university ranking criteriaPresentation Transcript
ACADEMIC RANKING OF WORLD UNIVERSITIES
The “university ranking” is an American invention.
The West ranks hospitals, schools and universities. Hotels are ranked and classified according to stars.
Ranking is normally conducted through survey processes.
The university ranking is part of human nature to set hierarchies.
It is also the nature of contemporary world functions due to the globalization impact.
Higher education is complex, costly and important, and it always attracts many attentions of politicians, employers, potential students as well as their families. They need quantified evidences about “quality and performance”.
CURRENT ACADEMIC RANKING OF WORLD UNIVERSITIES
THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT UNIVERSITY RANKING
Ranking can give advantages to universities for the following reasons:
Universities have Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to measure their performances.
Ranking will become self-improvement tools for universities.
Ranking can foster healthy competition among higher education institutions.
Whereas the disadvantages of university ranking are as follows:
Measurement is not based on category or university’s objectives.
Results of ranking can give impacts to staff’s and students’ motivation.
Dilemma of Ranking
In the ranking exercises, the following matters should be taken into consideration:
Ranking must be based on the same categories “homogeneous”.
Public Universities need to fulfill national agenda which is not taken into account in the ranking exercise.
Most ranking systems are driven by the commercial need to sell more publications.
Rankings are something of a self-fulfilling prophecy: reputation is considered a significant factor.
There is always data manipulation to place well on rankings.
Many data collecting exercises are driven by the information that is available rather than the information that is necessary to accurately gauge the level to which an institution meets particular quality criteria.
Ranking should not count factors that are proxy for quality.
Ranking must not ignore universities’ missions and goals which are different between one university to another.
Ranking cannot assume “one size fits all” which norms of research universities are the gold standard.
Frequent Asked Questions
How to ensure that the data provided conforms to the questionnaire for best advantage?
How to develop your university’s strategy to maintain or improve your ranking?
Why does World Ranking increase student numbers and revenue?
How ranked universities can attract the most talented student and faculty?
How to globalize your institution?
TYPES OF RANKING PROVIDERS
Independent Professional Bodies
WHY THE NEED FOR RANKINGS?
Higher Education is becoming more global.
Knowledge is the key driver of international competitiveness.
Ranking will raise awareness of institutions / universities being ranked.
International Study Trends show that world wide demand for education is on the rise.
Public funding is being slashed, so one source of funding is from international students. In some countries international students’ contribution to the economy is higher than the other sectors.
CRITERIA OF UNIVERSITY RANKING
CRITERIA OF TOP UNIVERSITIES
No. of academic staff with PhD or equivalent
% of results from “Peer Review”
% of equipment fully operational and calibrated or physical facilities that meet safety and quality standards
No. of book titles in the Library
Ratio of academic staff to students
No. of programmes accredited by professional bodies
Amount of research grants received
No. of research products / recognitions conferred by national and international bodies
No. of papers refereed and cited in refereed journals
No. of articles, books and publications per staff
No. of patents attained
No. of products commercialized
No. of postdoctoral
Research STANDARD INDICATORS BEING USED CRITERIA
Income generated from consultancy activities
CGPA of students admitted into the University
% of graduates employed after graduation
% of results from Employer Survey
No. of University Alumni awarded “Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals”
No. of PhD students
No. of international academic staff
No. of international students
Compliance to International Quality Standard i.e. ISO9000 QMS
% of Customer Satisfaction Index
Service Delivery STANDARD INDICATORS BEING USED CRITERIA
CRITERIA OF WORLD UNIVERSITIES 40% Peer Review : Composite score drawn from peer review (which is divided into 5 subject areas) 5% International Faculty : Score based on international faculty International Outlook 5% International Students : Score based on proportion of international students 10% Recruiter Review : Score based on responses to recruiter survey Graduate Employability Teaching Quality Research Quality Criteria Student Faculty : Score based on student/faculty ratio Citations per Faculty : Score based on research performance factored against the size of the research body Indicator Times Higher Education Survey Ranking Bodies Weight 20% 20% Criteria
20% Articles published in Nature and Science Research Output 20% Articles in Science Citation Index-expanded, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index 20% Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals Quality of Faculty Size of Institution Quality of Education Criteria Academic performance with respect to the size of an institution Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals Indicator Shanghai Jiao Tong World University Ranking Ranking Bodies Weight 20% 10% 10% Criteria
Quantity and Quality of Research Quantity and Quality of Researchers Criteria 100 Number of recognitions/awards/ stewardsip conferred by national and international learned and professional bodies With balanced distribution of staff with >20 yrs experience, 10-20 yrs and <10 yrs experience Research Experience At RM50,000/staff/yr of which at least 20% is from international sources and 20% from private sector
Research grants for S&T academic staff:
Private (including contract research)
2 papers in national/international refereed and cited journals per staff/yr or cumulative impact factor for the institution of not less than 5000 Publications 10/yr Post-docs appointed Should not be less than 60% of grants attained/yr Research Expenditure 60% of academic staff involved as Principal Investigator Critical Mass Research University 60% Percentage of Academic Staff with PhD or Equivalent Ranking Bodies Weight Indicator
30% Inter-institution (international) participation 10% % of International Postgraduate Students 1 PG : 4 UG Ratio of PG to UG Not less than 10% % of PG fellowships/grants from prestigious bodies awarded to PG via research mode 50% of PG Intake with CGPA > 3.00 % of PG Intake Quality of Postgraduate Students Not less than RM20 million/yr Income generated from training courses/services/consultancy/PG students fees/endowment/gifts Professional Services and Gifts 30/yr Number of patents attained/number of products commercialized/number of technology know-how licensing/number of IPR/copyrights Innovation 3 PG : 1 staff Ratio of PG to academic staff 70% Inter-institution (national) participation Networking and Linkages Support Facilities Quantity of Postgraduate Criteria 1:18 academic staff of which 60% will be from S&T Ratio of PhDs graduated to academic staff Ranking Bodies 75% compliance attained Equipment fully operational and calibrated or physical facilities met safety & quality standards, supporting facilities Weight Indicator
Quantity and Quality of Research Quantity and Quality of Researchers Criteria 500 Number of recognitions/awards/ stewardsip conferred by national and international learned and professional bodies With 60% distribution of staff with >20 yrs experience, 20% with 10-20 yrs and 20% with <10 yrs experience Research Experience At RM1,000,000/staff/yr of which at least 40% is from international sources and 40% from private sector
Research grants for S&T academic staff:
Private (including contract research)
5 papers in national/international refereed and cited journals per staff/yr or cumulative impact factor for the institution of not less than 5000 Publications 1 post-doc per academic staff Post-docs appointed Should not be less than 70% of grants attained/yr Research Expenditure 85% of academic staff involved as Principal Investigator Critical Mass World Class Research University 95% Percentage of Academic Staff with PhD or Equivalent Ranking Bodies Weight Indicator
50% Inter-institution (international) participation 15% % of International Postgraduate Students 4 PG : 6 UG Ratio of PG to UG Not less than 20% % of PG fellowships/grants from prestigious bodies awarded to PG via research mode 50% of PG Intake with CGPA > 3.25 % of PG Intake Quality of Postgraduate Students Not less than RM600 million/yr Income generated from training courses/services/consultancy/PG students fees/endowment/gifts Professional Services and Gifts 100/yr Number of patents attained/number of products commercialized/number of technology know-how licensing/number of IPR/copyrights Innovation 5 PG : 1 staff Ratio of PG to academic staff 50% Inter-institution (national) participation Networking and Linkages Support Facilities Quantity of Postgraduate Criteria 1:3 academic staff of which 80% will be from S&T Ratio of PhDs graduated to academic staff Ranking Bodies 95% compliance attained Equipment fully operational and calibrated or physical facilities met safety & quality standards, supporting facilities Weight Indicator
Criteria from Shanghai Jiao Tong : 50%
Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals
Articles published in Nature and Science
Articles in Science Citation Index-expanded, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index
Criteria from Times Higher World University Ranking : 40%
% of international academic staff
% of international students
Ratio of academic staff to students
Score based on research performance factored against the size of the research body
Criteria of Library : 10%
No. of volumes in the university library
Teaching Quality Rating
Students per member of academic staff
Student Facilities Spending
Australian University Ranking Criteria Ranking Bodies
15 Research Quality 15 Research Performance 2 Patents 5 Rate of growth for research quality Research (50) Criteria Rate of growth for research performance Research Volume Indicator OIC Ranking Ranking Bodies Weight 5 8 Criteria
3 Ratio faculty to students 3 Alumni that become highly cited researchers 3 Alumni that did win awards 4 Ratio of faculty members with PhD to total number of faculty 8 Faculty highly cited researchers 6 Faculty members with awards 2 Ratio of postgraduate students to total number of students 3 Rate of growth of postgraduate students Education (35) Criteria Students winning international Olympiads Indicator Ranking Bodies Weight 3 Criteria
1 International Exchange Programmes 1 ½ International Conferences 1 ½ Ratio of faculty members with foreign PhD degrees to total number of faculty members with PhD degrees 1 Ratio of international students to total students 2 Ratio of international faculty to total faculty International Outlook (7) Criteria Indicator Ranking Bodies Weight Criteria
1 Life learning courses 2 ½ Contracts and consultancies incomes 1 Entrepreneurship programmes and industrial linkages Facilities (3) 1/2 Number of incubated projects and spin-off companies 1 Number of university’s research Institutes/Centres 1 Number of journals/periodicals accessible (hard or soft copies) 1 Number of book titles per student Socio-Economic Impact (5) Criteria Indicator Ranking Bodies Weight Criteria
IMPROVEMENTS TO CURRENT CRITERIA
Purposes and goals of the rankings
Should recognize the diversity of institutions and take into account their different missions and goals (ranking tends to ignore these issues).
Design and weighting of indicators
Be transparent regarding the methodology used for creating the rankings.
Appropriate ways of measuring outcomes, such as retention and graduation rates, scores on examinations, etc.
Collection and processing of data
Use audited and verifiable data whenever possible.
Presentation of ranking results
Provide consumers with clear understanding of all factors used to develop ranking, and offer them a choice in how rankings are displayed such as by allowing them to determine how factors are weighed on interactive web sites.
Sources “Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions” -
PROCEDURES AND MECHANISMS FOR UNIVERSITY SELECTION
Assign universities with the same groups of their peers.
Academic reputation & research outputs.
Faculty and student diversity and background.
Webpage becomes impact factor, i.e. volumes of published materials on the web.
“ If we don’t produce our own ranking, don’t be surprised that others are going to do it for us”