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  • 1. VerbProblems
    • Verb tense:
    1. Try to write as often as possible in the simple past tense.
    2. Read your writing aloud after you finish, and listen as well as look for errors.
  • 2. Passivevoice:
    The use of the passive
    voice in expository
    prose slows down the
    sentence structure and
    causes the reader to
    tire easily.
  • 3. Academicprose uses passive voice
    1. When the agent is unknown or unimportant:
     Example: My bike was stolen.
    2. To describe technical processes and to report research procedures and reports:
    Example: Choline and Vitamin B complex were administered to the rabbits; the effects of the elements on the animals were then observed.
     
    3. When the agent is a victim: People often use passive voice to describe disaster.
    Example: She was hit by a car.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Semicolons
    Rules for semicolons:
    1. A semicolon can be used only if two independent clauses exist. An independent clause is a complete sentence: a subject-predicate group that can function independently.
    Example: I like painting
    I am quite ignorant about the history of art.
    2. A semicolon may be used to join two independent clauses that are related.
     
    Example: I like painting; I am quite ignorant about the history of art.
  • 7. Rules for semicolons:
    3. In some cases, using a conjunctive adverb will make the sentence more coherent. Conjunctive adverbs can be considered long words:
    • These long words are not grammatically necessary, but they often make the sentence
    • 8. sound better.
    • 9. These long words usually come after, not before, the semicolon.
    • 10. A comma usually follows these long words.
     
    Example: I like painting; however, I am quite ignorant about the history of art.
     
    4. A semicolon may not be used to join and independent clause to a dependent clause.
    Example: Because it is fun, I like painting.
    Dep. Clause Ind. Clause
  • 11. Note: Coordinate conjunctions (which may be considered short words) – and, or, but, so, yet- cannot be used with semicolons. Example:I like painting; but I am quite ignorant about the history of art. (Incorrect)I like painting, but I am quite ignorant about the history of art. (Correct)
  • 12. Commas and coordinate conjunctions
    Rules
    1. Coordinate conjunctions are the short words:
    And for yet
    But or so
    2. Two complex sentences that are related in content may be joined by a comma plus short word.
     
    Example: He was lazy, so he failed the class.
  • 13. Rules
    3. With one complete sentence and one incomplete sentence, you will use only a short word.
    Example: He was lazy and enjoyed sleeping until noon.
    4. When joining two complete sentences with a comma, you may not use a long word (a conjunctive adverb).
    Example:
    He was lazy, however he passed the class. ( incorrect)
    He was lazy; however he passed the class. (correct)
  • 14. Subordinating words
    Some words can change a complete sentence (an independent clause) into incomplete sentence (a dependent clause). These subordinating words include:
     
    Although when after until
    Because while if unless
    Which before since
     
    Example:
    We missed our flight to Missouri. Complete sentence.
    When we missed our flight to Missouri… Fragment.
     
  • 15. Subordinating words
    When you use a subordinating word, you must add a complete sentence to the information. This complete sentence may be added either before the dependent clause (incomplete sentence) or after it:
    Example:
    We were furious when we missed our flight to Missouri. Because he watched too much television, his wife divorced him.
  • 16. Colons
    Rules:
    1. Use a colon to introduce and emphasize a series (three or more words or phrases) at the end of a sentence.
    Example:
    I like three nutritious sandwiches: peanut butter and jelly, turkey and cranberry sauce, and egg salad.
     
    2. Use a colon to emphasize a point. 
    Example:
    He has a broken disability: a broken arm.
     
  • 17. Rules:
    3. Don’t use a colon unless what follows the colon directly modifies what comes before it.
    Example:
    I am impressed by one virtue: comparison. (Correct)
    I am impressed by one virtue: others, however, are worth mentioning. (Incorrect)
  • 18. Quotation marks
    1. It’s used to indicate direct speech. The first word is capitalized and usually the final punctuation comes before the final quotation marks. 
    Example: He said, “Love is like flower.”
    A comma is used after the introductory phrase
    2. Tiles of articles and chapters in books.
    Example: Stephen Frazier, in his article “The Masculine Mystique”
    Note: Titles of books and periodicals are usually underlined; in print they are italicized.
  • 19. Quotation marks
    3. Use ellipsis points to indicate that some of the words have been omitted. If you are only using part of a quotation
     
    Example: In the article “What It Will Be Like If Women Win,” Gloria Steinem looks toward the feminist Utopia, and agrees that “… men might well feel freer and live longer”
    Note: The period comes before the quotation mark.
    4. Quotation marks can indicate a special word or a special phrase.
     
    Example: “Disinterested” and “uninterested” can mean quite different things.
     
  • 20. Quotation marks
    5. A different quotation that is interrupted in the middle.
     
    Example: “Women,”Riophe states, “have recently arrived at a new pride of ownership” (p.77).
     
    6. A quotation within a quotation is surrounded by single quotation marks.
     
    Example: Camille asked, “Have you read Chapter 8, ‘Library Research’?”
  • 21. Parallel structure
    Parallelism is the repetition of grammatical structures can
    be simple ( a repetition of single nouns ), or a complex (a
    repetition of complete sentences structures). Whenever a
    sentence contains two or more similar elements, these
    elements must be kept parallel.
    Balance is always inherent in parallelism. This result is
    rhythm within a paragraph that strengthens the coherence
    and emphasizes the ideas.
    Examples:
    She was a woman who understoodchildren, who
    enjoyed housework , and who worshipped her husband.
    During spring break the student went to Oregon, to
    California, andto Utah.
  • 22. Sentence combining
    The unity and coherence of a paragraph depends primarily on organization and the use of rational thought. This can be strengthened in a paragraph by varying sentence structure:
    • Short sentences are used for emphasis.
    • 23. Longer sentences are used for smoothness.
    • 24. Parallel structures are used for rhythm.
    Sentence combining is not simply an exercise. It’s a skill to be learned and integrated with your writing style.
  • 25. Diction
    Diction will be effective only when the words you choose are appropriate for the audience and purpose. The use of a good dictionary and a thesaurus (a dictionary of synonyms) is essential for expanding your vocabulary and learning to use that new vocabulary correctly.
    Choice and use of words in speech or writing.
    A way of speaking, usually judged in terms of prevailing standards of pronunciation and elocution.
  • 26. Precision in diction
    The brevity, precision and accuracy are the most important
    marks of a good writer. To make your writing more precise,
    you must the follow these rules:
    1. Try not to use there is or there are too frequently. These phrases are often useless in the sentence.
    2. Try not to use the word thing. It's a vague referent that often confuses the reader.
    3. Try not to begin a sentence with the same phrase with which you ended the previous sentence.
    4. Try not to use unnecessary words.
  • 27. Confusing words
    There are three sets of words that second language writers often confuse. The rules are not complete. There
    are some examples:
    Another: Adjective or pronoun used with a single referent (an another); never used with “the”.
    Example: One reason Matthew passed the exam was
    that he studied very hard; another was that
    he had plenty of time to write his essay.
     
    Other: An adjective or pronoun used with either single or plural referents; often used with “the”.
    Example: Rafia could not only taste the cinnamon in the
    cake, but Maha said the other spices were all
    spice and cloves.
  • 28. Prepositions
    A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.
    A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence
  • 29. Editing
    Identifying your own errors may not be easy. Usually you will be able to see errors in the writing of others more easily than in your own writing.