POLIO VACCINE

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POLIO VACCINE

  1. 1. POLIO VACCINE <ul><li>PRESENTED BY: SHASHI, 3 rd YEAR </li></ul>
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History of polio vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>PPMA </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action of polio vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Types of polio vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Dose and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Poliomyelitis is an acute viral disease usually caused by a polio virus. </li></ul><ul><li>A polio vaccine is a medicine that is given to prevent polio . </li></ul><ul><li>Serious causes of polio includes paralysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Some may die because of Respiratory paralysis. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of polio vaccine <ul><li>In 1952, the CDC estimated that there were over 21,000 paralytic cases of polio in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact it was Enders who, in 1954, shared the only Nobel Prize given for polio research. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Is there any treatment for poliomyelitis ……? <ul><li>There are no special drugs or therapies to cure polio </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>If the symptoms of polio reappears after a severe infection (at the age of 40 to 50 years), this phenomenon is known as </li></ul><ul><li>“ Post Polio Muscle Atrophy”. </li></ul><ul><li>PPMA is not a reinfection or reactivation of the virus but is probably a form of rapid aging in polio survivors. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mechanism of action of vaccine Use anti-idiotype antibody as injectable vaccine Antibody to anti-idiotype antibody Binds and neutralizes virus Use as vaccine Anti-anti-idiotype antibody Anti-idiotype antibody Anti-anti-idiotype antibody Anti-anti-idiotype antibody
  8. 8. <ul><li>Typical administration of IPV involves 2 doses for both infants and unvaccinated adults </li></ul>INFANTS UNVACCINATED ADULTS Number of injections per dose 3 2 1 st dose administration 6-8 weeks of age 2 injections at a 1-2 month interval 2 nd dose administration 4-6 months of age 6-12 months later
  9. 9. <ul><li>There are two general types </li></ul><ul><li>INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE (IPV) </li></ul><ul><li>ORAL POLIO VACCINE (OPV) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE(IPV) </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms for IPV vaccine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-IPV </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ep-IPV </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salk vaccine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPV is a trivalent (strains 1,2,3) vaccine. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11.
  12. 12. <ul><li>TRIVALENT ORAL POLIO VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym is Sabin Vaccine, 1960. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a Live Attenuated virus vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral administration of vaccine yields a local gastro-intestinal infection. </li></ul><ul><li>A major caution with TOPV is that it is a live vaccine and must never be injected. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Attenuated by passage in foreign host (monkey kidney cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Selection to grow in new host makes virus </li></ul><ul><li>less suited to original </li></ul><ul><li>host </li></ul>
  14. 14. Differences between salk and sabin vaccine? <ul><li>Jonas Salk developed salk vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>An inoculation dead polio virus. </li></ul><ul><li>It is administered as an injection. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete dose includes a satisfactory immune response. </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic antibody response. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Sabin developed sabin vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>An inoculation of attenuated live polio viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>It is administrated in oral route. </li></ul><ul><li>1or2 doses of oral vaccine gives 90 to 100% result. </li></ul><ul><li>Local immunity in gut. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>As the disease polio cannot be cured if once attacked, it is better to follow preventive measures as it is contagious. </li></ul><ul><li>The vaccination is definite in case of infants and children. </li></ul>

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