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Public speaking

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  • 1. PUBLIC SPEAKING Claudio Calini
  • 2. “Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen”. Winston Churchill
  • 3. What “public speaking” is NOT ... 1. reading a speech 2. reciting a speech learnt by heart 3. reading powerpoint slides 4. follow a pre-defined plot
  • 4. WHY? Because you have to deal with the audience . Audience is not a blank entity but it's compounded of people with emotions, reactions, expectations, culture, thoughts.
  • 5. Thanks to the previous slide we can say that: 1. “public speaking” is, first of all, addressing the others and not ourselves. 2. “public speaking” is a relation process with someone.
  • 6. The core of “public speaking” is the PERSON - spontaneity : “I'm so prepared that I can forget the plot”. - experiences : “what I say is filtered by memories, experiences etc”. - the audience : “the others are so important that I forget about myself”. - relation : “No plot or speech can make me forget about the other people”.
  • 7. Through “public speaking” you might be able to: 1. Convince 2. Touch 3. Teach 4. Urge to do something
  • 8. Target audience (if possible)...
  • 9. Your speech must suit the target audience that you are addressing: ISSUES PROBLEMS GENERAL ATTITUDES CULTURAL LEVEL SENSIBILITIES
  • 10. “Public speaking” is not only about words. Just 7% of the communication deals with words. At least 80% of our relation with audience happens through our body (gesture, way to walk, look...)
  • 11. How to use our body...
  • 12. EYES 1. Never stare at the same person. 2. Never look at the audience too fast. 3. Look at one group of people for few seconds, then change group and so on. 4. Never look at the roof, floor or something which is not related to the audience. 5. Never turn your back to the audience.
  • 13. ARMS+HANDS 1. Never cover the screen with your arms. 2. Don't move just your arms or your hands but all your body. 3. Gestures make our words effective, full of meaning. 4. Use natural, simple and definite gestures. 5. Never cross your arms.
  • 14. LEGS AND POSITION: 1. Never cross your legs. 2. Never walk too fast or too nervously. 3. Stand in the middle of the room or at least where everyone can see you clearly. 4. You can walk among people but then come back to the “center of gravity” (the neuter point you've choosen to start your speech).
  • 15. LEGS, POSITION AND BEHAVIOUR: 5. Don't put barriers between you and the audience (desk, chair, laptop). 6. Create a contact between you and the audience. Be one of them. 7. Never be nasty even when the audience disagree with you. 8. Be opened to questions.
  • 16. How to structure a speech...
  • 17. - Issue – in your introduction make it clear exactly what you will be talking about. - Facts - give the basic facts about the issue or describe the reasons for the problem, and what will happen if nothing is done. - Options – briefly tell people what could be done about this issue or problem. Here you can describe a number of alternatives. - Proposal – clearly state what you believe is the right way to deal with the issue or problem and describe your organisation’s policies, programmes or plans for dealing with it. Always try to end your speech on a positive note and give the audience a clear way forward.
  • 18. TIPS: 1. Don't try to say “everything”. 2. The audience has limited time and patience: remind it. 3. Mix emotional (stories and personal experiences, direct questions) and factual elements (quotes, certain informations, data).