Total Productivity Maintenance – Assignment presented by Roll Nos. 56 to 60 What is TPM?Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a well-defined and time-tested conceptfor maintaining plants and equipment. TPM can be considered the science ofmachinery health.TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives: Avoid waste in a quickly changing economic environment. Produce goods without reducing product quality. Reduce costs. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. Send only non-defective parts to the customers.TPM involves all Denso Associates. The major difference between TPM andother concepts is that the Production Operators are directly involved in theprocess of maintaining their equipment.Total Productivity Maintenance – History & Why we need TPMTotal productive maintenance (TPM) originated in Japan in 1971 as a methodfor improved machine availability through better utilization of maintenance andproduction resources.Whereas in most production settings the operator is not viewed as a member ofthe maintenance team, in TPM the machine operator is trained to performmany of the day-to-day tasks of simple maintenance and fault-finding. Teamsare created that include a technical expert (often an engineer or maintenancetechnician) as well as operators. In this setting the operators are enabled tounderstand the machinery and identify potential problems, righting thembefore they can impact production and by so doing, decrease downtime andreduce costs of production.TPM is a critical adjunct to lean manufacturing. If machine uptime is notpredictable and if process capability is not sustained, the process must keepextra stocks to buffer against this uncertainty and flow through the processwill be interrupted. Unreliable uptime is caused by breakdowns or badlyperformed maintenance. Correct maintenance will allow uptime to improve andspeed production through a given area allowing a machine to run at itsdesigned capacity of production.
One way to think of TPM is "deterioration prevention": deterioration is whathappens naturally to anything that is not "taken care of". TPM is a proactiveapproach that essentially aims to identify issues as soon as possible and planto prevent any issues before occurrence. One motto is "zero error, zero work-related accident, and zero loss".Why we need TPM ?The major objectives of the TPM are listed as under : 1. Avoid wastage in quickly changing environment. 2. Reduce Cost of Manufacturing. 3. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. 4. Goods send to Customers must be “ non – defective”TPM – Goal 1. Increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. 2. Hold emergency & unscheduled maintenance to a minimum. Maintenance is no – longer regarded as a Non – Profit activity.Types of MaintenanceThe major categories of Maintenance include: a. Breakdown Maintenance b. Preventive Maintenance c. Predictive Maintenance d. Corrective Maintenance e. Maintenance Prevention a. Breakdown Maintenance is when we wait for equipment to fail and then repair it. Forexample, some electronic equipment is simply replaced when it fails. b. Preventive Maintenance is periodic maintenance that retains the condition of equipment andprevents failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection,and equipmentcondition diagnosis. PM includes daily cleaning, inspection, lubrication andtightening.
c. Preventive Maintenance is further divided into i. Periodic Maintenance and (ii) Predictive Maintenance. i. Periodic Maintenance is time-based, which involves periodically inspecting, servicing, and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent problems. ii. Predictive Maintenance is condition-based, which involves predicting the service life of important parts based upon inspection or diagnosis, to use the parts to the limit of their service life. d. Corrective Maintenance improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be performed reliably. Equipment with a design weakness is redesigned with corrective maintenance to improve reliability or maintainability. e. Maintenance Prevention deals with improving the design of new equipment. Current machine data (information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance, prevention of defects, safety, and ease of manufacturing) are studied and designs are incorporated in new equipment.Motives of TPM Adoption of Life – Cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipments Improving Productivity by highly motivated workers which is achieved by Job – Enlargement Formation of team of volunteers for activities viz, cause of failure, possible reduction of cycle time; and equipment / process modifications.Uniqueness of TPM The major difference between TPM and other concepts is that the operators arealso made to involve in the maintenance process.Total productive maintenance - KAIZEN (Pillar of TPM)KAI means change and ZEN means good (for the better). Basically Kaizen is forsmall improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involves allpeople in the organization. The principal behind is that “ a very large number ofsmall improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than afew improvements of large value.
This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the work place that affect ourefficiencies. By using a detailed and through procedure, we eliminate losses ina systematic method using various Kaizen Tools. These activities are notrestricted to production areas and can be implemented in administration areaas well.Kaizen Policy1. Practice concepts of Zero Losses in every sphere of activities.2. Relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all sources.3. Relentless pursuit to improve overall plant equipment effectiveness.4. Extensive use of PM analysis as tool to eliminate losses.5. Focus on easy handling of operators.Target- Achieve and sustain zero losses with respect to minor stops,measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtime. It alsoaims to achieve …..% manufacturing cost reduction.Example - Toyota and Total Productive MaintenanceOne of the most recognizable symbols in modern manufacturing is the “TPSHouse” diagram as shown below. The diagram is a simple representation of theToyota Production System (TPS) that Toyota developed to teach their supplybase the principles of the TPS. The foundation of the house representsoperational stability and has several components, one of which is TotalProductive Maintenance.Working with little inventory and stopping production when there is a problem causesinstability and a sense of urgency among workers. In mass production, when a machine goesdown, there is no sense of urgency; excess inventory will keep the operation running whilemaintenance fixes the problem. In lean production, when an operator shuts down productionto fix a problem, the line will soon stop producing, creating a crisis and a sense of urgency. Aproperly implemented and maintained Total Productive Maintenance System (TPM) will providethe needed stability for lean production.A little more than 30 years ago, an automotive supplier company in Japan (Nippondenso)realized that until you address and systematically eliminate the causes of poor equipmentperformance, you cannot deliver to your customers “just in time,” improve quality levels, loweroperating costs or improve profits. In 1969, the ideas of Total Productive Maintenance,facilitated by Seiichi Nakajima, helped take the Toyota Production System to the next level.Since the Toyota Production System was focused on the absolute elimination of waste to reducemanufacturing cost, TPM was designed to systematically identify and eliminate equipment
losses (downtime, inefficiency, defects). In implementing lean manufacturing practices,machine availability plays an important role. Preventive maintenance is a key aspect inensuring machine availability. This practice achieves maximum efficient usage of machinesthrough total employee involvement.Toyota has created an organizational culture that encourages employee participation, which isessential for successful TPM. Group activities are promoted among the shop-floor teammembers. The knowledge base of all the employees is used to improve equipment reliability andproductivity thereby lowering maintenance and operating costs. Two other important aspects ofTPM are training and open communication between operators and engineering. Productionpersonnel are trained to perform routine maintenance.The traditional approach to preventive maintenance is a clear-cut division of labor. Machine operators perform routine maintenance functions. Maintenance technicians are responsible for specialized maintenance and for improving maintainability. Engineering is responsible for improving the process.This practice is not capable of achieving the TPM targets, as there is a lack of communicationbetween operating and maintenance teams.Nippondenso came out with an alternative approach of appointing a machine technician (MT)that supports communication between operators and maintenance. The responsibilities of theMT were to perform minor maintenance and repair tasks. These MTs underwent classroomtraining on tool finishing and fitting as well as on-the-job training. On-the-job training gavethem exposure to machines and helped them gain expertise in their area.There are two different types of philosophies of TPM. Firstly, there is the centralizedmaintenance approach. This requires maintenance personnel to be cross-trained, thusproviding flexibility of using a number of workers for scheduling maintenance tasks. Thisflexibility is essential because as workers move up in seniority level, there is a tendency to optfor convenient shifts instead of third shift.The second approach is decentralization. As personnel become more experienced in onefunctional area, they gain more expertise. Sometimes it requires six months of training before aperson becomes proficient in a new area. Thus, frequent job rotations may result in under-utilization of skills gained through training. A good example of this type of approach is atHonda Motors for its three departments – suspension assembly, facilities and engine assembly.Each department has a separate maintenance team. The reasons for this shift were the needfor 12 to 18 months of training in each area, and local regulations required maintenance totake place only on weekends and shutdowns.Toyota has a centralized maintenance function with cross-trained employees. The benefits ofdecentralized maintenance are derived from the use of MTs. These MT’s are experts in their
areas. However, availability of limited maintenance personnel necessitates cross-trainedemployees.Toyota also collects data for analysis and trend establishment. Sufficient data on the trend andpattern of equipment’s performance should be available for identifying and setting upstandards and procedures for preventive maintenance. This data would also be useful indetermining costs of preventive maintenance and repairs, run-to-failure vs. preventivemaintenance, and failure history.Organizations also need to evaluate the impact of organizational structure and processes onpreventive maintenance. Change in these can have an overwhelming impact on employeemorale, efficiency and effectiveness. As Toyota has shown, preventive maintenancemanagement calls for long-term commitment to the goal and pays dividends in the long run.