Open Source Package PHP & MySQL
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Open Source Package PHP & MySQL

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Web Development on PHP/MySQL

Web Development on PHP/MySQL

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Open Source Package PHP & MySQL Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PHP and MySQL
  • 2. PHP Language
    • A recursive acronym: P HP H ypertext P reprocessor
    • A scripting language designed for creating dynamic and data-driven Web pages
    • PHP is a server-side scripting language; it is parsed and interpreted on the server side of a Web application and the resulting output is sent to the browser. (VBScript and JavaScript are mostly client-side).
    • Designed to work with the MySQL database system, but can also connect to other database systems.
  • 3. PHP Language
    • PHP and MySQL are open-source; they can be obtained free-of-charge and the source codes are available for development.
      • www.php.net
      • www.mysql.com
    • You will need to install PHP to work with your MS IIS or Apache Web server.
    • PHP and MySQL are becoming increasingly popular in recent years because it is free of charge. Other software packages like Microsoft ASP.NET are expensive for small and medium enterprises.
  • 4. A Simple PHP Example
      • <HTML>
      • <HEAD>
      • <TITLE>PHP Example</TITLE>
      • </HEAD>
      • <BODY> <?
      • echo &quot;<b>Welcome</b>&quot;; // print the string here
      • ?>
      • </BODY> </HTML>
    • PHP scripts are enclosed by the <?php And ?> tags.
      • Can simply use <? for the opening tag.
    • All PHP statements end with a semicolon (unless it ends the closing tag on the same line) ‏
    • Comments can be marked by # , // or /* */
    http://147.8.210.143/php/example1.php
  • 5. Including Files
    • You can include common files (like header, footer, and navigation bars) in PHP.
      • <? include(&quot;header.inc&quot;) ?>
  • 6. Variables in PHP
    • Variable names start with the dollar sign $
    • You can use letters and underscore for variable names.
    • The first character after $ cannot be a number
    • Variable names are case-sensitive
    • For example:
      • <? $name = &quot;Michael&quot;; ?>
      • <? $i = 1; ?>
  • 7. Variables in PHP
    • The three main types of variables in PHP:
      • Scalar
      • Array
      • Object
    • Scalar can be Integer, Double, Boolean, or String
    • When you assign a value to a variable, its data type is also assigned.
  • 8. Array
    • Arrays can be created with integers or strings as keys.
    • <?php $arr = array(&quot;UK&quot; => &quot;London&quot;, 12 => 56); echo $arr[&quot;UK&quot;]; // London echo $arr[12];    // 56 ?>
  • 9. Object
    • Use the class statement to define a class.
    • Use the new statement to create an object.
    • <?php class test {    function do_something()    {        echo &quot;Do something&quot;;    } } $my_test = new test; $my_test->do_something(); ?>
  • 10. Basic Operators
    • Assignment/Arithmetic operators
      • = + - * / %
      • ++ -- += -= *= /=
    • Comparison operators
      • == (equal value) ‏
      • === (identical value and data type) ‏
      • != or <>
      • < > <= >=
    • Logical operators
      • ! && ||
  • 11. String Concatenation
    • Same as Perl
    • . concatenate strings
    • .= concatenate and assign
    • Example:
    • $word1 = &quot;Play&quot;;
    • $full_string = $word1 . &quot;Station&quot;;
  • 12. String Functions
    • There are a lot of string functions in PHP that you can use. For example:
      • int strlen(string str) ‏
      • string strtoupper(string str) ‏
      • string strtolower(string str) ‏
      • int strcmp(string str1, string str2) ‏
      • int strcasecmp(string str1, string str2) ‏
      • string strstr(string src, string target) ‏
      • int strpos(string src, string target [, int offset]) ‏
    • You can find them in the PHP manual: http://www.php.net/manual/en/
  • 13. Conditions
    • boolean variable: TRUE(1) or FALSE(0) ‏
    • if (EXPR) { STATEMENTS; }
    • elseif (EXPR) { STATEMENTS; }
    • else { STATEMENTS; }
    • switch-case
  • 14. Loops
    • while ( EXPR )
    • { STATEMENTS; }
    • do { STATEMENTS;
    • } while (EXPR);
    • for ( INIT_EXPR; COND_EXPR; LOOP_EXPR )
    • { STATEMENTS; }
    • foreach (ARRAY as VARIABLE)
    • { STATEMENTS; }
    • break, continue
  • 15. Alternative Syntax
    • It is possible to write control statements and loops using the following “colon” format:
      • <?php
      • if ($a == 5): echo &quot;A is equal to 5&quot;; endif;
      • ?>
  • 16. User-defined Functions
    • Functions can be defined using the function keyword.
    • <?php function function_name($arg_1, $arg_2, ...) {    statements;    return $some_value; // optional
    • } ?>
  • 17. Mixing HTML and PHP Codes
    • PHP codes can be easily inserted anywhere in an HTML page.
    • You can even mix the codes together, usually to avoid writing too many “echo” statements with escape characters.
      • <?
      • if ($i == 1) {
      • ?> <h2>The condition is true</h2> <center><b>$i is 1</b></center> <?
      • } else {
      • ?> <h2>The condition is false</h2> <center><b>$i is not 1</b></center> <?
      • }
      • ?>
    HTML PHP
  • 18. Shortcut for Writing Echos
    • Instead of writing
      • <? echo expression ?>
    • You can use the following shortcut
      • <?= expression ?>
    • This is useful for inserting expressions and variables quickly into HTML pages.
  • 19. Working with HTML Forms
    • You can easily get the variables submitted by an HTML form using the following (assume the form input is called “name”:
      • $_POST['name'] // post method
      • $_GET['name'] // get method
      • $name /* easier, but Register Globals must be set to ON in PHP config */
  • 20. Working with HTML Forms
    • It is common to put the form and the results of different requests in the same file.
      • <HTML>
      • <HEAD><TITLE>PHP FORM TEST</TITLE></HEAD>
      • <BODY>
      • <?
      • if (!isset($name) || $name == &quot;&quot;) {
      • ?>
      • <FORM METHOD=&quot;post&quot;>
      • Your name: <INPUT TYPE=&quot;text&quot; NAME=&quot;name&quot;>
      • Your age: <INPUT TYPE=&quot;text&quot; NAME=&quot;age&quot;>
      • <INPUT TYPE=&quot;submit&quot;>
      • </FORM>
      • <?
      • } else {
      • echo &quot;Your name is $name<BR>&quot;;
      • echo &quot;Your age is $age&quot;;
      • }
      • ?>
      • </BODY>
      • </HTML>
    If name is empty or not defined, then show the form If name is not empty, i.e., when the user has entered something, then show the results http://localhost/php/example2.php
  • 21. PHP and MySQL
    • PHP is designed to work with the MySQL database. However, it can also connect to other database systems such as Oracle, Sybase, etc., using ODBC.
  • 22. Example
      • <HTML> <BODY>
      • <?php
      • $db = mysql_connect(&quot;localhost&quot;, &quot;root“,””);
      • mysql_select_db(&quot;mydb &quot; , $db);
      • $result = mysql_query(&quot;SELECT * FROM employees&quot;,$db);
      • printf(&quot;First Name: %s<br> &quot;, mysql_result($result,0,&quot;first&quot;));
      • printf(&quot;Last Name: %s<br> &quot;, mysql_result($result,0,&quot;last&quot;));
      • printf(&quot;Address: %s<br> &quot;, mysql_result($result,0,&quot;address&quot;));
      • printf(&quot;Position: %s<br> &quot;,mysql_result($result,0,&quot;position&quot;));
      • mysql_free_result($result);
      • mysql_close($db);
      • ?>
      • </BODY> </HTML>
  • 23. Useful PHP Functions for MySQL
    • mysql_connect(host, username [,password]);
      • Connects to a MySQL server on the specified host using the given username and/or password. Returns a MySQL link identifier on success, or FALSE on failure.
    • mysql_select_db(db_name [,resource]) ‏
      • Selects a database from the database server.
  • 24. Useful PHP Functions for MySQL
    • mysql_query(SQL, resource);
      • Sends the specified SQL query to the database specified by the resource identifier. The retrieved data are returned by the function as a MySQL result set.
    • mysql_result(result, row [,field]);
      • Returns the contents of one cell from a MySQL result set. The field argument can be the field name or the field’s offset.
    • mysql_fetch_array(result [,result_type]) ‏
      • Fetch a result row as an associative array, a numeric array, or both. The result type can take the constants MYSQL_ASSOC, MYSQL_NUM, and MYSQL_BOTH.
  • 25. Useful PHP Functions for MySQL
    • mysql_free_result(result) ‏
      • Frees the result set
    • mysql_close(resource) ‏
      • Closes the connection to the database.
  • 26. Error Handling
    • If there is error in the database connection, you can terminate the current script by using the die function.
    • For example:
    • $db = mysql_connect(&quot;localhost&quot;, &quot;root“, “”)
    • or die(&quot;Could not connect : &quot; . mysql_error());
      • mysql_select_db(&quot;my_database&quot;)
      • or die(&quot;Could not select database&quot;);
    • $result = mysql_query($query)
    • or die(&quot;Query failed&quot;);
  • 27. Example: Looping through the Cells
      • <?php
      • /* Connecting, selecting database */
      • $link = mysql_connect(&quot;mysql_host&quot;, &quot;mysql_user&quot;, mysql_password&quot;) ‏
      • or die(&quot;Could not connect : &quot; . mysql_error());
      • echo &quot;Connected successfully&quot;;
      • mysql_select_db(&quot;my_database&quot;) or die(&quot;Could not select database&quot;);
      • /* Performing SQL query */
      • $query = &quot;SELECT * FROM my_table&quot;;
      • $result = mysql_query($query)
      • or die(&quot;Query failed : &quot; . mysql_error());
      • /* Printing results in HTML */
      • echo &quot;<table> &quot;;
      • while ($line = mysql_fetch_array($result, MYSQL_ASSOC)) {
      • echo &quot; <tr> &quot;;
      • foreach ($line as $col_value) {
      • echo &quot; <td>$col_value</td> &quot;;
      • }
      • echo &quot; </tr> &quot;;
      • }
      • echo &quot;</table> &quot;;
    Loop through each row of the result set Loop through each element in a row
  • 28. Example: Looping through the Cells
      • /* Free resultset */
      • mysql_free_result($result);
      • /* Closing connection */
      • mysql_close($link);
      • ?>
  • 29.
    • Thank You