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Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical
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Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent: Legal & Technical

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The protocols of Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent are not illegal; only the user infringing copyright is illegal. …

The protocols of Napster, Gnutella, & BitTorrent are not illegal; only the user infringing copyright is illegal.
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COSC4211 - Computer Scientists & Society
University of Houston

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  • 1. Napster, Gnutella, BitTorrent: Discuss legal and technical aspects<br />By: Kaleb Fulgham<br />
  • 2. Overview<br />History<br />Napster<br />Gnutella<br />BitTorrent<br />Legal issues<br />RIAA & MPAA<br />DMCA & Copyright Act of 1976<br />Court cases & lawsuits<br />
  • 3. History<br />
  • 4. Napster<br />June 1999: Shawn Fanning, undergraduate at Northeastern University, & Sean Parker released Napster, the first major Peer-to-Peer (P2P) software<br />Napster<br />Faster and less frustrating way to swap MP3s online than HTTP & FTP<br />Inspired by IRC’s easy-to-use format<br />Central servers contained an index of lists of user music files<br />Search box<br />List of usernames & their files<br />
  • 5. Napster<br />Built in C++ and popularized through IRC<br />October 1999: 150,000 registered users trading 3.5 million files<br />February 2001: 26.4 million registered users<br />Hardware<br />Peaked in 2001: 150 index only servers containing IP address info on usernames & their MP3 metadata<br />Similar to a telephone switchboard operator<br />
  • 6. Napster<br />Napster client connects to a central server<br />User queries the NapsterCentral Index Server<br />Central server returns alist of matches<br />Napster client connectswith the computer hosting the file<br />Client drops allowing private transfer<br />Your Computer<br />
  • 7. Gnutella<br />March 2000: Justin Frankel & Tom Peppers of high-tech Nullsoft (an AOL acquisition) published Gnutella.<br />Nullsoft created MP3-player Winamp<br />Gnutella<br />Functionally similar to Napster<br />Key Difference: Did NOT rely on one central server<br />Each user or “node” functioned as their own server<br />Pre-loaded with IP addresses of known nodes<br />g<br />
  • 8. Gnutella<br />Gnutella posted on AOL’s website<br />Slashdot news leak led to increased publicity<br />AOL & Time Warner (Music Group) merger<br />AOL made Nullsoft abandon project<br />Gnutella had spread world-wide<br />Free & open source clones appeared<br />Examples: LimeWire & BearShare<br />g<br />
  • 9. Gnutella<br />Gnutella client knows at least 1 other node<br />User queries 1st node<br />The node sendsrequest to other nodesuntil song is found<br />TTL limited requests<br />Returns file name andmachine IP address<br />Client connects to file owner’s node to transfer<br />g<br />
  • 10. Gnutella<br />Latest Gnutella Version 0.6<br />Composite network: Leaf nodes and Ultrapeers<br />Leaf nodes connect to ~3 Ultrapeers<br />Ultrapeer connects to &gt;32 other Ultrapeers<br />Max number of “hops” lowered from 7 to 4.<br />g<br />
  • 11. BitTorrent<br />July 2001: Bram Cohen released the BitTorrent protocol which he designed in April 2001<br />BitTorrent<br /><ul><li>Efficient at sharing large quantities of data
  • 12. Download pieces of the file(s) simultaneously from multiple peers
  • 13. Tracker servers inform clients of all online active peers
  • 14. Downloads “rarest-first” to ensure high availability</li></li></ul><li>BitTorrent<br />Torrent file – .torrent<br />Metadata about the file(s) shared<br />Checksums of identically sized (512KB) pieces of the file(s) being shared<br />Tracker server(s) – help coordinate file distribution<br />BitTorrent protocol does NOT offer search<br />Many websites offer searchable indexes of torrents<br />Tracker servers are run on torrent search websites & some companies who need to distribute large files<br />
  • 15. BitTorrent<br />User searches for a torrent<br />User downloads & opens itwith a BitTorrent client<br />Client connects to the tracker(s) in the torrent file<br />Receives a list of peers currently transferring thepieces of the file(s) specified in the torrent.<br />Client connects to peers to obtain the various pieces.<br />
  • 16. Legal Issues<br />
  • 17. Legal ISSUES<br />RIAA & MPAA<br />DMCA & Copyright Act of 1976<br />Court cases & lawsuits<br />A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.<br />MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd.<br />The Pirate Bay (BitTorrent) Raid in Sweden<br />RIAA v. the People<br />MPAA v. TorrentSpy<br />
  • 18. RIAA & MPAA<br />RIAA – Recording Industry Association of America<br />Represents the recording industry<br />Protect intellectual property rights worldwide and the First Amendment rights of artists<br />Perform research about the music industry<br />Monitor and review relevant laws, regulations and policies<br />MPAA – Motion Picture Association of America<br />Advance business interests of movie studios<br />Film rating system & Anti-piracy measures<br />
  • 19. DMCA & Copyright AcT<br />Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998<br />Subpoena To Identify Infringer - 17 U.S.C. § 512(h)<br />Copyright Act of 1976<br />Liable $750 - $30,000 per song, feature film, etc. illegally traded as the court considers just<br />Up to $150,000 per title if intentional & willful<br />
  • 20. A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.<br />December 1999: RIAA filed a lawsuit against Napster <br />RIAA argued in District Court<br />Napster users directly infringe on plaintiff’s copyright<br />Napster is liable for contributory & vicarious copyright infringement<br />Internal Napster email from Sean Parker to Shawn Fanning stating that users know they are “exchanging pirated music.” <br />
  • 21. A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.<br />Napster’s defense<br />Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc.<br />Napster similar to Sony Betamax VHS recorder<br />Fair Use<br />Sampling<br />Space-shifting<br />Permissive distribution<br />Audio Home Recording Act<br />
  • 22. A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.<br />United States District Court ruled in favor of the RIAA<br />United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit<br />Napster - Liable for contributory & vicarious infringement<br />Napster users infringe at least two of the copyright holders’ rights<br />the rights of reproduction, § 106(1)<br />distribution, § 106(3)<br />
  • 23. A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.<br />Ninth Circuit ruling March 5, 2001<br />Napster capable of commercially significant non-infringing uses<br />Could control the infringing behavior of users<br />Must prevent trading of copyright music<br />Napster paid roughly $36 million to copyright owners<br />
  • 24. MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd<br />June 2005: MGM sued P2P client companies Grokster & Streamcast<br />P2P lost for inducing copyright infringement for acts taken in marketing their file sharing software<br />Both advertised as “Napster alternatives”<br />“[T]he goal is to get in trouble with the law and get sued. It’s the best way to get in the new[s]”– Streamcast chief technology officer <br />MGM statistician revealed that ~90% of all files available on the P2P were copyrighted works<br />
  • 25. The Pirate Bay Raid<br />2004: MPAA pressured the U.S. and Swedish government to shut down The Pirate Bay<br />May 2006: Police in Sweden raided The Pirate Bay, shut down their website, & confiscated their servers<br />The Pirate Bay<br />BitTorrent search engine & tracker server<br />Launched in November 2003 by Gottfrid Svartholm & Fredrik Neij<br />Down for 3 days<br />Publicity and +1.7 million more users<br />
  • 26. The Pirate Bay Trial<br />January 2008: Criminal & civil prosecution in Sweden for promoting the copyright infringement of others with torrents by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI).<br />Fredrik Neij, Gottfrid Svartholm, Peter Sunde, and Carl Lundström<br />Found guilty<br />Sentenced to 1 year in prison<br />Pay a fine of $3.5 million<br />
  • 27. RIAA v. the People<br />2003: RIAA began a litigation campaign against those who infringe copyright law<br />Lawsuits against ~30,000 people<br />Usually settled out of court: $3,500 avg. total<br />Court settlements: $750 - $150,000 per song<br />“Attempted distribution” is NOT in Copyright Act<br />Simply storing copyright material in P2P “share” folders<br />“Infringement of the distribution right requires an actual dissemination of either copies or phonorecords” – cited in Atlantic v. Howell<br />
  • 28. RIAA v. the People<br />October 2008: Harper claimed she did not know she was doing anything illegal<br />She thought downloading music was like the radio<br />Judge ruled $7,400 (37 songs @ $200/song) for “innocent infringement”<br />June 2009: Jamie Thomas-Rasset found liable for infringing 24 songs for $1.92 million<br />July 2009: Joel Tenenbaum found liable for infringing 30 songs for $675,000<br />
  • 29. MPAA v. TorrentSpy<br />February 2006: MPAA sued TorrentSpy.com<br />Facilitating copyright infringement by linking to torrents containing copyright films<br />May 2008: U.S. District Judge ruled<br />Against TorrentSpy.com’s Justin Bunnell & associates<br />Must pay the max $30,000 for “each of the 3,699 infringements shown.”<br />$111 million<br />
  • 30. Conclusion<br />Direct HTTP / FTP downloads strain servers<br />P2P file sharing systems<br />Convenient to search<br />Effectively distribute load<br />Majority of content on BitTorrent & P2P is copyright material<br />Downloading & Sharing copyright information without permission is copyright infringement<br />Public domain file sharing is LEGAL!<br />
  • 31. g<br />Questions?<br />
  • 32. Sources<br />http://howstuffworks.com for diagrams<br />Appetite for Self-Destruction – Steve Knopper<br />All The Rave – Joseph Menn<br />ArsTechnica – http://arstechnica.com<br />EFF – http://eff.org<br />

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