reverse : Ujjain symbol with dot in each orb . 6) Reference : Nil 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Ujjain or Ujjaini : Anonymous/Symbol series 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. ( circa 150 - 75 BC ) 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Swastika with bull head ends. 5) Reverse : 6-armed and Male figure holding spear ( Kartikeya ?). 6) Reference : Nil 54 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 55. (Note : These issues found in Ujjain but are known from Saurashtra - Kathiawar region ) Uninscribed coins of Ujjain or Ujjaini ( Or Kathiawar ): 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Ujjain or Ujjaini : Anonymous/Symbol series 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. ( circa 150 - 75 BC ) 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Swastika with bull head ends. 5) Reverse : Taurine and other symbols. 6) Reference : Nil (Note : These issues found in Ujjain but are known from Saurashtra - 55 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 56. Kathiawar region ) Uninscribed coins of Eran-Vidisha : 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Eran-Vidisha 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Tree in railing , Nadipada, Taurine in semicircle , Swastika , Triangular headed standard River with fishes and tortoises below . 5) Reverse : Blank 6) Reference : Nil 56 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 57. 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Eran-Vidisha 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Tree in railing , Nadipada, Taurine in semicircle , Swastika , Triangular headed standard River with fishes and tortoises below . 5) Reverse : Blank 57 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 58. 1) Ruler : Uninscribed coins of Eran-Vidisha 2) Year : 2nd- 1st Century B.C. 3) Unit : Unknown , Copper 4) Obverse : Tree in railing , Taurine in semicircle. 5) Reverse : Blank Illustration of Coin (Reverse) 1) Ruler : City state of Bhadravati , Vidarbha region 2) Year : Unknown ( 200 BC ?) 3) Unit : Unknown ? , Copper 4) Obverse : Elephant standing to right , Standard above Elephant 5) Reverse : Tree in railing; Inscription: Bhadavati 6) Reference : Similar Coin was Published by Mr Prashant P Kulkarni in ICS 58 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com
  • 59. Newsletter No 1 ( April 1990) as ' New Coins of Chhimuka Satavahana ' http://www.geocities.com/ancientcoinsofindia/ujain.htm 59 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com