SURAH ALAQ(TRANSLATION) 1. Read! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), 2. Has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). 3. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous, 4. Who has taught (the writing) by the pen [the first person to write was Prophet Idrees (Enoch)], 5. Has taught man that which he knew not. SOURCE:(dar-us-salam.com)
AKNOWLEDGEMENT All praise to Allah Almighty, the most merciful and most compassionate, who always blessed us with courage and strength and who enabled us to complete the work. “We feel great pleasure in extending my profound acknowledgement to our project supervisor “MAM AYESHA SARFRAZ”, lecturer of the Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore. Her cooperation, constructive criticism and technical expertise enabled us to complete our project. We are really thankful to her for giving us time out of her busy schedule to let us complete this project. We are also thankful to “MAM NASIRA”Director of Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab who give us her precious time and accept our invitation of presenting current topic. Her presence is really honored for us and her recommendations are highly helpful for us in future life.
INTRODUCTION Load shedding is the condition when there is huge demand for electricity that exceeds the generation available. It is confidently said that the electricity has never been reliable at any time in Pakistan. Electricity load shedding in Pakistan has increase many fold and no country can make progress without electricity. Recent government measures of holiday on Saturday and other saving method have reduced the load shedding but not significantly.
continue…… Electricity load shedding is one of the biggest issues in Pakistan including poverty and unemployment. No country can make progress without electricity. On the other hand there is no or less load shedding in officer’s colonies or in rich posh areas. Further more electricity load shedding is being used as a weapon in order to obstruct people from work.
HISTORY OF LOAD SHEDDING IN PAKISTAN (2000-2010) Graph shows the past record of electricity demand which is increasing by every year. But the supply has not increase accordingly to demand. ELECTRICITY
continue…… Green Energy Opportunities: In response to the warnings of energy crisis in Pakistan, President Musharraf's government in 2006, created Alternative Energy Development Board to pursue renewable energy. Gilani Government's Response: Neelum-Jhelum hydroelectric project, hydro project is expected to add 963MW power generating capacity. Prior to this project, the new Pakistani Prime Minister signed a deal with a Chinese company, Dong Fong, for setting up 525 MW thermal power plant at Sheikhupura.
continue…… Its 2011 and we are living into the age when government had promised many times that we will have all our electricity shortages met. We are now again facing the short fall of more than 4000 megawatts.This shortfall causing the load shedding of nine to seventeen hours in different areas of the country.
SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY The electric power sector in Pakistan is still primarily state-owned. The main state-owned utilities are the WAPDA (water and power development authority) Karachi Electricity Supply Corporation (KESC), WAPDA and KESC transmit and distribute all power in Pakistan. Other sources of electricity include power production from: IPP (independent power producer PAEC(Pakistan atomic energy commission)
CURRENT SITUATION It is just start of summer season and we are already short of electricity in big way, already we are lacking 4000 plus megawatts of power in Pakistan. Unscheduled load shedding gripped the city, as outages of 10 to 14 hours were observed, making life of citizens’ miserable. PEPCO claimed that the situation was temporarily and would soon improve, without telling the exact date of reduction in load shedding. Pakistan Electric Power Company PEPCO blames independent power producers (IPPs) for the electricity crisis, as they have been able to give PEPCO only 3,800 MW on average out of 5,800 MW of confirmed capacity.
continue…… At present demand-supply gap is filled through planned power cuts (load shedding). In cities the scheduled power cuts last for 6 to 8 hours, while cuts are much more prolong in rural areas.Overall the load shedding has created a negative impact on the economy of Pakistan.
CAUSES OF LOAD SHEDDING Over population Misuse of available resources Incompetency of exploration sector Fewer dams Gas unavailability would also affect power generation plants, which relied on gas. Lack of sincere leadership Line losses Increasing price of oil in international market Power theft
continue…… Defective policies by the government such as rental power plant. Load shedding is result of corruption, mismanagement, and defective planning of WAPDA Little deployment of unconventional energy resources or green source of producing electricity such as (solar, wind, geothermal, tidal)
continue…… Not fully utilizing the maximum generation capacity. Government creating artificial power shortfall to purchase electricity from India. A number of power generation plants went out of order Lack of expansion and up gradation of power plants. Growing urbanization and changes in the pattern of life.
GOVERMENTAL STEPS TO REDUCE THE CURRENT ENERGY CRISIS.
EFFECTS OF LOAD SHEDDING (ECONOMIC IMPACT) Beginning from a businessman who has turned off his industries because of load shedding as a result has reduced revenue, which further results in reduced production and unemployment. Beginning from a businessman who has turned off his industries because of load shedding also loose reputation and hard to compete in the international market. Our crop production has failed to achieve its target and this failure led to the creation of another crisis, which is ‘Flour Crisis’.
continue…… According to labor department sources, approximately 800,000 laborers have been dispelled from their jobs, while 400,000 laborers were receiving fewer wages According to estimate in Lahore, approximately 30-40% factories have been closed because of load shedding Students that are the future of any nation are also affected by large in Pakistan because of load shedding. Marriage halls no longer are able to host all- night wedding parties after 10 pm. Neon sign and billboards are banned.
OPTIMAL SOLUTION Keeping in mind the current situation we find optimal solution in the light of expertise. To remove the present energy crisis we suggested three plan short term, long term and medium term.