PR and the public museum:How can PR activities attract wider audiences for public museums in Sofia?                       ...
Table of contents1. Introduction                                                       p.51.1. Public museums in Sofia and...
AbstractPublic museums have an essential role in the preservation and exhibition of culturalheritage, being one of the cen...
AcknowledgementsI would like to express my gratitude for the support and help from my supervisor onthis project – Dr. Chri...
1.    IntroductionPublic museums have an essential role in the preservation and exhibition of culturalheritage, being one ...
9. Proposal for a PR campaign. Museum Fever 2013: Explore,Learn, Share!      9.1.   Rationale and planning:Public museums ...
able to sustain their well-fare function. An essential element of this role is to makewider and relevant audiences aware o...
Aim 1: Raise the profile of public museums in Sofia among the target group of18-34 year-olds, in advance of the annual Eur...
Tactics 1: Introduce the hash-tag #MuseumFeverSofia and encourage people totweet about their experience at the museumTacti...
-   Maintenance of the social-media profiles, the blog and web-site of the Night of       Galleries and Museums 2013 - Fre...
Reference list  Andreeva Diana (2009) The Museum Market (BG). Politiki.bg, (09), p.1. Available  at: http://politiki.bg/?c...
Gavrilova, Dessislava (2009) Culture as an outsider (BG) Politiki, (09/09).Available at:http://politiki.bg/?cy=153&lang=1&...
http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/cap-part1_en.pdf Accessed: 06.03.2012, at12.00 a.m.Pine B. Joseph & Gilmore James H....
Open Arts Foundation (2011b) Press monitoring of the Night of Museums and   Galleries – Plovdiv 2011. Available at: https:...
Gallery Night Plovdiv (2012) Blog. Available at: http://www.gallery-night.info/blog/    Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 16.00 hGan...
http://www.insights.org.uk/articleitem.aspx?title=Branding+Strategy+for+Museum    s+and+Galleries Accessed:0 5.03.2012, at...
APPENDICESNational Statistics Institute1. Statistics of the number of publicly funded museums in Bulgarian, according toth...
Demographic profile of the consumers of cultural production1. Demographic profile of the visitors of live-performances for...
3. Demographic profile of cinema visitors for 2011Source: NSI, 2011Stereogram: Guess the exhibit!Source: Natural History M...
1. E-zinesSource: Urban Mag, 20122. National MediaSource: Bulgarian National Radio, 2012http://bnr.bg/sites/radiobulgaria/...
Screenshot: BG Radio announcement for Father’s Day at the National MillitaryMuseumSource: BG Radio, 2012 http://tinyurl.co...
2. Press-coverage:E-zines (Teen ViewSofia E-zines)Source: Teen View Sofia, 2012 http://www.teenviewsofia.com/article/3310/...
2. TV: NOVA TVSource: NOVA TV, 2012http://novanews.bg/news/view/2012/06/13/31779/%D0%90%D1%80%D1%85%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B...
Screenshot: Online survey distributionSource: Free Sofia Tour facebook page, June 2012https://www.facebook.com/freesofiato...
Screenshot: Facebook fans of the Night of Museums and Galleries in Plovdiv2012Source: Facebook Fan Page of the Night of Mu...
Screenshot: Number of application downloads for the Night of Museums andGalleries in Plovdiv 2011Source: https://play.goog...
Screenshot 5: Ranking for the efforts of pubic museums in Sofia to advertisetheir program on traditional and digital media...
Screenshot: Mail confirming the leaflets and web-site visits for The Night ofMuseums and Galleries in Sofia, for May 2012S...
APPENDICES             TABLES                      29
Table 1: Frequency of visits and demographic profile of the museum-goers forthe Night of Museums and Galleries in Plovdiv ...
31
Table 3: Communication channels used by visitors of the Night of Museumsand Galleries in Plovdiv 2010Source: Open Arts Fou...
Table 4: Press coverage print and online Night of Museums and GalleriesPlovdivd 2012                                      ...
Female                          Total  Male                     Total       Total                                         ...
Percentages            19.08     7.89%    39.47     5.26%        19.08%      9.21%                       %                ...
Social media (fb, twitter)     14        23         23How often do you think,that events such as theNight of Galleries and...
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PR campaign for public museums in Sofia

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  1. 1. PR and the public museum:How can PR activities attract wider audiences for public museums in Sofia? Kalina Petkova KU 1163468 Personal Research Project (BSM 704) Course: Managing in the Creative Economy Supervisor: Dr. Christopher Kronenberg 1
  2. 2. Table of contents1. Introduction p.51.1. Public museums in Sofia and their visibility p.51.2. Public museums in Sofia and current issues p. 5-62. Literature review p.72.1. The museum as an experience and the marketing approach p. 7-82.2. PR for museums and the importance of communicating to wideraudiences p. 8-92.3. Museums and the museum market in Sofia p. 102.4. Planning and implementing a PR campaign p.10-142.4.1. Social media and the public museum p.142.4.2. Social media, social objects and the museum p.143. Research objectives and time-frame for the project p.154. Methodology p.16-184.1. National Institute of Statistics: The demographic profile of theconsumers of cultural offerings p. 184.2. Case study 1: The Night of Galleries and Museums in Plovdiv p. 194.3. Case study 2: A comparative web-monitoring of selected PRcampaigns at 5 major public museums in Sofia p.19-224.4. Online survey p. 235. Results and analysis p. 245.1. Case study 1: The Night of Galleries and Museums in Plovdiv p. 24-265.2. Case study 2: A web-monitoring of PR campaigns at 5 major publicmuseums in Sofia p.26-275.3. Online survey p.27-286. Conclusions p. 287. Limitations and restrictions to the research p.298. Proposal for a PR campaign. Museum Fever 2013: Explore,Learn,Share! p.298.1. Rationale and planning p.298.1.1. Segmentation and targeting p.29-308.1.2. Aims, objectives and tactics of the campaign p.31-328.1.3. The name of the campaign p.328.1.4. Key Messages p.328.2. Implementation p.328.2.1. Resources p.328.2.2. Estimated costs and time frame for the campaign p.328.3. Measurement, Evaluation and Results p.33Reference list p.37-38Bibliography p. 39-40Appendices p.40-61 2
  3. 3. AbstractPublic museums have an essential role in the preservation and exhibition of culturalheritage, being one of the central venues where the cultural policy of a countrymanifests itself and where a vast percentage of the general public encounters culturalproduction for the very first time.According to the Ministry of Culture of Bulgaria, there is a significant number ofpublicly funded museums in Sofia – 31 in total, including publicly funded galleries andmuseum-houses, which makes the capital to the city with the most public museumsin the country. On this background, It is then clear, that public museums have acentral role, not only within national cultural policy, but within the urban culturallandscape of Sofia.This paper emphasizes on the role of communication practices and public relations inarts and cultural organizations nowadays. The main project objective yet is to point atthe importance and potential of public museums in Sofia, as places designated to thepreservation and exhibition of cultural heritage and outline the present issues facedby the sector on a national and local level. Finally, the aim is to propose practicableand realistic communication activities, which would engage the community and raisethe profile of public museums in Sofia. 3
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsI would like to express my gratitude for the support and help from my supervisor onthis project – Dr. Christopher Kronenberg, who always knew how to encourage meand give me a good advice and ideas on how to improve my work.I would also like to especially thank the MACE course leader – Dr. Catherine Morel,who has been an inspiration for me throughout my studies at Kingston University andhave taught me how to „connect the dots”, when it comes to creativity and innovation. 4
  5. 5. 1. IntroductionPublic museums have an essential role in the preservation and exhibition of culturalheritage, being one of the central venues where the cultural policy of a countrymanifests itself and where a vast percentage of the general public encounters culturalproduction for the very first time. As Anne Rondelet (2012a) puts it: Public museums,in comparison to private ones, are providers of a public service. As part of thisservice former are accountable to the state, but at the same time interact withdifferent stakeholders, such as sponsors, donors, tax payers and visitors.A study on cultural participation in the EU-27 member countries, conducted byEurostat in 2007 shows that museum visits in the EU are still rather an elitist activity(Eurostat, 2007, p.135), reserved to a majority of „highly qualified” and educatedindividuals (Rondelet, 2012a). In this sense, public museums, who are positioned atthe intersection of high-culture and populism, by representing cultural heritage onone hand and fulfilling a welfare role of educating the general public, on the other,are facing the challenge to transmit the cultural content they are exhibiting in anaccessible, understandable and attractive manner.The purpose of this project is to emphasize on the role of communication practicesand public relations in arts and cultural organizations nowadays and the benefits forlatter. The main objective yet is to point at the importance and potential of publicmuseums in Sofia, as places designated to the preservation and exhibition of culturalheritage and outline the present issues faced by the sector on a national and locallevel. In the same vein, the aim of this paper is to propose practicable and realisticcommunication activities, which would engage the community and raise the profile ofpublicly funded museums in Sofia. 5
  6. 6. 9. Proposal for a PR campaign. Museum Fever 2013: Explore,Learn, Share! 9.1. Rationale and planning:Public museums in Sofia are recognised as an important venue for the preservationof cultural heritage, along with their educational and well-fare function (Ministry ofCulture, 2009, art. 11/ see point 2.3.). Yet, a small number of the respondents in theonline survey - 04.76%, which was conducted in June 2012 among the localpopulation of Sofia, acknowledge museums as a venue for socializing and newcontacts (see Appendix, Table, p.). In addition, museums in in Bulgaria are less andless considered as an alternative to other spare-time activities (Gavrilova, 2009).According to Gavrilova , one of the main reasons for latter is the competition againstthe mass culture and more precisely reality TV, soaps and the „chalga”-movement(2009). Additionally, public museums need to stand out and differentiate themselvesfrom other cultural offerings (Sogno-Lalloz, 2000). In terms of the levels of culturalparticipation and production among the Bulgarian population, a statistical reportpublished by Eurostat in 2011 shows, that former are exceptionally low (in terms ofthe number of visits of heritage sites, cinema screenings, performances, number ofbooks read, etc.) , compared to the other member-states of the European Union(Eurostat, 2011, p.9).The European Night of Museums, celebrated yearly and Europe-wide, has been heldin Sofia as the Night of Galleries and Museums, in the month of May for the past 8years (Dnevnik, 2012). It has had significant success in raising the level ofawareness and attracting a high number of visitors – with more than 30.000brochures distributed and 20.000 web-site clicks in 2012, according to the statementsof the organizers themselves (see Appendix, screenshot). Unfortunately, the interestgenerated by the Night of Galleries and Museums, as a one-off initiative is notsustainable, in terms of having a long-term positive impact on the visitors numbers,which becomes evident from the published statistics of the museum visits for 2010and 2011 (NSI, 2010a / NSI, 2011b).A further factor influencing cultural participation on a local and national level is therise in the rate of unemployment (12,4%) and particularly among young people under25 – at 29,6 % for June 2012 (Eurostat cited in: Ivanova, 2012). In addition, a reportpublished by Eurostat, shows that the household spendings for culture in Bulgariahave one of the lowest levels - less than 3 % per household, compared to the rest ofthe European Union (Eurostat, 2011, p.9).On the other hand, is to note, that the climate and institutional support for culturalinitiatives in Sofia is rather favourable with Sofia’s preparation as a candidate forEuropean Capital of Culture 2019. Yet, the insufficient funding for activities at publicmuseums on a national level makes it vital for public museums to generate incomethrough ticket sales, sponsorships and special events (see point 2.3.).As already mentioned, there is some evidence, that public museums are stillperceived as venues for education and high-culture establishments and less as apass-time activity. It has also been discussed earlier in this paper, that publicmuseums need to become more appealing to a wider range of visitors, in order to be 6
  7. 7. able to sustain their well-fare function. An essential element of this role is to makewider and relevant audiences aware of the fact, that they can spend their free time atthe museum, instead of with other activities (such as cinema, going to the theatre oreven staying at home).Internationally, the technological developments in the museum sector, point at thepotential of social media and digital devices for arts and cultural organizations (seepoint 2.4.1 and 2.4.2). Nevertheless, it was found, that public museums in Sofiamake less or no use of digital platforms and social media (see point 2.1.). A nationalsurvey, conducted by Marketlinks among 1204 respondents in 2011 shows, that thepercentage of people, owning smartphones in Bulgaria has gone up by 150 % and isexpected to keep rising, with the main target-group (68 % of the survey participants)being in the age of 19-34 (Marketlinks, 2011). It has also been found, that the usersof smartphones are rather male (70 %) with or aiming at a higher standard of livingand interested in culture and entertainment (Marketlinks, 2011). In the same vein, thethree biggest mobile providers in Bulgaria report a rise in the purchase of tablets andsmartphones for 2011, accompanied by an increased use of mobile internet services(Georgiev, A., 2012).As the technological infrastructure at public museums in Sofia does not yet allow tocreate more interactive experiences for visitors (NSI, 2011b), personal digital devicesand networks should be considered for the implementation of PR activities in thiscultura sector. 9.1.1. Segmentation and targetingIt has been found, that young people in the age of 25-34 is the largest group of„consumers” of cultural production, taking into account the number of theatre,concert, festival, cinema and cultural heritage visits (see Appendices, Graph) andparticularly interested in the topic of public museums (Online survey, 2012). A furtherfinding is that the target group of 18-34 year-olds consider museums as preservationand education venues and see a need for improvement in the communicationspractices (Online survey, 2012). Additionally, a large part of 18 to 34 year-olds inBulgaria are active users of different mobile devices (see point 9.1) and use digitalplatforms to inform themselves about events (Online survey, 2012).From the research, carried out in the frame of this project, it was found, that some ofthe major public museums in Sofia have implemented campaigns to attract familiesand school children and put to less efforts towards the audience of young students orprofessionals (see point 5.2.) . Yet, as it was outlined in the previous paragraph andin point 9.1., it is this target-group of 18-34 year-olds, which is savvy about theinternet , has access to a wide range of personal mobile devices and is activelyparticipating in cultural activities.In this sense, the group of 18 to 34-aged, as the main users of digital devices andsocial platforms and particularly interested in culture, deserve to be paid moreattention by public museums from a communication perspective. 9.1.2. Aims, objectives and tactics of the campaign 7
  8. 8. Aim 1: Raise the profile of public museums in Sofia among the target group of18-34 year-olds, in advance of the annual European Night of Galleries andMuseums in Sofia 2013Objective 1: Generate greater awareness on the Night of Galleries and MuseumsSofia 2013 among the target group, by 25 % by May 2013Tactics 1: Embargoed, in-depth interview with the spokes person of the campaignwith a leading magazine read by the target groupTactics 2: Distribution of a press-release, announcing the start of the campaign sentto journalists working for relevant online media – distribution date to coincide with thepublishing date of the in-depth interview in the magazine.Tactics 3: Target and approach influential bloggers, writing on culture and museum-related topics, asking them to endorse the campaign.Tactics 4: Approach the Mayor of Sofia to write an endorsement for the campaignand express the institutional support for the initiative as part of Sofia’s application forEuropean Capital of Culture 2019Tactics 5: Approach the initiators of the European Night of Galleries and Museumsand ask them to endorse itTactics 6: Contact all public museums in Sofia and ask them to announce thecampaign on their existent profile pages on social media platformsObjective 2: Generate greater awareness of the activities at public museums amongthe target-group by 25 % by May 2013Tactics 1: Create a twitter, facebook and foursquare profiles for the Night of Galleriesand Museums in Sofia and post relevant content on them aimed at engagingindividuals within the target group.Tactics 2: Create a blog for the Night of Galleries and Museums in Sofia and link it tothe official web-site and all other social media profiles. Post regularly relevant contenton the Museum Fever 2013 campaign.Aim 2: Encourage the participation in museum activities by the chosen targetgroup, both on and -offlineObjective 1: Increase the number of yearly museum visits (compared to 2011) amongthe target-group, by 25 % by December 2013Tactics 1: Within the scope of the campaign, designate every first Friday as MuseumFever – Friday Night with longer museum opening hours and free admission.Encourage public museums to participate by informing the organizers of the Night ofGalleries and Museums about their current events. According to the internalresources (staff, current exhibition, etc), the list of museums can vary from month bymonth. The Museum Fever events are to be uploaded on a monthly basis on the blogof the Night of Galleries and Museums Sofia.Tactics 2: Encourage museum-visitors to tag themselves on foursquare, create theirown museum route or simply tip for a certain museum and share it with theirfacebook and twitter friends. Once a month pick 1 winner with the most check-ins atmuseums and reward him with a V.I.P pass for himself and a friend for the Night ofGalleries and Museums in Mai 2013.Objective 2: Encourage the participation on museum-related topics by getting aminimum of 1000 followers on twitter, 1000 fans on the facebook page, …. hits/dayon the blog of the Night of Galleries and Museums Sofia 2013, by May 2013 8
  9. 9. Tactics 1: Introduce the hash-tag #MuseumFeverSofia and encourage people totweet about their experience at the museumTactics 2: Announce a weekly twitter competition for the best museum-related tweet.The participants can use additional materials such as photos, videos and audiomaterial and use the hash-tag #MuseumFeverSofia, tweeting to the profile of theNight of Galleries and Museums. Announce 1 winner on a weekly basis and publishthe tweets on the web-site, blog of the Night of Galleries and Museums Sofia. Thewinners are to be selected by the online community, via a voting-pole.Tactics 3: Tweet regularly and on topics, which are interesting and relevant for thetarget-groupTactics 4: Post regular updates on the facebook and blog of the initiative, withinteresting events at museums and photos from the monthly Museum Fever Nights. 9.1.3. The name of the campaign:The name of the campaign Museum Fever: Explore, Learn, Share aims to encouragemore young people to visit and discover the museum on a frequent basis and sharetheir experiences with friends and family. The main theme „Мuseum Fever” evolvesaround the museum visit as a captivating and engaging activity. The verbs Explore,Learn and Share emphasize on the different aspects of public museums, which are ofinterest for the target group. 9.1.4. Key Messages:The key messages of the campaign are formulated in accordance to three subtopicsof exploration, learning and sharingKey Message 1:Explore Sofia’s rich cultural heritage by discovering its museumsKey Message 2:Learn and be inspired by your museum visit and get unexpected angles and ideasKey message 3:Share your museum experience with friends and family 9.2. Implementation 9.2.1. ResourcesThe campaign is to be implemented with the support of the Municipality of Sofia, aspart of Sofia’s application for European Cultural Capital, under the supervision andlead of the French Institute Sofia and their inhouse PR practitioner, as traditionalorganizers of the Night of Galleries and Museums Sofia.The social media profiles are to be maintained by interns, who can be engaged bythe organizers on a 3 month-internship-scheme. 9.2.2. Estimated costs:The expected costs for the campaign are as follows: - Creation of social-media profiles - Free - Creation of a blog with a unique design – approximately Euro, - 500 9
  10. 10. - Maintenance of the social-media profiles, the blog and web-site of the Night of Galleries and Museums 2013 - Free (internship schemes) - Museum Fever – Friday Night event (internal costs for the museums for overtime work or free, if engaging unpaid volunteer staff)The costs for the campaign are to be kept low through the internship scheme, whichis to be introduced and led by the French Institute Sofia, for the duration of thecampaign. The overtime work of the staff at the single museums should not be anissue in financial and logistical terms, as each museum can decide, whether toparticipate in the monthly Museum Fever Nights or not, according to its staffingresources and exhibitions. 9.2.3. Time-frame:The campaign is to be implemented in the frame of a three-month period, takingplace in the months of February until April 2013. 9.3. Measurement, Evaluation and ResultsThe outcomes from the campaign are to be measured in various ways. The level ofgeneral awareness and specifically among the target group is to be evaluated on thebasis of: - a repeated online survey among 100 respondents, after the end of the campaign - a monitoring of the overall press-coverage - blog visitors - facebook fans and twitter followers - number of web-site visits to the web-page of the Night of Galleries and Museums Sofia 2013Attitudes and perceptions of public museums in Sofia are to be monitored with thehelp of the repeated online survey among 100 respondents, after the end of thecampaign.The effect on the number of museum visits will be measured at the end of thecalendar year, on the basis of the results published by the National StatisticsInstitute. Additionally, the number of museum visits of the Night of Galleries andMuseums Sofia 2013 will be compared to the numbers from the previous year. 10
  11. 11. Reference list Andreeva Diana (2009) The Museum Market (BG). Politiki.bg, (09), p.1. Available at: http://politiki.bg/?cy=153&lang=1&a0i=223415&a0m=readInternal&a0p_id=566. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 a.m. Andreeva Diana & Tomova Bilyana (2011) Cartography of Cultural and Creative Industries in Sofia – 2011. Politiki, (10). Available at: http://politiki.bg/?cy=228&lang=2&a0i=223839&a0m=readInternal&a0p_id=931. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 19.00 h Billings, Scott (2011) Social Media Dialogue. Available at: http://www.museumnext.org/2010/blog/social-media-dialogue. Accessed: 18.08.2012 at 09:23 h Georgiev, A. (2012) The number of smart-phones in Bulgaria tops 1 million. Capital.bg. Available at: http://www.capital.bg/biznes/tehnologii_i_nauka/2012/01/18/1747803_smartfonite_ v_bulgariia_sa_nad_1_mln/. Accessed: 05.09.2012 at 10:11 h. Daymon C. & Holloway I. (2011) Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications. Second edition.Routledge. Available at: http://books.google.de/books?id=v2rlyQDtvMgC&printsec=frontcover&hl=de&sour ce=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed: 26.08.2012 at 09:21 h. Dnevnik (2012) The 8th edition of the Night of Galleries and Museums descends on Sofia. Available at: http://www.dnevnik.bg/razvlechenie/2012/05/19/1830635_osma_nosht_na_muzeit e_i_galeriite_se_spuska_nad/. Accessed: 04.09.2012 at 12:34 Eurostat (2007) Cultural Staistics. European communities 2007. Available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-77-07-296/EN/KS-77- 07-296-EN.PDF Accessed: 19.08.2012, at 10:14 h Eurostat (2011) Cultural statistics. 2011 edition. Available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-32-10-374/EN/KS-32- 10-374-EN.PDF. Accessed: 04.09.2012 at 17:20 h European Night of Galleries and Museums (2012) European Night of Glalleries and Museums Sofia 2012. Available at: http://nuitdesmusees.culture.fr/. Accessed: 29.08.2012 at 10:38 h Free Sofia Tour (2012) Sofia Events Calendar January-June 2012. Available at: http://freesofiatour.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Events-calendar_2012- Sofia.pdf. Accessed: 26.08.2012 at 10:31 h Gürel, E. & Kavak, B. (2010) A conceptual model for public relations in museums. European Journal of Marketing, 44(1/2), pp.42-65. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/03090561011008600. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 h 11
  12. 12. Gavrilova, Dessislava (2009) Culture as an outsider (BG) Politiki, (09/09).Available at:http://politiki.bg/?cy=153&lang=1&a0i=223415&a0m=readInternal&a0p_id=570.Accessed: 23.07.2012 at 11 hGregory, Anne (2010) Planning and Managing Public Realtions Campaigns. 3rdedition. Kogan Page. Available at:http://reader.eblib.com/(S(huw0ptc2z2nq5b4y3z1ovaxc))/Reader.aspx?p=557065&o=110&u=3kdTbBaZid1TrEBmPr4UviGPILA%3d&t=1343136914&h=FC48F3B8A02D492874282DF2E457427220AC09AE&s=13600123&ut=255&pg=1&r=img&c=-1&pat=n# . Accessed: 24.07.2012 at 14:45 hIvanova M. (2012) Eurostat reports a rise in the unemployment rate for 12,4 %.Investor.bg. Available at: http://www.investor.bg/evropa/334/a/spored-evrostat-bezraboticata-v-bylgariia-se-e-uvelichila-do-124,138190/. Accessed: 04.09.2012 at17:10hMandel, Birgit (2009) PR for arts and culture: A handbook on theory and practice(orig. title: PR für Kunst und Kultur: Handbuch für Theorie und Praxis); TranscriptVerlag, 2nd edition. Available at:http://books.google.de/books?id=NReurYOg1oAC&printsec=frontcover&hl=de&source=gbs_atb#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed: 23.07.2012 at 14.45 hMarketlinks (2011) The smartphone-users in Bulgaria. Available at:http://www.mmlinks.net/links.php?ln=1&color=1&page=bulletin5&brand=1.Accessed: 05.09.2012 at 10:08Ministry of Culture (2009) Law for the Cultural Heritage. Available at:http://www.lex.bg/bg/laws/ldoc/2135623662. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 hMinistry of Culture of Bulgaria (2010) Proposal for a strategy for leading museumsin Sofia. Available at:http://www.strategy.bg/StrategicDocuments/View.aspx?lang=bg-BG&Id=584 ,Accessed: 19.04.2012 at: 16.20 hMuseums in Bulgaria (2012) Blog. Available at: http://bulgarian-museum.blogspot.co.uk/ Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 16.00 hN.S.I. (2010a) Main data about the cultural sector in Bulgaria. National Statistical Institute - Bulgaria, pp.1-9. Available at: http://www.nsi.bg/EPDOCS/Culture2010.pdf. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 hNSI (2011a) Museums according to the regions and types of museums - data.National Statistical Institute - Bulgaria. Available at:http://www.nsi.bg/otrasal.php?otr=24&a1=665&a2=669#contNSI (2011b) Main data about the cultural sector in Bulgaria. National StatisticalInstitute - Bulgaria, pp.1-9. Available at:http://www.nsi.bg/EPDOCS/Culture2010.pdf. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 hPalmer/Rae Associates (2004) European Cities and Capitals of Culture. Part I.Study Prepared for the European Commission, Brussels. 12
  13. 13. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/cap-part1_en.pdf Accessed: 06.03.2012, at12.00 a.m.Pine B. Joseph & Gilmore James H. (2011) The Experience Economy. Availableat:http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=edtOyzyKgXUC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed: 23.07.2012 at11.20 hReddi, C.V. Narasimha (2009) Effective Public Realtions and Media Strategy. PHILearning Private Limited, New Delhi. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/cfyrj5q .Accessed: 18.08.2012 at 09:16 hRondelet, Anne (2012a) Tous Musées Oui… Mais Pas À Armes Égales!Accessible at: http://annerondelet.wordpress.com/2012/06/18/tous-musees-oui-mais-pas-a-armes-egales/. Accessed: 23.07.2012 at 10.35 hRondelet, Anne (2012b) Article - The role of marketing in the audience policies ofmuseums - A dissertation of Anne Rondelet. Accessible at: http://www.forum-avignon.org/node/1853. Accessed: 23.07.2012 at 14.35 hRichardson, Jim (2011) 6 Arts Marketing Trends from the UK. Available at:http://www.museumnext.org/2010/blog/art_marketing_trends.Accessed:18.08.2012 at 09:20 hRusso, A. & Watkins, J (2008) New Literacy, New Audiences: Social Media andCultural Institutions. EVA London Conference 2008. Available at:http://www.bcs.org/upload/pdf/ewic_eva08_paper26.pdf. Accessed: 18.08.2012 at09:29 hSimon, Nina (2010) The Participatory Museum. Chapter 4: Social Objects.Available at: http://www.participatorymuseum.org/chapter4/. Accessed:18.08.2012 at 10:14 hSpitzbart, W. (2004) PR for a Cultural Institution: Case-study of the Brucknerhaus,Linz 2004, N.A. Available at:www.wolfgang-winkler.at/pdf_dateien/Diplomarbeit__Spitzbart_Auszug.pdf.Open Arts Foundation (2010) Night of Museums and Galleries 2010. Available at:http://openarts.info/night-museums-galleries/. Accessed: 26.08.2012 at 09:54Open Arts Foundation (2011) Public report. Night of Museums and Galleries –Plovdiv 2011. Available at: http://openarts.info/public-report-night-2011/.Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 11.19 hOpen Arts Foundation (2011a) Press release: Night of Museums and Galleries –Plovdiv. Available at: http://openarts.info/night-of-museums-and-galleries-2011/,accessed: 09.24 h 13
  14. 14. Open Arts Foundation (2011b) Press monitoring of the Night of Museums and Galleries – Plovdiv 2011. Available at: https://www.dropbox.com/home/Public. Accessed: 21:28 h Tallon, L. & Walker, K. (2008) Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media. AltaMira Press. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2F%28ISSN%291098-237X.Accessed:05.03.2012, at 14.30 h Ries and Trout (1972) Market Segmentation and Positioning. Available at: http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199290437/baines_ch06.pdf Accessed: 27.08.2012 at 16:28 h UNCTAD (2004) Creative industries and development. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Available at: http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/tdxibpd13_en.pdf. Accessed on: 24.07.2012, at: 15:10 hPreliminary bibliography and reference listAndreeva Diana (2009) The Museum Market (BG). Politiki.bg, (09), p.1. Available at: http://politiki.bg/?cy=153&lang=1&a0i=223415&a0m=readInternal&a0p_id=566. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 hAndreeva Diana & Tomova Bilyana (2011) Cartography of Cultural and Creative Industries in Sofia – 2011. Politiki, (10). Available at: http://politiki.bg/?cy=228&lang=2&a0i=223839&a0m=readInternal&a0p_id=931. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 19.00 hBradley, Nigel (2010) Marketing Research: Tools & Techniques. Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.Burgess, Dr. Thomas F. (2001) A General Introduction to the design of questionnaires for survey research. University of Leeds. Available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/iss/documentation/top/top2.pdf . Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 18.32 hDriscoll, Dana Lynn (2006) Creating Good Interview and Survey Questions. Available at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/559/06/ Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 18.40 hFrench, Ylva & Runyard, Sue (2011) Marketing and Public Relations for Museums, Galleries, Cultural and Heritage Attractions. Routledge Ltd. Available at: http://www.kingston.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=710110, Accessed: 19.04.2012Focus News (2012) The National Historic Museum is about to survey the young museum audience. Available at: http://www.focus-news.net/?id=n1644033, Accessed: 20.04.2012 at 13.33 h 14
  15. 15. Gallery Night Plovdiv (2012) Blog. Available at: http://www.gallery-night.info/blog/ Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 16.00 hGanchev, Rumian (2006) Current state, issues and perspectives for museums and galleries in Bulgaria. http://mc.government.bg/images/docs/Nacsreshta- dokladG(3).docGürel, E. & Kavak, B. (2010) A conceptual model for public relations in museums. European Journal of Marketing, 44(1/2), pp.42-65. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/03090561011008600. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 hMcQuarrie, Edward F. (2012) The Market Research Tool Box. Sage Publications.Ministry of Culture (2009) Law for the Cultural Heritage. Available at: http://www.lex.bg/bg/laws/ldoc/2135623662. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 hMinistry of Culture of Bulgaria (2010) Proposal for a strategy for leading museums in Sofia. Available at: http://www.strategy.bg/StrategicDocuments/View.aspx?lang=bg-BG&Id=584 , Accessed: 19.04.2012 at: 16.20 hMinistry of Culture of Bulgaria (2011) Project for a national strategy for the development of culture. Ministry of Culture of Bulgaria . Available at: http://mc.government.bg/files/1185_Project_Strategiq_30.11.2011.pdf. Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 18.30 hMuseums in Bulgaria (2012) Blog. Available at: http://bulgarian- museum.blogspot.co.uk/ Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 16.00 hN.S.I. (2010b) Museums and planned activities. National Statistical Institute-Bulgaria. Available at: http://www.nsi.bg/otrasal.php?otr=24&a1=665&a2=666 . Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 11.30 hN.S.I. (2010c) Museums according the regions. National Statistical Institute-Bulgaria. Available at: http://www.nsi.bg/otrasal.php?otr=24&a1=665&a2=669#cont Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 18.00 hPalmer/Rae Associates (2004) European Cities and Capitals of Culture. Study Prepared for the European Commission, Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/cap-part1_en.pdf Accessed: 06.03.2012, at 12.00 hSofia Development Association (2011) The importance of culture for the development of Europe’s regions and cities, Sofia. Available at: http://www.sofia2019.bg/sites/default/files/CoR_web.pdf. Accessed: 05.03.2012, at 14.30 hSogno-Lalloz Isabelle (2000) Branding Strategy for Museums and Galleries . TourismInsights. Available at: 15
  16. 16. http://www.insights.org.uk/articleitem.aspx?title=Branding+Strategy+for+Museum s+and+Galleries Accessed:0 5.03.2012, at 14.30 hSpitzbart, W. (2004) PR for a Cultural Institution: Case-study of the Brucknerhaus, Linz 2004, N.A. Available at:http://www.wolfgang-winkler.at/pdf_dateien/Diplomarbeit__Spitzbart_Auszug.pdf.Accessed:05.03.2012, at 14.30 hSurvey Monkey (2012) Smart Survey Design. Available at: http://s3.amazonaws.com/SurveyMonkeyFiles/SmartSurvey.pdf , Accessed: 19.04.2012 at 17.53 hTallon, L. & Walker, K. (2008) Digital Technologies and the Museum Experience: Handheld Guides and Other Media. AltaMira Press. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2F%28ISSN%291098-237X. Accessed:05.03.2012, at 14.30 hTench, R. & Yeomans, L. (2011) Exploring Public Relations. Pearson Education. Available at: http://repository- intralibrary.leedsmet.ac.uk/IntraLibrary?command=open- preview&learning_object_key=i6027n45721t. Accessed:05.03.2012, at 14.30 hWilson, Alan (2006) Marketing Research: An integrated approach. Second edition. Pearson Education. 16
  17. 17. APPENDICESNational Statistics Institute1. Statistics of the number of publicly funded museums in Bulgarian, according tothe cities (Sofia city and Sofia region are marked in blue)Source: NSI, 2011a 17
  18. 18. Demographic profile of the consumers of cultural production1. Demographic profile of the visitors of live-performances for 2011Source: NSI, 20112. Demographic profile of the visitors of cultural sightseeing sites for 2011Source: NSI, 2011 18
  19. 19. 3. Demographic profile of cinema visitors for 2011Source: NSI, 2011Stereogram: Guess the exhibit!Source: Natural History Museum Facebook Fan Page (2012)Press coverage: Fashion show at the National Archeological Museum 19
  20. 20. 1. E-zinesSource: Urban Mag, 20122. National MediaSource: Bulgarian National Radio, 2012http://bnr.bg/sites/radiobulgaria/Culture/News_bg/Pages/Kulturna_hronika_220512.a spx 20
  21. 21. Screenshot: BG Radio announcement for Father’s Day at the National MillitaryMuseumSource: BG Radio, 2012 http://tinyurl.com/ctujsv4„Paper street” Fest press-coverage examples1. Press coverage in print media: „Standart” newspaperSource: 21
  22. 22. 2. Press-coverage:E-zines (Teen ViewSofia E-zines)Source: Teen View Sofia, 2012 http://www.teenviewsofia.com/article/3310/Hartiena-ulica-prevarna-Noshtta-na-muzeite-vav-valshebstvoPress-coverage: „Burial of a Vampire”1. Print: SEGA newspaperSource: Sega, 2012 http://www.segabg.com/article.php?id=603515 22
  23. 23. 2. TV: NOVA TVSource: NOVA TV, 2012http://novanews.bg/news/view/2012/06/13/31779/%D0%90%D1%80%D1%85%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B7%D0%B8-%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%B0-%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BD-%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%80/Screen shot: Number of draft and completed online questionnairesSource: Web Survey Creator, 2012 23
  24. 24. Screenshot: Online survey distributionSource: Free Sofia Tour facebook page, June 2012https://www.facebook.com/freesofiatour 24
  25. 25. Screenshot: Facebook fans of the Night of Museums and Galleries in Plovdiv2012Source: Facebook Fan Page of the Night of Museums and Galleries, accessed:09.09.2012 at 21.25 hhttps://www.facebook.com/museum.night.plovdivTwitter followers of Open Arts FoundationSource: Twitter, 2012 25
  26. 26. Screenshot: Number of application downloads for the Night of Museums andGalleries in Plovdiv 2011Source: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=info.gallery.night.applicationScreenshot: Web-site and blog visits of the Night of Museums and Galleriesfort he period August-SeptemberSource: Open Arts Foundation, Night of Gallaries and Museums – Plovdiv, Data 2011 26
  27. 27. Screenshot 5: Ranking for the efforts of pubic museums in Sofia to advertisetheir program on traditional and digital mediaSource: Online Survey of PR practices of public museums in Sofia, 2012Screenshot 6: Rating of the efficiency of events such as the Night of Galleriesand Museums in Sofia to attract audiencesSource: Online Survey of PR practices of public museums in Sofia, 2012 27
  28. 28. Screenshot: Mail confirming the leaflets and web-site visits for The Night ofMuseums and Galleries in Sofia, for May 2012Source: French Institute – Sofia. Contact person: Danailova, Nadezhdanadejda.danailova@institutfrancais.bg 28
  29. 29. APPENDICES TABLES 29
  30. 30. Table 1: Frequency of visits and demographic profile of the museum-goers forthe Night of Museums and Galleries in Plovdiv 2010 Date Age Education Sex Tot 24. 25. 18 35 На Unive Secon Prim Mal Fem . 09 09 - - д rsity dary ary e ale 34г 50г 50 or schoo sch . . г. highe l ool r or lowe rAre First 31. 29. 33. 32. 24. 27.5% 37.4% 22.7 30. 30.4 30.you time 2% 8% 2% 0% 0% % 8% % 6%visiti Sec 22. 20. 22. 21. 19. 20.6% 22.0% 31.8 20. 22.2 21.ng ond 1% 4% 5% 0% 6% % 4% % 3%the timeNight Thir 18. 20. 23. 16. 15. 19.0% 18.5% 22.7 20. 18.3 19.of d 3% 7% 1% 4% 6% % 4% % 3%Muse timeums Fou 9.6 9.4 10. 8.2 9.5 9.5% 9.1% 18.2 9.8 9.3 9.5and rth % % 1% % % % % % %Galle timeries Fifth 2.1 7.2 4.0 4.1 5.0 4.8% 3.9% 4.4 4.2 4.3in time % % % % % % % %Plovd Sixt 16. 12. 6.9 18. 26. 18.6% 9.1% 4.5 14. 15.6 14.iv for h 7% 5% % 3% 3% % 2% % 9%the timeSource: Open Arts Foundation, 2010Table 2: Own communication channels of the Night of Museums and GalleriesPlovdivhttp://www.gallery-night.info/http://www.gallery-night.info/blog/http://www.youtube.com/user/museumgallerynighthttp://twitter.com/museumnighthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/museumgallerynighthttp://www.facebook.com/museum.night.plovdiv 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. Table 3: Communication channels used by visitors of the Night of Museumsand Galleries in Plovdiv 2010Source: Open Arts Foundation, 2012 32
  33. 33. Table 4: Press coverage print and online Night of Museums and GalleriesPlovdivd 2012 33
  34. 34. Female Total Male Total Total Female MalePlease indicate, 18-34 34-50 50+ 18- 34- 50+how often you have 34 50visited a publicmuseum in the last12 months1-3 times 21 14 2 37 6 2 2 10 473 and more times 15 4 1 20 8 4 1 13 33Every month and 4 1 1 6 5 5 11more oftenNever 4 3 2 9 2 2 1 5 14leer 1 1 1Total 44 22 6 72 22 8 4 34 106 18-34 18- 34-50 34-50 50+ 50+ Total 34 Total Total TotalPlease Female Male Female Male Female MaleindicateyoureducationallevelSecondary 4 5 9 2 1 3 1 1 13schoolUniveristy 40 17 57 20 7 27 5 4 9 93or higher(Leer)Total 44 22 66 22 8 30 6 4 10 106Please indicatewhether you havevisited a publicmuseum in the past12 months and if so- the occasion (youcan choose morethan one answer): Festi Concert Speci Corporate Other I Total val al event havent Checked exhibit visited ionTotals 29 12 60 8 29 14 152 34
  35. 35. Percentages 19.08 7.89% 39.47 5.26% 19.08% 9.21% % %Yourperceptionof publicmuseums isthat theyare....(youcan choosemore thanone) Dull Elitist Unattractive Important Interesting Places Places to Oth for the as a for learn preservation touristic social something of cultural attraction contacts new heritageTotals 12 1 32 83 47 12 59 6Percentages 4.76% 0.40% 12.70% 32.94% 18.65% 4.76% 23.41% 2.3Please indicate,whether you visit publicmuseums On your With a With the With an I dont Total own friend family organized visit Answered group museumsTotals 6 56 37 4 2 105Percentages 5.71% 53.33% 35.24% 3.81% 1.90%Please rank the three of thefollowing options you use themost to inform yourself aboutevents or the program ofpublic museums in Sofia Ranking Position 1 2 3Friends, family, collaeagues 29 10 22Radio 5 1 4TV 15 15 4Leaflets, billboards, posters 18 18 14Print media (newspapers, 2 4 9magazines)Digital media (e-zines„ blogs, 22 26 14specialised web-sites) 35
  36. 36. Social media (fb, twitter) 14 23 23How often do you think,that events such as theNight of Galleries andMuseums in Sofia shouldtake place? Once a Twice a Monthly There is Other Total year year no need Answered of such eventsTotals 11 52 39 2 2 106Percentages 10.38% 49.06% 36.79% 1.89% 1.89% 36

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