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ISO OSI Model

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  • 1. The ISO - OSI Model
    a.k.a. OSI Model
    a.k.a. ISO OSI Reference Model
    1
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 2. Why ?
    To allow different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other
    Avoidable duplication of equipment resources
    Inability to communicate efficiently
    To breaks network communication into smaller, simpler parts that are easy to develop
    To facilitates standardization of network components to allow multiple – vendor development and support
    2
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 3. Introduction
    Established in 1947
    ISO International Standard Organization
    Multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement
    Standard of international level
    Covers all aspects of network communications
    It is Open System Interconnection MODEL
    Allow two different Machines to connect without change in hardware and software
    It is model for understanding and designing a network architecture
    3
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 4. The Model
    Layered framework
    Designed for communication across all types of computer system
    7 separate but related layer
    Each defines segment of process of moving information across network
    Developers / Designers distilled the process of transmitting data to its most fundamental element
    Creation of Layers
    Related networking functions and its functionality are collected and discrete group ; became layer
    4
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 5. Layered Architecture
    Message from Device A to Device B
    Travels several intermediate Nodes
    These intermediate nodes involve only the first 3 layer
    Please Do
    Not Touch Steve’s Pet Alligator
    5
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 6. Related required concepts
    Data of L7 layer passed to layer 6
    Data of L6 layer passed to layer
    6
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 7. Related required concepts …
    1 Peer to Peer Process
    Layer 2 provides services to Layer 3 (talking about Single Machine)
    Layer x provides services to Layer x (talking about In Between Machine)
    Communication between them governed by agreed upon series of rules - “Protocol”
    The process on each machine that communicates at given layer – “Peer to Peer Process”
    Only Physical layer (direct communication)
    1. Sending bit stream form Machine A to Machine B
    2. Data from Higher to move down
    3. Sending machine adds its own info part to message
    4. Added info are called ‘Header’(beginning of message)
    (Layers added Header 6,5,4,3,2)
    7
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 8. Related required concepts …
    5. Added info are called ‘Trailer’(end of message)
    (Layers added Trailer 2)
    Every layer transform message for next layer
    At receiving end the message is unwrapped (It is for every layer)
    Interfaces between layers
    All receiving and sending of information and network information (between layers) only possible by interface ; between pairs of Layers.
    It defines what information, services a layer must provide to layer above it; process modulation.
    8
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 9. Related required concepts …
    Organization of layers
    Three subgroups
    1 Layer (1,2,3) [Network Support Layer]
    Deals with physical aspect of data from 1 device to other device
    a. Electric Specification
    b. Physical Connection
    c. Physical Address
    d. Transport timing
    2 Layer (5,6,7) [User Support Layer]
    Interoperability among unread software system
    3 Layer (4)
    End to End reliability of data transmission (Layer4)
    Reliable transmission of link (Layer 3)
    The process of putting Header and Trailer goes on Layer by Layer (except Layer 7 and Layer 1), Layer 2 both have Header and Trailer.
    9
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 10. Related required concepts …
    User support layer
    Software
    Link between
    Software + Hardware
    N/W support layer
    Hardware
    Physical Layer > Changed info Electromagnetic signal > Physical Link > L1 > (transformed info into bits > than Layer by Layer Corresponding Header and Trailer removed.
    10
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 11.
    • Physical characteristics of interfaces and medium.
    • 12. Representation of bits.
    • 13. Physical topology.
    • 14. Line configuration.
    • 15. Data rate.
    • 16. Synchronization of bits.
    • 17. Transmission mode.
    Physical and Data Link Layer
    Coordinates function required to transmit a bit stream over physical medium.
    2. Defines procedure and functions.
    Physical Layer
    1 Raw transmission from physical layer to reliably link(node to node delivery).
    2. Make physical layer error free.
    Data Link Layer
    11
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 22.
    • Logical addressing.
    • 23. Routing.
    Network and Transport Layer
    Source to destination delivery of packet across multiple network.
    Network Layer
    • Service-point addressing.
    • 24. Segmentation and reassembly.
    • 25. Connection control.
    • 26. Flow control.
    • 27. Error control.
    Source to destination delivery of entire message across multiple network.
    2. Connection establish, Data transfer and Connection release.
    Transport Layer
    12
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 28.
    • Dialog control.
    • 29. Synchronization.
    Session and Presentation Layer
    It is a network Dialog Controller.
    2. It establishes, maintains and synchronizes the interaction between communicating system .
    Session Layer
    1. Concerned with syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two system.
    Presentation Layer
    13
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 32.
    • Network virtual terminal.
    • 33. File transfer, access, and management.
    • 34. Mail services.
    • 35. Directory services.
    Application Layer and Summary
    Enable user, (human or software) to access the network.
    2. Provides user interface and support for services (email, Remote file access, shared database management system).
    Application Layer
    14
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 36. Conclusion
    1. The International Standards Organization created a model called the Open Systems Interconnection, which allows diverse systems to communicate.
    2. The seven-layer OSI model provides guidelines for the development of universally compatible networking protocols.
    3. The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium.
    4. The data link layer is responsible for delivering data units from one station to the next without errors.
    5. The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet across multiple network links.
    6. The transport layer is responsible for the process-to-process delivery of the entire message.
    7. The session layer establishes, maintains, and synchronizes the interactions between communicating devices.
    8. The presentation layer ensures interoperability between communicating devices through transformation of data into a mutually agreed upon format.
    15
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com
  • 37. Reference
    1. Data Communications and Networking - Behrouz A. Forouzan
    2. OSI model - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    16
    Krishna Kumar Bohra (KKB), MCA LMCST
    www.selectall.wordpress.com