Indian culture


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Indian culture

  1. 1. Foundation of Indian Culture “India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a subcontinent of nationalities.” ― Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  2. 2. Vande Mataram Vande Mātaram - "I bow to thee, Mother" - is a poem from Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay's 1882 novel Anandamath. It was written in Bengali and Sanskrit.
  4. 4. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% RELIGIONS OF INDIA
  5. 5. Hinduism Sanskrit: सिन्धु "Sindhu" (Indus River) + ism • Hinduism is often regarded as the oldest religion in the world and is believed to have been existed for 5,000 years. It has neither a specific moment of origin nor a specific founder. • It is considered to be collection of sacred texts known, as a whole, as ‘Sanatana Dharma’, "The Eternal Teaching.“ • Hinduism is grounded in the doctrines of ‘samsara’ (the cycle of rebirth) and ‘karma’ (the universal law of cause and effect), and fundamentally holds that one's thoughts and actions directly determine one's life.
  6. 6. • Hinduism is typically divided into four major sects: ‘Shaiva’ (devotees of the god Shiva), ‘Vaishnava’ (devotees of the god Vishnu), ‘Shakta’ (devotees of the goddess), and ‘Smarta’ (those who understand the ultimate form of the divine to be abstract and all encompassing, Brahman). • The Vedas form the foundation of Hinduism, the bedrock upon which the entire tradition is built. There are four vedas, namely: 1. The Rigveda 2. The Yajurveda 3. The Samaveda 4. The Atharvaveda • “Om” is composed of three separate sounds. The first embodies the three worlds—the earth, atmosphere, and heavens; the second embodies the three great gods— Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva; and the third, three of the Vedas— the Rig, Yajur, and Sama.
  7. 7. Islam • Islam is the second-largest religion in India, making up 13.4% of the country's population with about 176 million adherents. • The first great expansion of Islam into India came during the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs, who were based in Damascus. • Later the leaders such as Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Tughluq expanded Muslim political domains without altering the religious or social fabric of Indian society.
  8. 8. • The largest concentration –about 47% of all Muslims in India, live in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Bihar. • India has four sects of Muslims, namely: 1. Shia Muslims 2. Dawoodi Bohra 3. Ahmadiyya Islam 4. Quranists • Over the years, there has been significant integration of Hindu and Muslim cultures across India and the Muslims have played a prominent role in India’s economic rise and cultural influence.
  9. 9. Christianity • Christianity was introduced to India by Thomas the Apostle, who visited Muziris in Kerala in 52 CE. • Christianity in India has different denominations, like Roman Catholicism, Oriental Orthodox Christianity and Protestantism. • Christianity is practised by over 17.3 million people in India which represents less than 2% of the total population.
  10. 10. • Christianity in India was expanded in the 15th Century by Catholic Portuguese expeditions and by Protestant British and American missionaries in the 18th century. • Most Catholics reside in South India, particularly in Goa and Kerala, there are also large Christian populations in the North-east Indian states.
  11. 11. Sikhism • Guru Nanak (1469–1539) was the founder of Sikhism. • Sikhism recognizes all humans as equal before Waheguru, regardless of color, caste or lineage. • It rejects the beliefs of idol worship and circumcision. • "The central teaching in Sikhism is the belief in the concept of the oneness of God." Sikhism considers spiritual life and secular life to be intertwined.
  12. 12. • There are few religious prohibitions in Sikhism. 1. Cutting hair 2. Intoxication 3. Blind spirituality 4. Material obsession 5. Sacrifice of creatures 6. Non-family-oriented living 7. Worthless talk 8. Priestly class 9. Eating meat killed in a ritualistic manner (Kutha meat) 10. Having extramarital sexual relations.
  13. 13. Buddhism • It arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One"). • The practice of Buddhism as a distinct and organized religion declined from the land of its origin in around 13th century, but not without leaving a significant impact. • In modern times, two major branches of Buddhism exist: the Theravāda in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and the Mahāyāna throughout the Himalayas and East Asia.
  14. 14. Jainism • Jainism has its roots from the Indus Valley Civilization, reflecting native spirituality prior to the Indo-Aryan migration into India. • The word Jainism is derived from a Sanskrit verb ‘Jin’ which means to conquer. • Jainism prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings and emphasizes spiritual independence and equality between all forms of life. • During the 5th century BCE, Vardhamana Mahāvīra became one of the most influential teachers of Jainism.
  15. 15. Festivals in India • India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. • The three national holidays in India, the Independence Day, the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti, are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India.
  16. 16. • In addition, many Indian states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. • Popular Indian festivals include the Hindu festivals which are as follows: 1. Navratri 2. Diwali 3. Maha Shivratri 4. Ganesh Chaturthi 5. Durga Puja 6. Holi 7. Ugadi 8. Rakshabandhan 9. Dusshera
  17. 17. Navratri • Navratri is a festival dedicated to the worship of the Hindu deity Durga. • The word Navratri means 'nine nights' in Sanskrit, nav meaning nine and ratri meaning nights. • During these nine nights and ten days, nine forms of Shakti/Devi are worshiped. • The tenth day is commonly referred to as Vijayadashami or "Dussehra”.
  18. 18. Diwali • Diwali is an ancient Hindu festival celebrated in autumn every year. • The festival spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, good over evil, and hope over despair. • Before Diwali night, people clean, renovate and decorate their homes. • Also called as ‘Festivals of Lights’.
  19. 19. Ganesh Chaturthi • Ganesha Chaturthi is the Hindu festival celebrated on the birthday (rebirth) of the lord Ganesha, the son of Shiva and Parvati. • It is believed that Lord Ganesh bestows his presence on earth for all his devotees during this festival. • Ganesha is widely worshiped as the god of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune and traditionally invoked at the beginning of any new venture or at the start of travel. • The festival, also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi.
  20. 20. Holi • Holi is a spring festival also known as festival of colours, and sometimes festival of love. • Ancient Hindu Festival which is popular amongst Non-Hindus as well. • Famous Holika and Prahlad story behind celebrating Holi.
  21. 21. Rakshabandhan • Raksha Bandhan is a Hindu festival that celebrates the love and duty between brothers and sisters; the festival is also popularly used to celebrate any brother-sister like loving protective relationship between men and women who are relatives or biologically unrelated. • The Rajput queens practised the custom of sending rakhi threads to neighbouring rulers as token of brotherhood.
  22. 22. • Several harvest festivals such as Sankranthi, Pongal, Raja Sankaranti swinging festival, and Onam, "Nuakhai" are also fairly popular. • Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions which are as under: 1. Buddha Purnima celebrated by Buddhists. 2. Sikh Festivals, such as Guru Nanak Jayanti, Baisakhi are celebrated with full fanfare by Sikhs and Hindus. 3. The Dree Festival is one of the tribal festivals of India celebrated by the Apatanis of the Ziro valley of Arunachal Pradesh.
  23. 23. • Islam is the second largest religion in India with population of over 135 million. • The Islamic festivals which are observed and are declared public holiday in India are:  Eid ul Fitr  Eid ul Adha-(Bakr Eid)  Milad un Nabi  Muharram  Shab-e-Barat
  24. 24. • Christianity is India’s third largest religion. • With over 23 million Christians, of which 17 million are Roman Catholics, India is home to many Christian festivals. • The country celebrates Christmas and Good Friday as public holidays.
  25. 25. • Regional fairs are also common and festive in India. For example, Pushkar fair is one of the world's largest markets and Sonepur mela is the largest livestock fair in Asia.
  26. 26. Indian Architecture • Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time, constantly absorbing new ideas. • The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history.
  27. 27. Indus Valley Civilization • Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization(2600–1900 BC) which is characterized by well planned cities and houses.
  28. 28. Architecture during Mauryan and Gupta Empire • Several Buddhist Architectural complexes, such as Ajanta and Ellora Caves and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built.
  29. 29. South Indian Architecture • South India produced several Hindu temples like: i. Chennakesava Temple at Belur ii. The Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu iii. The Kesava Temple at Somanathapura iv. Brihadeeswara Temple, Thanjavur v. The Sun Temple, Konark vi. The Buddha stupa at Bhattiprolu
  30. 30. Mughal Architecture • With the advent of Islamic influence from the west, Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. • Fatehpur Sikri, Taj Mahal, Gol Gumbaz, Qutub Minar, Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era.
  31. 31. British Architecture • The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style, and mixing of several other styles, such as European Gothic. • The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus are notable examples.
  32. 32. Various other contributions of Indian Architecture: • Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia, due to the spread of Buddhism. • Temple Mound or Stupa • Temple Tower or Pagoda • Temple Gate or Torana • The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. • The southern temple gate, or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty.
  33. 33. Modern Indian Architecture • Contemporary Indian architecture is more cosmopolitan. • Mumbai's Nariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. • Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple and various other monuments have added their contribution towards Indian Architecture.
  34. 34. Vaastu Shastra • The traditional system of Vaastu Shastra serves as India’s version of Feng Shui, influencing town planning, architecture, and ergonomics. • Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonise the flow of energy, through the house.
  35. 35. One Nation, One Vision, One Identity “No Nation is Perfect, it needs to be made perfect.” Meri Pehchaan Mera Bharat!