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    Political+Marketing Political+Marketing Presentation Transcript

    • Political marketing
      • Empirical phenomenon
            • Social change
            • Electoral change
            • Increasing importance of campaigns
            • Professionalization of campaigns
      • Research paradigm
            • Market models of politics
            • Expansion of marketing to non-commercial applications
            • Marketing model of party behaviour
      • Political marketing – bureaucratic form of sophistry
            • Parallels between professions of sophists and marketers
            • Structure of markets and need for marketing
            • Consumerism
            • Ideological nature of marketing
    • Social and electoral change
      • Social change
          • Decreasing identifiability and relevance of social class
          • Increasing social mobility
          • Increased education
          • Decreasing relevance of ideology
          • Emergence of new issues/cleavages (Inglehart)
      • Electoral change
          • Dealignment
          • Increasing electoral volatility
          • Decreasing explanatory power of variables like age, gender, class
          • Decreasing importance of “projection”/issue alignment
          • Issue voting; pocketbook voting; retrospective voting
    • Increasing importance of campaigns
      • Campaigns are no longer predominantly about mobilizing support
      • With decreasing base support, voters need to be attracted through campaigning
      • Campaign context impacts on economic, issue, leadership evaluations
      • More floating voters to compete over
      • Increasing importance of mass media (new findings challenging the “minimal effects model” providing campaigners with reasons to trust in effectiveness of electioneering)
    • Professionalization of campaigns
      • Exponential increases in campaign spending
      • Use of consultants, pollsters, commercial advertisers
      • Increasing influence of campaign consultants on policy content of manifestos
      • Policy convergence -> need for distinguishing from competitors
      • Market research (focus groups, private polling, direct-marketing, database-marketing)
      • Changing media focus, from coverage of issues, coverage of leadership, image and the race, to coverage of strategy, party-media interaction, and the role of spin
    • Market models of politics
      • Schumpeter, Joseph
          • Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1947)
            • “ Elitist” model of democracy
            • Function of voting: to restrain elites, not to manifest “common will”
      • Downs, Anthony
          • An Economic Theory of Democracy (1957)
            • Rational choice model of voting
            • Assuming material self-interest as primary motivation of elites and voters
            • Median voter theorem: party platforms will converge, to accommodate voter preferences
      • Wellhofer: “Contradictions in Market Models of Politics: the Case of Party Strategies and Voter Linkages'”, European Journal of Political Research 1990
            • Vote production
            • vs.
            • Vote maximization
    • Expansion of the marketing concept
      • Concept first introduced by Stanley Keller
            • (Professional Public Relations and Political Power, 1956): understood marketing to mean persuasion and used it interchangeably with ‘propaganda’
      • Expanding application of marketing disciplines beyond business world
            • Philip Kotler (1981) Marketing for Non-profit Organizations
            • Emphasis on strategy, marketing-mix, understanding of politics as a market where voters and candidates/parties, like sellers and buyers, exchange ‘something of value’
      • Broadening of marketing definition by American Marketing Association
            • “ Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational objectives” (1985)
    • Marketing and political science
      • Use of marketing expertise by campaigning parties/candidates
            • The observable practice of marketing in political competition prompted the entry of the concept of marketing into political science
            • Early political marketing literature
              • Descriptive and anecdotical
      • Marketing as a scientific approach to campaigning
            • Mauser (Political Marketing, 1983) defines political marketing as the
              • ‘ science of influencing mass behaviour in competitive situations’
    • Marketing model of party behaviour
      • Three-stage development of modern business practice applied to evolution of organizational behaviour of political parties
          • “ Parties may simply stand for what they believe in, or focus on persuading voters to agree with them, or change their behaviour to follow voters’ opinions” (Jennifer Lees-Marshment, 2001: p. 701)
      • Product-oriented party
      • Sales-oriented party
      • Market-oriented party
      • Product-oriented party
            • Ideological
            • Representing/leading social movement
            • Unresponsive to social change
            • Electoral success not an objective in itself
            • Electoral goal: vote production/supporter mobilization
      • Sales-oriented party
            • Ideological
            • Intra-organizational choice of policies, leadership
            • Using market research, advertising, communication techniques to sell itself, its policies
            • Electoral goal: persuasion
      • Market-oriented party
            • Using market intelligence to identify voter demands
            • Assessing deliverability of demanded policies
            • Assessing intra-party acceptability of policy changes
            • Designing product (party manifesto, leadership selection, etc) accordingly
            • Electoral goal: adapting to the market
    • Assumptions of marketing model
      • Downsian, rational voters
      • Exogeneity and measurability of preferences, needs, demands
      • Transferability of product/market/marketing metaphor to the political sphere
    • Prescriptive/normative claims
      • Customer (citizen) orientation
      • Superiority of market-orientation over product- and sales-orientation
          • Prediction that market-oriented parties will prevail over sales- or product-oriented parties
          • Recommendation for parties to embrace market-orientation
      • Evolutionary model
      • Increasing responsiveness of political parties
      • Improving democracy
    • Political marketers in ancient Greece – the Sophists
      • Rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece (Protagoras, Thrasymachus, etc.)
      • Criticized by Plato for providing their services/rhetorical skills for whatever purpose and position
            • Eristic: arguments aimed at victory rather than at truth
            • Anti-logic: the assignment to any argument of a counterargument that negates it (basis of Hegelian dialectic)
      • Never accepted as philosophers
            • For their suspicion towards metaphysics
            • For their pragmatism
    • Sophism, truth and morality
      • Relativist definition of truth, morality
        • There is no absolute truth
        • Truth, or the right course of action, is what one can convince the audience of being true or right
        • Purpose of debating is not (what would be the Platonic understanding) to jointly discover truth, but to succeed
        • Morality is a cultural, hence conditional, value
    • Similar accusations
      • Style over substance
            • “ Sophistic is to legislation what beautification is to gymnastics and appearance to reality” (Plato)
            • “ Man is the measure of all things” (Protagoras)
      • Technicians of enticement
      • Mercenaries
            • “ The purpose of government is to be efficient and to succeed. This is the criterion by which it should be judged” (Thrasymachus)
      • Profane
            • “ The uncultured whose desire is not for wisdom but for scoring off an opponent” (Plato)
    • Techniques, goals and justifications
      • Similar techniques and goals
          • Empiricism
          • Rhetoric
          • Pragmatism
      • Similar justifications
          • Relativism
            • Popularity replaces legitimacy
            • Efficiency replaces values
            • Management replaces politics
          • Nothing is unjust but a justice that does not succeed (Thrasymachus)
          • Morality and law are not absolute, collective values, but principles defined by those in power
    • Reconciling reputation with theory
      • Reputation
            • Political marketing considered to be manipulative (spin doctors), dishonest, close to propaganda, placing style over substance
      • Effect
            • Political marketing practice appears to turn people off (decreasing turnout in US since 1970s, collapse of turnout under New Labour since 1997)
            • Public demand for politicians of conviction (but consider the paradox of Margaret Thatcher – the pioneer of political marketing in UK, nonetheless understood as principled and ideological)
      • Theory
            • Positivistic, presenting political marketing as potentially regenerative force for democracies (by basing policy on public preferences)
    • Theoretical shortcoming of political marketing model
      • Neglecting departure from classic economic theory
            • Markets are not perfect and do not self-regulate
            • Production and pricing are not naturally regulated by supply/demand function
            • Political markets are oligopolistic (concentrated, with few competitors)
            • Products become secondary to the image/reputation of the firm
            • From trader to salesman, intervening in markets
            • Marketing is active intervention in markets
            • Oligopolistic markets tend to produce socially uneconomical outcomes
      • Strategic behaviour
            • Pricing
            • Production
            • Labour relations
            • Accounting
    • Consumerism
      • Market intelligence
            • Not just what, where and in what quantities consumers want
            • But also why they want it
      • From homo economicus to buyer motivations, consumer psychology
          • Not just discovering demand
          • But stimulating it
            • Potentialities of demand
            • Dormand/latent needs
      • Consumers are “irrational at least as often as rational, motivated in large degree by emotions, habits and prejudices; differing widely in personality structure, in aspirations, ideals and buying behaviours.” (Martineau, It’s Time to Research the Consumer, 1955)
    • The ideological nature of marketing
      • Reinforcing free market ideal becomes in itself a marketing exercise, irrespective of factual oligopoly in most commercial and all political markets
      • Downsian theory of democracy
          • Ideological in its use of the false analogy of competitive political markets, with invisible hand mechanism that produces socially desirable outcomes notwithstanding asocial nature of actors
      • The essential features of political marketing
          • Opinion (replacing values as more malleable building blocks of collective choice)
          • Appearance (not whether you are a good leader, or your policy a good one, but whether you can make it appear thus, counts)
          • Pragmatism (downgrading elected government to a management function)