Development of ImprovedCocoa Clones for Farmers:Malaysia Cocoa Clones
Historical Aspects: Planting materials• 1950’s-1960’s    Amelonado and its hybrids, but, were unsuitable to the local    e...
Historical Aspects: Agencies involved• 1950’s-1960’s    government agencies (e.g. Department of Agriculture)• 1970’s-1990’...
Genetic Materials• Mainly forestero and trinitario, some  criollio• Introduced mainly from the Intermediate  Quarantine fa...
Steps in the Development of Planting Materials1.  Selecting clones to be introduced from Intermediate    Quarantine Facili...
Criteria for Recommended Clones•   High yielding: >2t/ha/year•   Average dried beans: >1.0g•   Pod index: 25•   Bean numbe...
SOME RECOMMENDED MALAYSIA CLONES •   PBC 112, 123, 159, 236 ,etc •   KKM 1,5, 22, 25, 28, etc •   QH 22, 37, 441, 1003, 11...
Technical Information some of MALAYSIA CLONES                    DBY       POD ADBW        FAT    CPC CLONE     PYT       ...
How Does A Farmer Obtains the Clones?•   Nearby MCB’s R&D centres•   Private nurseries•   Farmers’ group nurseries•   Farm...
How are the Clones Distributed ?• Grafted seedlings• Budsticks (e.g. for mature grafting/field grafting)   How much is the...
Welcome to       MALAYSIAN  INTERNATIONAL COCOA       FAIR 2013    4-9 OCTOBER 2013Sunway Pyramid Convention Centre       ...
Thank YouHAYA RAMBAManager / Cocoa BreederMALAYSIAN COCOA BOARDCOCOA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRELOT 248 BLOCK 14 BIOTE...
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Kk day 2 am 3rd speaker haya ramba development of improved cocoa clones for farmers malaysia

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Kk day 2 am 3rd speaker haya ramba development of improved cocoa clones for farmers malaysia

  1. 1. Development of ImprovedCocoa Clones for Farmers:Malaysia Cocoa Clones
  2. 2. Historical Aspects: Planting materials• 1950’s-1960’s Amelonado and its hybrids, but, were unsuitable to the local environment because of susceptibility to dieback disease and poor tolerance to expose (high light intensity); poor yielder (e.g. Aml x Pa7, Aml x SCA9)• 1970’s-1990’s Trinitario and Forestero hybrids of the Upper Amazon origin; higher yielding and more tolerant to dieback disease than the Amelonado hybrids (e.g. UIT1 x Na33, UIT1 x SCA6, Pa138 x SCA9, Pa156 x IMC 67)• 2000’s onwards Locally selected superior clones; more superior with regards to yield and generally to disease i.e. vascular streak die-back and black pods (e.g. PBC 123, KKM 22, QH 1003, MCBC1)
  3. 3. Historical Aspects: Agencies involved• 1950’s-1960’s government agencies (e.g. Department of Agriculture)• 1970’s-1990’s government and private plantation agencies (e.g. Department of Agriculture, Sime Darby Plantations)• 2000’s onwards government, private plantation agencies, individual farmers/smallholders
  4. 4. Genetic Materials• Mainly forestero and trinitario, some criollio• Introduced mainly from the Intermediate Quarantine facility of the Reading University, UK• Two years quarantine period or until certified disease or disorder free• Presently over 1000 accession each of the introduced and locally selected materials
  5. 5. Steps in the Development of Planting Materials1. Selecting clones to be introduced from Intermediate Quarantine Facility2. Quarantine requirement (at least 2 years)3. Local suitability evaluation (6-10 years)4. Generation of hybrids population and evaluation of desired crosses/progenies (>8 years)5. Selection of elite individual tress from hybrid population and evaluation (6-10 years)6. Local verification trials (6-10 years)7. Selection of clones for commercial planting (2-4 years after local verification completion)8. Establishment of budwood garden9. Distribution of superior clones10. Monitoring of clones performance in the cocoa growers field
  6. 6. Criteria for Recommended Clones• High yielding: >2t/ha/year• Average dried beans: >1.0g• Pod index: 25• Bean number per pods: >30• Shell content: <12%• Cocoa butter: >50%• Disease tolerance: VSD, BP• Insect pest tolerance: Helopeltis, Cocoa pod borer (most preferred)
  7. 7. SOME RECOMMENDED MALAYSIA CLONES • PBC 112, 123, 159, 236 ,etc • KKM 1,5, 22, 25, 28, etc • QH 22, 37, 441, 1003, 1176, etc • MCBC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9PBC 123 MCBC 1 QH 1003
  8. 8. Technical Information some of MALAYSIA CLONES DBY POD ADBW FAT CPC CLONE PYT BNP (kg/ha/yr) VALUE (g) (%) (%) KKM 22 58.1 2420 24.0 1.09 38 57.0 31.0 MCBC 1 68.9 3590 19.2 1.30 39 56.0 34.3 PBC 123 58.7 2550 23.0 1.04 42 53.0 33.8 QH 1003 50.5 2030 24.9 1.36 31 53.0 31.9 MCBC 8 59.9 3510 17.1 1.50 40 54.7 33.1 BR 25 67.3 2690 25.0 1.00 40 45.0 40.5 KKM 1 68.4 3930 17.4 1.06 51 56.0 34.0 KKM 4 51.0 2040 25.0 1.06 38 54.0 36.0 KKM 5 43.8 2020 21.7 1.07 42 49.0 42.0 KKM 25 72.5 2440 29.7 1.30 24 52.0 39.0 MCBC 9 90.7 3760 24.1 1.29 33 51.3 33.5 PBC 112 38.3 1530 25.0 1.01 38 56.0 27.0 PBC 139 43.4 2250 19.3 1.18 44 57.0 25.3 QH 22 75.1 3510 21.4 1.15 42 55.0 28.3
  9. 9. How Does A Farmer Obtains the Clones?• Nearby MCB’s R&D centres• Private nurseries• Farmers’ group nurseries• Farmers’ nursery entrepreneurs Who Verify the Authenticity of Clones?• MCB’s cocoa breeders• Trained extension staff
  10. 10. How are the Clones Distributed ?• Grafted seedlings• Budsticks (e.g. for mature grafting/field grafting) How much is the seedling cost ?• Seeds : RM0.06-0.10• Ungrafted: RM1.50-2.00• Grafted : RM3.00-5.00
  11. 11. Welcome to MALAYSIAN INTERNATIONAL COCOA FAIR 2013 4-9 OCTOBER 2013Sunway Pyramid Convention Centre Kuala Lumpur www.koko.gov.my
  12. 12. Thank YouHAYA RAMBAManager / Cocoa BreederMALAYSIAN COCOA BOARDCOCOA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRELOT 248 BLOCK 14 BIOTECHNOLOGY PARK94300 KOTA SAMARAHANSARAWAK MALAYSIATEL. : 6082-465912FAX. : 6082-465911EMAIL : hayaramba@koko.gov.my

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