November 21-23 2012Apo View Hotel, DAVAO,Philippines
Order of Presentation• Background• Hybrid Clone development Program-PNG• Selection Criteria• Achievements• Production and Distribution of Clonal Materials• Support Technologies• Current Situation• Few Points for Philippines Cocoa
Development of Cocoa HybridClones for Improved CocoaProduction in Papua New Guinea.By Jeffrie MarfuPNG Cocoa Coconut Research InstituteP.O.Box 1846Rabaul, ENBPPapua New Guinea.
Background Cocoa mostly exported as dry cocoa beans Production based on Trinitario and Upper Amazon Recent production 35-45,000 metric tonnes Third most important commodity cash crop Fetches between USD100-150 million Close to 70% of production small holder based. PNG cocoa classified “Fine Flavoured” cocoa. Cocoa R&D undertaken by PNGCCRI
• Genetically IDENTICAL• Uniformity of all trees within the same clones• Performance should be reliable and repeatable at any given sets of environmental conditions
Hybrid Clone Development Program Adopted in 1994 as main breeding Strategy to address; Low farm yields – 200-300kg/ha High yield variability Rapid Yield Decline after 4-5 years Has become an integral part of the current breeding program
Criteria for Selection of Clones• High yielding Potential• Good Production Stability• Good levels of resistance to pest and diseases• Good environmental adaptability and stability• Good quality characteristics****Maintenance of the FF genetic materials****
Achievements• Two Series of Hybrid Clones Produced• First series of Hybrid Clones released in March 2003- Eight Clones• Second Series to be released in first quarter of 2013- Ten Clones
First Series of ClonesBig Clones Small Clones37-13/1 34-13/216-2/3 17-3/136-3/1 73-14/163-7/3 73-2/2
Big Clones37-13/1 16-2/3 63-7/3 Small Clones34-13/2 17-3/1 73-14/1
Second Series of ClonesBig Clones Small ClonesK-9 16-4-2K-6 15-4-7K-4 63-3-821-4-8 13-3-217-2-16 37-2-10
Production and Distribution of ClonalPlanting Materials to Farmers Awareness of Clones Establishment of central nurseries Establishment of central bud wood gardens Training on Grafting Techniques -Patch Budding -Top Grafting Clonal seedling distribution to farmers Training of Management of Clones
Supporting Technologies1) Juvenile Budding Using 14 days old root stock
2) Use of Secondary Orthotropic Buds to ReduceJorquette Height
3) Use of Mutant Root Stock to Reduce PlantHeight
Current Situation with Planting Materials• Hybrid seed production to be phased out by 2015• Currently Hybrid seeds are distributed to more distant farmers• Government support of USD 3million for extension services to establish nurseries and bud wood garden & train farmers.
Few thoughts for Cocoa in the PhilippinesCurrent R&D efforts on Cocoa should be further supported.Production of clones should be encouraged to improve production at farm level.Farmers should be mobilized into formation of farmer groups and corporative,-training, quality , quantity.Proactive approach should be taken by government, donors and stake holders to ensure sustainability.Approach to the industry should be holistic – Farm to Market.