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Research Proposal

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    Research Proposal Research Proposal Document Transcript

    • FACTORS AFFECTING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS AT UGANDA MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE. A CASE STUDY OF UMI GULU CENTER By KAJAGA RONNY SUPERVISORS Mr LUGEMOIWILFREDBONGOMIN Model Leader DPPM UMIA Proposal submitted to the higher degrees department in partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the award of Masters of Science in Project Planningand Management of Uganda Management Institute October, 2012
    • ContentsCHAPTER ONE………………………………………………………………….……….....….……3 1.0 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................41.1 Background ......................................................................................................................................................41.5 Research Questions ..........................................................................................................................................61.7 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................61.8 Significance......................................................................................................................................................6CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................................6 LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................................................................................72.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................7 2.1 Theoretical Review ......................................................................................................................................7 2.2 Conceptual Framework ............................................................................................................................7CHAPTER THREE ...........................................................................................................................................11 3.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................12 3.1 Research Design.........................................................................................................................................12 3.1.2 Sample size and selection .......................................................................................................................12 Sampling techniques and procedure ................................................................................................................12 Data Collection Methods .................................................................................................................................13 Data collection instruments..............................................................................................................................13 Pre-testing (Validity and reliability) ................................................................................................................13 Procedure of Data Collection ...........................................................................................................................13 Data Analysis ...................................................................................................................................................13REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................14Appendix 1: Questionnaire ..................................................................................................................................16
    • ABBREVIATIONSDPPMPost graduate Diploma in Project Planning and managementUMIUganda Management InstituteDFMPostgraduate Diploma in Financial ManagementDHRM Postgraduate Diploma in Human Resource ManagementDPPA Postgraduate Diploma in Public Administration and Management
    • CHAPTER ONE1.0IntroductionThis chapter will present the background to the study, the statement of the problem, generalobjective, the specific objectives of the study, the research questions, the scope of the study, thesignificance, Justification and operational definition of terms and concepts.1.1 BackgroundCurrently, Uganda Management Institute is conducting Postgraduate Diplomas Courses whichare designed for Middle and Senior level Managers in the Public Sector, Non-GovernmentalOrganizations and Private Sector. The Postgraduate Diplomas offered at the UMI Gulu Centreinclude: DPPM, DHRM and DP FM, DPPAMany scholars have argued a but the issues that affect academic performance. Schools isinstitutions in which groups of individuals are brought together to share educational experiencesand such interactions may breed positive or negative influences on learners. In this study, schoolbackground is characterized by location of school (urban or rural), school ownership (public orprivate schools) school academic status and school financial standing. There are anumber offactors that affects performance which surrounds admission points, social economic status andschool background to. According Geiser and Santelices (2007), Acato (2006), and Swart (1999)all argue that admission points which is reflection of the previous performance influence futureacademic performance.The researcher agrees with the scholars that admission points affectacademic performance at university and that is why according to the Uganda Universities andOther Tertiary Institutions Act (2001), the basis for entry to university is admission points whichare derived from A’ level points, Diploma points, Mature age points and graduate studiesAccording to Graetz (1995), one’s educational success depends very strongly on social economicstatus of the parents. Considine and Zappala (2002) argue that families where the parents areadvantaged socially, educationally and economically foster a high level of achievement in theirchildren. The researcher agrees with Considine and Zappala (2002) because students from highsocial economic backgrounds are well exposed to scholastic materials, which aid theirintelligence.
    • Sentamu (2003), Kwesiga (2002) and Portes and Macleod (1996) as cited in Considine andZappala (2002) all argue that the type of school a child attends influences academic achievement.According to Minnesota measures (2007), a journal report on higher education performance,which was produced by the University of Minnesota, the most reliable predictor of studentsuccess in college is the academic preparation of students in high school.1.2 Statement of the problemAcademic performance, which is measured by the examination results, is one of the major goalsof a school. Hoyle (1986) argued that schools are established with the aim of impartingknowledge and skills to those who go through them and behind all this is the idea of enhancinggood academic performance. They are concerned about those who do not perform well becauseif this poor performance goes unchecked, the university may lose its reputation, which may resultin loss of confidence in UMI graduates. Much as the situation described here causes concern, it isnot yet known why some students fail to attain the standards expected of them. There is lack ofsufficient research in the case of UMI as to what factors affect academic performance of thestudents. The researcher would therefore like to establish the factors affecting academicperformance of Post graduate students of UMI with specific reference to admission points, socialeconomic status and school background.1.3 General objective or Purpose‘Factors affecting academic performance of post graduate students at Uganda managementinstitute’1.4 Specific objectivesi) To establish the relationship between students’ admission points and academicPerformance of Post graduate students.ii) To establish the relationship between parents’ social economic status and academicperformance of Post graduate students.iii) To establish the relationship between students’ former school background and academicperformance of Post graduate students.
    • 1.5 Research Questionsi) What is the relationship between students’ admission points and academic performance of Postgraduate students?ii) What is the relationship between parents’ social economic status and academic performanceof Post graduate students?iii) What is the relationship between students’ former school background and academicperformance of Post graduate students?1.7 SignificanceThe study will enable the researcher to make recommendations to UMI administrators, Policy makersespecially those in the Quality Assurance unit, the Central Academic office and the Ministry ofEducation and Sports on what policies and strategies can be employed to improve academicperformance in institutions of higher learning. The findings will help the University Admission’sBoard to review its methods of admitting students in order to improve academic performance. Thereport will also be a source of reference for other researchers intending to study academicperformance of Post graduate students at UMI.1.8 JustificationIt is the first study of its kind relating to the performance of student of postgraduates students atUganda Management institute. Besides it would be relevant to point out the facts that are relatedto the performance of post graduate students at UMI1.9 ScopeThe study will be conducted at UMI Gulu Center using a sample of post graduate studentsselected from the four different post graduate classes. The content scope covered factors such asadmission points, socio-economic status and school background which affect academicperformance of post graduate students. The study will coverthe period of academic year2012/2013.1.10 Operational DefinitionsEducation- is the delivery of knowledge, skills, and information from teachers to students.Academic performance according to the Cambridge University Reporter (2003) is frequentlydefined in terms of examination performance
    • CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionThis chapter will Attempt to shade more lights on key study themes or areas by looking atdifferent written works that provide information, different sources of information includinginternet, reports, journals and books are of main focus in this chapter however researcher will beable to show, the theoretical review, and Conceptual frame work2.1 Theoretical ReviewThe theory adapted for this study is derived from the System’s theory input-output modeldeveloped by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy in 1956. The theory, according to Koontz and Weihrich,(1988) postulates that an organized enterprise does not exist in a vacuum; it is dependent on itsenvironment in which it is established. They add that the inputs from the environment arereceived by the organization, which then transforms them into outputs. As adapted in this study,the students (Inputs) are admitted into the university, with different admission points, fromdifferent social economic backgrounds and are from various school backgrounds, when they getinto the university system, the management of the university transforms them through theprocess of teaching and learning and the students output is seen through their academicperformance.2.2 Conceptual FrameworkThis shows the linkage between different factors and academic performance. It shows thatacademic performance as a independent variable is related to the dependent variables, which areadmissions points, parents’ social economic status and student’s former school.Independent Variables Dependent VariablesAcademic performance Admission Points- Graduate entry-Direct entry Performance in test- Diploma entry performance in course work
    • - Mature entry Performance in ExaminationSocial economic statusParental education- Family income- Parental-OccupationFormer School Background- School location- School ownership- Academic status- Financial standing2.3 Actual Literature reviewAdmission points and academic performanceThe last decade has seen an increase in literature relating to predictors of academic performancewith much debate on whether conventional measures of academic achievement are the bestdeterminants of future performance at university. In Uganda today, the main admission criteria touniversities is prior performance either at A’ level, or Degree level (Universities and TertiaryInstitutions Act, 2001). This, according to the literature reviewed is being practiced worldwide,admission boards elsewhere in the world use prior academic performance to select students foradmission. For example in the United States, Waller and Foy (1987), in South Africa, Swart(1999) and in Kuwait, Mohammad and Almaheed (1988) among many. Several countries usethese standards of admission because according to Staffolani and Bratti, (2002), measures ofprior educational performance are the most important determinants of student performance.Wheeler (2006) inhis study on success of non-traditional students in graduate program showedthat there was no difference in performance of non-traditional entrants and traditional entrants aslong as both categories had performed well at their previous qualifications. Even the scholarswho did not agree with that belief admitted that prior performance is related to futureperformance but to a small extent. These studies have led the researcher to hypothesize that thereis a relationship between admission points and academic performance of undergraduate students.
    • Social economic status and academic performanceSocial economic status is most commonly determined by combining parents’ educational level,occupational status and income level (Jeynes, 2002; McMillan & Western, 2000). In most of thestudies done on academic performance of students, it is not surprising that social economic statusis one of the major factors studied while predicting academic performance. It is believed that lowsocial economic status negatively affects academic achievement because low social economicstatusprevents access to vital resources and creates additional stress at home. (Eamon 2005;Jeynes, 2002). Graetz (1995) carried out a study on social economic status in education researchand policy found that social economic background remains one of the major sources ofeducational inequality and adds that one’s educational success depends very strongly on thesocial economic status of one’s parents. Considine and Zappala (2002) agree with Graetz (1995),in their study on the influence of social and economic disadvantage in the academic performanceof school students in Australia found that families where the parents are advantaged socially,educationally and economically foster a higher level of achievement in their children. They alsofound that these parents provide higher levels of psychological support for their children throughenvironments that encourage the development of skills necessary for success at school.On the contrary Pedrosa R.H, Norberto W.D, Rafael P.M,Cibele Y.A and Benilton S.C (2006) intheir study on educational and social economic background of undergraduates and academicperformance at a Brazilian university, found that students coming from disadvantagedsocioeconomic and educational homes perform relatively better than those coming from highersocioeconomic and educational strata. They called this phenomenal educational resilience. Thiscould be true considering that different countries have different parameters of categorizing socialeconomic status. What a developed country categorizes as low social economic status may bedifferent from the definition of low social economic status of a developing country. Additionallystudents do not form a homogenous group and one measure of social economic disadvantagemay not suit all sub groups equally.Former school background and academic performanceStudents’ educational outcome and academic success is greatly influenced by the type of schoolwhich they attend. The school one attends is the institutional environment that sets theparameters of a students’ learning experience. Depending on the environment, a school caneither open or close the doors that lead to academic achievement. According to Considine and
    • Zappala (2002) the type of school a child attends influences educational outcomes. Considineand Zappala (2002) cite Sparkles (1999) whose study in Britain shows that schools have anindependent effect on student attainment and that school effect is likely to operate throughvariation in quality and attitudes, so teachers in disadvantaged schools often hold lowexpectations of their students which compound the low expectations the students have, henceleading to poor performance by the students.A similar view is held by Kolcic (2006) in his study on academic performance and scientificinvolvement of final year medical students coming from urban and rural backgrounds. Kolcic(2006) concludes that students from urban backgrounds had significantly better academic andresearch indicators than those from rural and remote backgrounds. The results of Lee andMcIntire (2001) are contrary to Kolcic (2006) and Considine and Zappala (2002) they argue thatthere is no significant difference between the performance of students from rural schools andfrom urban schools. In their study on interstate variations in rural student achievement andschooling conditions, they observed that given that many rural students are poor and attendschools where instructional resources and course offerings are limited, the level of theiracademic performance relative to their non-rural counterparts is encouraging. They found that insome states rural students scored higher than their non-rural counterparts.Private schools, argue, tend to have both better funding and small sizes than public schools. Theyfound that additional funding of private schools leads to better academic performance and moreaccess to resources such as computers, which have been shown to enhance academicachievement. Zappala (2002) concluded in their study on school background that students fromindependent private schools were more likely to achieve higher end of school scores. Crosne,Johnson and Elder (2004), Sampson (2004) and Considine and Zappala (2002) share a similarview and that is; private schools are more likely to have a greater number of students withstronger abilities and have greater financial resources. In their conclusions, they maintained thatthe type of school affects the academic performance of students.In conclusion therefore, the review of literature has provided a backing for the researchhypothesis that there is a relationship between admission points and academic performance ofPost graduate students, that parents’ social economic status is related to academic performance
    • and that school background is related to academic performance of the student. The researcherwould therefore like to go ahead and prove the relationship between these three variables,admission points, parents’ social economic status and school background and academicperformance with reference to UMI.2.4Summary of the Literature ReviewThe review of literature has provided a backing for the research in that there is a relationshipbetween admission points and academic performance of post graduate students, that parents’social economic status is related to academic performance and that school background is relatedto academic performance of the student. The researcher would therefore like to go ahead andprove the relationship between these three variables, admission points, parents’ social economicstatus and school background and academic performance with reference to Uganda managementInstitute
    • CHAPTER THREE3.0 IntroductionThe study is design to examine ‘Factors affecting academic performance of post graduate studentsat Uganda management institute’. In this chapter the researcher explains the methods that will beused to carry out the investigation (method of data collection),and other important elements thatare explained include study area, sample population, Data collection Method, Data analysis andthe procedure that will be followed in the study and other ethical consideration3.1 Research DesignResearch Design refers to the way in which a researcher plans to collect information or data. Theresearch method in terms of achieving the objectives of this study is a qualitative form ofresearch. The qualitative research method normally relies more on verbal data than on numericdata. The sources of data for this study are therefore both a theory search (secondary sourcessuch as books, journals, and publications) and an empirical survey.Questionnaires as an instrument to collect data will be designed by the researcher and distributedto both the students and facilitators as well3.2Study PopulationThe target populations will be both women and men who are perusing post graduate studies atUMI Gulu Centre and those one who have completed in the year 2011/2012 from the sameinstitution3.3 Sample size and selectionA simple random sampling will be utilized to select students and facilitators at UMI. Accordingto Bless and Higson–Smith, (1995:89) a simple random sampling is a sampling procedure, whichprovides equal opportunity of selection for each element in a population. UMI is chosen becausethis is one of the centers where students are attaining post graduate studies.3.4Sampling techniques and procedureThe sample will consist of 80 Post graduate students selected from the total population ofstudent’s perusing post graduate studies at UMI. The respondents will be selected from all thedepartment 20 from PPM, 20 from financial management, 20 from public administration 20 from
    • Human resource management. However according to Amin (2005) randomization is effective increating equivalent representative groups that are essentially the same on all relevant variablesthought of by the researcher. Purposive sampling in this purposive sampling will be used inselecting respondents3.5 Data Collection MethodsThe Data collection method will be questionnaire guide, the questionnaire guide will beadminister to the key respondents who are of interest to make this studies meets the objective3.6 Data collection instrumentsAll the respondents will fill in questionnaires. The researcher used the questionnaires because theselected population is literate and time for collecting data is limited. The researcher willdevelop closed- ended questions because they are easy to fill, save time and keep the respondentsfocused on the subject.3.7Pre-testing (Validity and reliability)Validity of the questionnaire will be obtained by presenting it to at least one professional people,including the researcher’s supervisor because according to Amin (2005) content and constructvalidity is determined by expert judgment. Beside to ensure reliability the questionnaire will bepre tested to a small group of post graduate students before going in to actual data collection3.8 Procedure of Data CollectionThe researcher will obtain a letter of introduction from the Resident manager and research supervisorto conduct research at UMI.3.9 Data AnalysisData from questionnaires will be compiled, sorted, edited, classified and coded into a coding sheetand analyse using a computerized data analysis package. The relationship between the variable willbe computed and presented systematically.
    • REFERENCESAnderson, G, Benjamin, D, & Fuss, M. (1994). Determinants of success in university introductoryeconomics courses. Journal of Economic Education, (spring),Admission Council of Oregon State University (2003). Undergraduate admissions policy proposal.Retrieved September 24-12http://eepm.orst.edu/dept/senate/committees/aac/agen/reports/20030115.htmlCambridge University Reporter. (2003). Indicators of academic performance. Retrieved on Sep, 26,20012 from http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2002-3/weekly/5913/Combs, H. P (1985). The world crisis in education: the view from the eighties. New York: Oxfordpress Considine, G. & Zappala, G. (2002). Influence of social and economic disadvantage in theacademic performance of school students in Australia. Journal of Sociology, 38, 129-148. Retrievedon Oct 1, 2012 from http://jos.sagepub.comCrosnoe, R., Monica, K. J and Glen, H .E .Jr. (2004). School size and the interpersonal side ofeducation: An example of Race/Ethnicity and organizational context. Social Science QuarterlyCushing, J. M & McGarvey, G.M. (2004). Sample selection models of academic performance.Retrieved on Sept, 30.12 from http://ei.oxfordjournals.org/ cgi/content/abstract/42/2/319 12/12/2006.Dills, K.A. (2006). Trends in the relationship between socioeconomic status and academicachievement. Retrieved in sept.30, 2012 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=886110Durr, J.C. (1997). Factors affecting student performance in principles of macroeconomics. Retrievedon Sep 31, 2012 from http:/www.elon.edu/ipe/durr.pdfEamon, M.K (2005). Social demographic, school, neighborhood, and parenting influences onacademic achievement of Latino young adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(2), 163-175.
    • Escarce, J. J (2003).Socioeconomic status and the fates of adolescents. Retrieved on September 272012 from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artidGeiser, S and Santelices, V. M. (2007). Validity of high school grades in predicting student successbeyond the freshman year. Retrieved on oct 1, 2012 fromhttp://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/docs/ROPS.GEISER_SAT_6.12.07.pdfGraetz, B. (1995). Socioeconomic Status in Education Research and Policy. In Ainley, J, Graetz, B.,Long, M. and Batten, M. (Eds). Social economic Status and School Education. Canberra:DEET/ACER.Hobbs, H. (2001). Urban vs. Rural schools. What test data really tells us? Valley Press Media NY.Retrieved on September 25, 212 from http://www.bulldognews.net/urban_v_rural.html 75Hansen, N.M and Mastekaasa, A. (2006). Social origins and academic performance at university.Oxford University press. Retrieved on September 30, 212 fromhttp://esr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/3/277Huws, N, Reddy, P and Talcott, J. (2006). Predicting university success in psychology: Are subject-specific skills important? Retrieved on Sept 25, 2012 fromhttp://www.aston.ac.uk/downloads/ihs/peelea/huw2006p.pdf
    • APPENDICESAppendix 1: Questionnairei)To establish the relationship between students’ admission points and academicPerformance of Post graduate students.ii) To establish the relationship between parents’ social economic status and academicperformance of Post graduate students.iii) To establish the relationship between students’ former school background and academicperformance of Post graduate students.
    • Appendix 2: Work plan and TimeframeActivity Duration Dates (days/weeks/months)Training Research Assistant 1 day 5-October-2012Pretesting the tool 1 day 6-October-2012Administering Questionnaire 1 weeks 7-13-October-12guideCreating Data Base 2 days 13 and 14-October-12Data Entry 1 week 15-21-October-12Analysis 3 days 26-30-Octobert-12