“Courage is what it takes to stand
up and speak; courage is also what
it takes to sit down and listen”.
What “public speaking” is NOT...
1. reading a speech
2. reciting a speech learnt by heart
3. reading powerpoint slides
4. follow a pre-defined plot
Because you have to deal with the
Audience is not a blank entity but
it's compounded of people with
emotions, reactions, expectations,
Thanks to the previous slide we
can say that:
1. “public speaking” is, first of all,
addressing the others and not
2. “public speaking” is a relation
process with someone.
The core of “public speaking” is the
- spontaneity: “I'm so prepared that I
can forget the plot”.
- experiences: “what I say is filtered by
memories, experiences etc”.
- the audience: “the others are so
important that I forget about myself”.
- relation: “No plot or speech can make
me forget about the other people”.
Through “public speaking” you
might be able to:
4. Urge to do something
1. Never stare at the same person.
2. Never look at the audience too
3. Look at one group of people for
few seconds, then change group
and so on.
4. Never look at the roof, floor or
something which is not related to
5. Never turn your back to the
1. Never cover the screen with your
2. Don't move just your arms or
your hands but all your body.
3. Gestures make our words
effective, full of meaning.
4. Use natural, simple and definite
5. Never cross your arms.
LEGS AND POSITION:
1. Never cross your legs.
2. Never walk too fast or too
3. Stand in the middle of the room
or at least where everyone can see
4. You can walk among people but
then come back to the “center of
gravity” (the neuter point you've
choosen to start your speech).
LEGS, POSITION AND
5. Don't put barriers between you
and the audience (desk, chair,
6. Create a contact between you
and the audience. Be one of them.
7. Never be nasty even when the
audience disagree with you.
8. Be opened to questions.
- Issue – in your introduction make it clear
exactly what you will be talking about.
- Facts - give the basic facts about the issue or
describe the reasons for the problem, and what
will happen if nothing is done.
- Options – briefly tell people what could be done
about this issue or problem. Here you can
describe a number of alternatives.
- Proposal – clearly state what you believe is the
right way to deal with the issue or problem and
describe your organisation’s policies,
programmes or plans for dealing with it.
Always try to end your speech on a positive note
and give the audience a clear way forward.
1. Don't try to say “everything”.
2. The audience has limited time
and patience: remind it.
3. Mix emotional (stories and
personal experiences, direct
questions) and factual elements
(quotes, certain informations,
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.