Second Sophistic, Medieval, and Renaissance Views on Authorship

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Discussion notes for a doctoral seminar in Authorship Studies.

Discussion notes for a doctoral seminar in Authorship Studies.

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  • 1. Second Sophistic, Medieval, & Renaissance Views on AuthorshipSaturday, February 2, 13
  • 2. roughly 100 OR 154* -230 AD *Beginning of Nero’s reignSaturday, February 2, 13
  • 3. Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 4. Lauer, 30: “Here inventional acts took a hermeneutical turn as they were deployed to interpret the Scriptures and embellish sermons (La Tourneau). As George Kennedy explained, preaching the Christian kerygma, the good news, was a proclamation, where the truth of the message had to be apprehended by the listener, not proved by the speaker (Classical Rhetoric 145-46) ...Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 5. ...For Augustine, invention was an art of exegesis that guided the discovery of meaning in the scriptures.”Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 6. Intention Constructed TruthSaturday, February 2, 13
  • 7. The Middle AgesSaturday, February 2, 13
  • 8. Lauer, 31 - 32: “As McKeon explained, invention during this period influenced three lines of intellectual development: rhetorical theory, theology, and logic. ... P. Osmund Lewry pointed out that at this time dialectic and rhetoric shared the realm of the probable though one did so in view of the truth and the other to play on the emotions.... As three new medieval rhetorical arts developed (letter writing, preaching, and poetry), the topics became means for remembering, amplifying, and describing material for these types of rhetoric.Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 9. Lauer, 33: Rhetorical invention as: - methods for interpreting Scriptures - scholastic method of inquiry: begin with questions and apparent contributions, then use topics to sort out theoretical problems by exploring their causes, effects, definitions, etc.Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 10. Minnis, The Medieval Theory of AuthorshipSaturday, February 2, 13
  • 11. divine auctor vs human auctor (27)Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 12. Minnis, 27: The concern with authorial role or function - sometimes termed the author’s ‘office’ (officium) - is manifest by two facets of the author’s individuality which the exegete sought to describe, his individual literary activity and his individual moral activity.Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 13. Constable, Plagiarism and Forgery in the Middle AgesSaturday, February 2, 13
  • 14. Movement toward Science: “The Old Logic used topics for discovery while analytics provided judgment. The New Logic separated logic and dialectic, making rhetoric the counterpart of dialectic and separating scientific proof from probable proof.” (33)Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 15. Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 16. Lauer: The Renaissance revived classical rhetoric, reigniting debates of the nature, purposes and epistemologies of invention. ... Thomas Wilson: - Judicial Rhetoric: status not as initiating act of question posing, but as stating of foundational/joint principle. - Demonstrative rhetoric: special topics of persons, deeds, things. - Deliberative discourse: special topics such as honest, profitable, pleasant, easy, hard, necessary. - Special topics for pathos and ethos.Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 17. Ramus: invention belongs to logic, not rhetoric.Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 18. Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning: The invention of speech or argument is not properly an invention: for to invent is to discover that we know not, and not to recover or resummon that which we already know: and the use of the invention is no other but out of the knowledge whereof our mind is already possessed, to draw forth or call before us that which may be pertinent to the purpose which we take into our consideration. So as to speak truly, it is no invention, but a remembrance or suggestion, with an application; ... that it hath already obtained the name, let it be called invention. (58) [Lauer 36]Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 19. Bundy: What is the role of fantasy?Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 20. Bundy on the pathological view: We must also reckon among pertinent materials an ethical and pathological view derived from the Middle Ages, involving a distrust of imagination as the dominant power accounting for the excesses of the insane and the morbid. When the Renaissance, following a medieval tradition which goes back to at least St. Augustine, attempted to classify human activities in terms of the mental powers involved and asserted that the lunatic, the lover, and the poet were of imagination all compact, the student of poetry was under the necessity either of accepting and explaining the kinship or of making certain important distinctions. (537)Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 21. Bundy on the pathological view: We must also reckon among pertinent materials an ethical and pathological view derived from the Middle Ages, involving a distrust of imagination as the dominant power accounting for the excesses of the insane and the morbid. When the Renaissance, following a medieval tradition which goes back to at least St. Augustine, attempted to classify human activities in terms of the mental powers involved and asserted that the lunatic, the lover, and the poet were of imagination all compact, the student of poetry was under the necessity either of accepting and explaining the kinship or of making certain important distinctions. (537)Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 22. Inventio --> Imagination (538)Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 23. George Gascoigne on Originality and Craft: The first and most necessarie poynt that euer I founde meete to be considered in making of a delectable poeme is this, to grounde it upon some ine inuention. For it is not inough to roll in pleasant woordes,... vnless the Inuention haue in it also aliquid salis. By this aliquid salis I meane some good and fine deuise, shewing the quicke capacitie of a writer.Saturday, February 2, 13
  • 24. Ronsard on inventionary imagination and montrosity: When I tell you that you should invent great and beautiful things, I do not mean those fantastic and melancholy inventions which have no more relation the one to another than the disconnected dreams of a lunatic or of some sick person extremely afflicted by fever, to whose imagination on account of its being injured there are represented a thousand monstrous forms without order or connection; but your inventions, for which I can give no rule because of their spiritual character, will be well ordered and arranged, and, although they seem to excel those of the common people, they will, nevertheless, be such that they can be easily conceived and understood by every one. (542)Saturday, February 2, 13