Poliomyelitis is an acute viral disease usually caused by a polio virus.
A polio vaccine is a medicine that is given to prevent polio .
Serious causes of polio includes paralysis.
Some may die because of Respiratory paralysis.
History of polio vaccine
In 1952, the CDC estimated that there were over 21,000 paralytic cases of polio in the USA.
In fact it was Enders who, in 1954, shared the only Nobel Prize given for polio research.
Is there any treatment for poliomyelitis ……?
There are no special drugs or therapies to cure polio
If the symptoms of polio reappears after a severe infection (at the age of 40 to 50 years), this phenomenon is known as
“ Post Polio Muscle Atrophy”.
PPMA is not a reinfection or reactivation of the virus but is probably a form of rapid aging in polio survivors.
Mechanism of action of vaccine Use anti-idiotype antibody as injectable vaccine Antibody to anti-idiotype antibody Binds and neutralizes virus Use as vaccine Anti-anti-idiotype antibody Anti-idiotype antibody Anti-anti-idiotype antibody Anti-anti-idiotype antibody
Typical administration of IPV involves 2 doses for both infants and unvaccinated adults
INFANTS UNVACCINATED ADULTS Number of injections per dose 3 2 1 st dose administration 6-8 weeks of age 2 injections at a 1-2 month interval 2 nd dose administration 4-6 months of age 6-12 months later
There are two general types
INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE (IPV)
ORAL POLIO VACCINE (OPV)
INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE(IPV)
Synonyms for IPV vaccine
IPV is a trivalent (strains 1,2,3) vaccine.
TRIVALENT ORAL POLIO VACCINE
Synonym is Sabin Vaccine, 1960.
It is a Live Attenuated virus vaccine.
Oral administration of vaccine yields a local gastro-intestinal infection.
A major caution with TOPV is that it is a live vaccine and must never be injected.
Attenuated by passage in foreign host (monkey kidney cells)
Selection to grow in new host makes virus
less suited to original
Differences between salk and sabin vaccine?
Jonas Salk developed salk vaccine.
An inoculation dead polio virus.
It is administered as an injection.
Complete dose includes a satisfactory immune response.
Systemic antibody response.
Albert Sabin developed sabin vaccine.
An inoculation of attenuated live polio viruses.
It is administrated in oral route.
1or2 doses of oral vaccine gives 90 to 100% result.
Local immunity in gut.
As the disease polio cannot be cured if once attacked, it is better to follow preventive measures as it is contagious.
The vaccination is definite in case of infants and children.