Table of nutrients


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Table of nutrients

  1. 1. Nutrients Major sources Functions Effects of deficiency Effects of excess intake A Tomato, carrot,  For Vision  Night blindness Fat-soluble vitamins: (retinol) Green vegetables, egg (forms light absorbing pigment  Dry mucous membrane retained/accumulated in the body over time yolks, fish liver oil rhodopsin)  Infections  Liver problems  Maintain healthy skin  Hair Loss  Body immunity  Bone & joint paints  Loss of appetite D Cheese, egg yolks, fish  Help absorption of Calcium  Rickets (children)  Overload of Calcium (Calciferol) liver oil, sunlight  Bone formation  Brittle bones (adult) –widespread of calcification of soft tissues  Teeth strengthening – adverse affects to muscles and heart tissue E Wheat germ, Green  Antioxidants  X common  Fat-soluble vitamin-overdose-> toxic vegetables, palm oil,  Formation of red blood cells  Fatigue cereals, nuts  Preserve healthy muscular system,  Slow wound heal nervous system, blood circulatory  Premature aging system  Low fertility  Maintain function of the reproductive system  K Green vegetables, egg  Blood clotting  Slow blood clotting  Problems to red blood cells yolks, fish, liver,  Baby’s brain damage soybean oil Vitamin B Functions of vitamin B complex  generally serve as components of coenzymes Water-soluble vitamin:  They work together with enzymes in key metabolic processes which supply energy or  are involved in the synthesis of substance required by the body -can dissolve in blood plasma & excreted by kidneys B1, whole grains, Meat,  As coenzyme  Beri-beri (thiamine) yeast, milk -Helps body to oxidize (nerve degeneration) B2, Meat, fish, milk, liver, carbohydrates to release energy  Dry & cracked skin, mouth (riboflavin) green vegetables sores, poor growth B3 Meat, yeast, potatoes,  Pellagra - (niacin) (scaly skin sores, diarrhea, delusion)
  2. 2. B5, All living cells (plants &  Help in metabolism of - - animals) carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids B6, Liver, fish , cereals, meat  Help in metabolism of  Anemia  Nerve problem carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids  Irritability  Promote formation of Red blood  Fatigue cells B9 Liver, raw leafy green  DNA & RNA synthesis  Birth defects (cleft lip, limb - (Folic acid) vegetables  (work together with vitamin B12)- defects, spina bifida) Help in formation of RBC, regulate  Premature aging proper function of Fe, iron B12, Meat, milk, dairy  Help in formation of red blood cell  Pernicious anaemia (severe - products, yeast, green  Help in tissue formation anaemia) vegetables C Citrus fruits, green  Formation of Collagen  Poor collagen formation (ascorbic acid) vegetables -that supports body structures,  SCURVY bones, teeth (swollen, bleeding gums, tooth loss) Ca Milk, dairy products,  Forms bones & teeth  RICKETS (bent legs)  Kidney disease /calcium anchovies,vegetables  Blood clotting  OSTEOPOROSIS  Calcification of soft tissue  Disruption to the heart Fe / Iron Green leafy vegetable,  Makes haemoglobin  ANAEMIA liver, meat, egg yolk, (deficiency of red blood cells) beans P/ Nearly in all food  Forms bones & teeth  X common Phos-  Nucleic acid formation  Affect proper bones and teeth formation phorus  Energy (ATP)release in cells  Affects cell respiration & muscle contraction I/ Iodine Seafood, seaweed,  Synthesis of thyroxine  GOITRE (enlargement of thyroid gland)  Goitre iodised salt hormone that regulates  Cretinism (stunted physical & mental growth in metabolism & growth Children) Sodium Table salt, meat, dairy  Regulate body’s fluid balance  X common  HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (Na) product  Nerve impulse transmission  Muscular Cramps (Hypertension)  HEART DISEASE  STROKE  KIDNEY DAMAGE
  3. 3. Carbo- Rice, grains,  Important source of energy / Produce  Cell respiration slows down  OBESITY hydrates cereals, energy  DIABETES MELLITUS (Excess potatoes, pasta,.. sugar),  CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES,  Osteoarthritis,  Respiratory problem,… Lipid Meat, dairy  Important source of energy / Produce  Disrupt function of cell membrane  OBESITY products, nuts, energy  Atherosclerosis (due to high level vegetable oils,  Storage of energy of cholesterol deposits) butter,  Major part of cell membrane structure -cardiovascular diseases, margarine high blood pressure  Increase risk of cancer growth Protein Meat, beans,  For cell growth  KWASHIORKOR  Heart disease milk, dairy  As building block of structural component (severe deficiency of protein)  Calcium loss products, egg of cell which are required for growth  Very taxing on kidneys during  Production of Enzyme & hormone  Impaired mental & physical excretion development  Cell metabolism disrupted Protein &  MARASMUS energy (carbohydrates (severe deficiency of protein & energy- & lipid) providing nutrients) Water  Allow metabolic reactions to take place  Dehydration-death  Rarely – confusion, cramps  As transport medium  Constipation  Water toxicity / water intoxication  Cool the body Dietary Cereals,  To hold water  Constipation fibre vegetables,  Provide bulk to intestinal contents.  Haemorrhoids fruits,  Aid peristalsis through the digestive tract.  Colon cancer  Prevent the built-up of toxic substances in  Bowel cancer the rectum. *The bold words are important and can be found in your text book.