Nanotechnology is the study of manipulatingmatter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally ,nanotechnology deals with developingmaterials ,devices, or other structures with at leastone dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.
One nanometer(nm) is one out ofbillionth of a meter(10-9m)Nano scale is largerthan “Atomic scale”and smaller than“Micro scale”.
1959 “Richard Feynman” said "Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom" at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech describing molecular machines building with atomic precision. It is often held to have provided inspiration for the field of nanotechnology. 1974 The Japanese scientist “Norio Taniguchi “of the Tokyo University of Science was the first to use the term "nano-technology" in a Richard Feynman conference . early 1980’sNanotechnology and Nano-science got a boost with developmentof Cluster science and the invention of the Scanning TunnelingMicroscope (STM). The scanning tunneling microscope, aninstrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Norio Taniguchi
1985The discovery of fullerenes.1989IBM researcher “Don Eigler” was the first to manipulate atoms using a scanningtunneling microscope . He used 35 Xenon atoms to spell out the IBM logo1991Discovery of carbon nanotubes by a japanese scientist, Sumio Lijima.2009An improved walking DNA nanorobot invented.Designing of a small protein that performed the function of natural goblinproteins2011First programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors invented.
1. Energy storage, production and conversion2. Agricultural productivity enhancement3. Water treatment and remediation4. Disease diagnosis and screening5. Drug delivery systems6. Food processing and storage7. Air pollution and remediation8. Construction9. Health10 Monitoring11. Vector and pest detection and control.
A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollowsphere, ellipsoid or tubicle. Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, andthey resemble the balls used in soccer. Cylindrical ones are called carbonnanotubes or buckytubes. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which iscomposed of stacked graphene sheets of linked hexagonal rings; but they may alsocontain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings. The discovery of fullerenes greatlyexpanded the number of known carbonallotropes, Buckyballs and buckytubeshave been the subject of intenseresearch, both for their uniquechemistry and for their technologicalapplications, especially innanotechnology. Buckminsterfullerene C60 (left) and carbon nanotubes (right) are two examples of structures in the fullerene family.
Nanotechnology can be divided into threesegments. Tools Materials Devices
Nanotechnologic tools includemicroscopy techniques and equipmentsthat permit visualization andmanipulation of items at the nano scale;such as cells, bacteria, viruses and todetect single molecules to understand AFMthe nature of science. The range of toolsincludes the Atomic Force Microscope(AFM), Scanning TunnelingMicroscope (STM), molecularmodeling software and variousproduction technologies. STM
Nanomaterials can be grouped into three mainareas:o Raw nanomaterialso Nanostructured materialso Nanotubes
There are two classes of miniature devices that arecommonly associated with nanotechnology:-o Nano deviceso Mirco devices
There are two approaches for synthesis of nanomaterials and the fabrication of nano structures:These are known as the “top-down approach” and the“bottom-up approach”.
Top down approach refers to slicing orcutting of a bulk material to get nano sizedmaterial. This is similar to making a stonestatue. You take a bulk piece of material andmodify it by carving or cutting stone, until youhave made the shape you want. The process involves material wastage andis limited by the resolution of the tools you canuse, Cause significant crystallographic damageto the processed patterns. Examples of this kind of approachinclude the various types of lithographictechniques
Bottom up approach refers to the build up of a material fromthe bottom: atom by atom; molecule by molecule or cluster bycluster. This is equal to the same approach one would take tobuild a house: one takes lots of building blocks and puts themtogether to produce the final bigger structure. There is less wastage with this technique, and strongcovalent bonds will hold the constituent parts together. A good example of this kind of approach is found innature; all cells use enzymes to produce DNA by taking thecomponent molecules and binding them together to makethe final structure.
These have greater mechanical strength per unit volume than that ofconventional materials. Electronic properties of CNTs have made themused in flat panel displays in Tv’s and monitors, batteries, and otherelectronic devices.
Different nanoscale materials can be used in thin films to makethem water-repellent, anti-reflective, self-cleaning, ultraviolet orinfrared-resistant, anti-fog, anti-microbial, scratch-resistant, orelectrically -conductive. Nanofilms are used now oneyeglasses, computer displays, and cameras to protect or treat thesurfaces.
Transistors are electronicswitching devices where a smallamount of electricity is used like a gateto control the flow of larger amounts ofelectricity. In computers, the moretransistors, the greater the power.Transistor sizes have beendecreasing, so computers have becomemore powerful. Until recently, theindustrys best commercial technologyproduced computer chips withtransistors having 65nm features.Recent announcements indicate that45nm feature technology soon will behere.
A nanowire is a nanostructure, with thediameter of a nanometer (10-9 meters).Alternatively, nanowires can be defined as structuresthat have a thickness or diameter restricted to tensof nanometers or less. Many different types of nanowiresexist, including metallic(e.g., Ni, Pt, Au), semiconducting(e.g., Si, InP, GaN, etc.), and insulating(e.g., SiO2, TiO2). Molecular nanowires arecomposed of repeating molecular units eitherorganic (e.g. DNA) or inorganic. The nanowires could be used, in the nearfuture, to link tiny components into extremely smallcircuits. Using nanotechnology, such componentscould be created out of chemical compounds. Silica nanowire
Nanolithography is the art and science ofetching, writing, or printing at themicroscopic level, where the dimensions ofcharacters are on the order of nanometers(units of 10-9 , or millionths of a millimeter).This includes various methods of modifyingsemiconductor chips at the atomic level forthe purpose of fabricating integrated circuits( IC s). Instruments used in nanolithographyinclude the Scanning Probe Microscope(SPM) and the Atomic Force Microscope(AFM). Either the SPM or the AFM can beused to etch, write, or print on a surface in‘single-atom’ dimensions.
Nanocomputer is the logical namefor a computer which is smaller than themicrocomputer, This is based on nanotechnology and in fact one of its majorapplications. More technically, it is acomputer whose fundamental parts are Intel’s 32nm Nehalem chip architectureno bigger than a few nanometers. For which incorporates about 1.9 billioncomparison, the smallest part of current transistors in a single chipstate-of-the-art microprocessorsmeasures 28 nm as of 2012. Nanocomponents are very efficient andtherefore these nanocomputers will beat high speed and have high degree ofefficiency.
People show their emotions in many ways, and some of which a computercan be programmed to detect. By employing nanotechnology, and using a camera andimage analysis software, some computers are able to observe a user’s body languageand, with proper programming can accurately interpret a person’sposture, restlessness and various facial expressions. Nanotechnology providesonboard sensors which can monitor heartbeats, breathing rates, fluctuations in bloodpressure, and other body changes such as skin temperature and voice. Human skin has the capability of transmitting electric signals. That can beutilized as a method of transmission. Nanotechnology researchers have already beenable to develop computers that are designed with nano sensors that have the abilityto actually ‘see’ and ‘hear’ the people. Computer programmers are also attempting to employ nanotechnology intoprograms that they expect to be able to accurately determine a person’s emotions.
Another wonderful invention of nanotechnologyare nanosensors.These are biological ,chemical orsurgical sensory edges or points which are used todetect and transfer nano particle information to theother devices of microscopic/macroscopic world.Their basic purpose is to devleop nano products such A prototype of the diabetes sensor compared with a coin.It detectsas silicon computer chips and nano robots Acetone in the Breath of Diabetes.fabrications. Nanosensors works with their special sensoryability which can detect information and data. Theirarrangement is like ordinary sensors but nanosensors are developed at nanoscale which makesthem different from ordinary ones.
Nanorobots are robots that are programmable whosecomponents are at or close to the scale of a nanometer Basic nanomachines are already in use. Nanobots willbe the next generation of nanomachines. Advancednanrobots will be able to sense and adapt toenvironmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds, surfacetextures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations;move, communicate, and work together; conductmolecular assembly; and to some extent, repair or evenreplicate themselves.These can be used for medicinal purposes as well astechnical purposes.
Dendrimers are a type of nanorobots that can be preciselyprogrammed and used for a wide variety of applications, includingtreatment of cancer and other diseases. Dendrimers carrying differentmaterials on their branches and can do several things at once, such asrecognizing diseased cells, diagnosing disease states (including celldeath), drug delivery, reporting location, and reporting outcomes oftherapy.
The benefits that nanotechnology promises include:Less material consumption.More efficient energy generation methods.Greater computing power.High speed performances.New health treatments.
o Nanoscopic devices or material manufacturing processes leavebehind nanoparticles which can infiltrate in the cells of humans, animalsand all living organisms that may be unprepared for the influx ofartificial particles.o Nanoscopic particles, when inhaled, could make their way into thebrain via the olfactory tract. This raises some concerns about the possiblehealth risks connected to the recent developments in nanoscience andnanotechnology.
o Society is carefully considering the impacts of new technologiescan have, and trying to ensure that any risk to be minimized andmanaged, while maximizing the benefits.o There is already some researches going on to find any potentialrisks, and the impact of various particles on organisms and theenvironment is being examined. Networks of scientists have also beenestablished to discuss and evaluate these results (such as the EUNanosafe Network).
http://www.crnano.org - Center for Responsible Nanotechnology CRNhttp://www.bookboon.com – Nanotechnology by Jeromy Ramsdonhttp://www.sciencedaily.comhttp://www.nanodeltech.comhttp://www.sciencecentral.comhttp://www.nanotechnology.ukhttp://www.howstuffworks.com