Sentence and PropositionSentence containing certain informationProposition the information presented predicate + noun phrases (referring expression)
Sentence= ‘A complete thought’a. We walk in the park. complete sentenceb. Our walk in the parkc. for us to walk in the parkThe three of them has semantic content, but grammatically different
We walk in the park has one single propositionOther examples:a Richard wrote the report. has no particular focusb Richard is the one who wrote the report. Richardc The report was written by Richard. Richard Those sentences about Richard embodyd The report same proposition wrote. the the is what Richard report
Richard wrote a report and Helen did, too two propositions: 1. Richard wrote a report 2. Helen wrote a report Propositions abstract but meaningful expressed in different utterances/people/time/places
InflectionWe walk Kinds of modification of a walked sentence. It is included: are walking 1. Tense (walked, walk) have walked 2. Aspect (are walking, have may walk walked) would have walked 3. Modality (may walk, could could be walking walk) in the park 4. Combined (were walking, should be walking) Inflection + Proposition (+) Focus Tense Aspect Modality
Syntactic vs Semantic AnalysisSyntactic Analysis Semantic AnalysisThe description of a The description of a sentence propositionCombining phrases and Deals with meaning its function of the Albert sends his friends e- The same sentences mail propositionsDeals with subject, Present Tense predicate, object, Albert sent his friends e- complement and mail adverbial Past TenseAlbert sends e-mail to his friendsS P O
Semantic AnalysisBe (is, am, are, was, were) has no meaning. Syntactic structurePropositions 1 predicate + various arguments verb, adj, prep. referring expressionsSentence: Propositions1. A window broke (break, a window)2. Tom broke a window (break, Tom, a window)3. Our dog is under the house (under, our dog, the house)
Semantic RolesPropositions predicate + various arguments• The meaning: is determined in part by how many arguments it may have and what role those arguments have.A window broke, A rope broke, A plate broke Single ArgumentSemantic Role affectedTom broke the windowAgent affected Two Arguments
Valency Theoryis a description of the semantic potential of predicates in terms of the number and types of arguments which may co-occur with them.It is snowing.-> valency of zeroMy brother snores.-> valency of oneTris is lifting a watermelon. -> valency of twoAgnes is writing her boyfriend a letter ->valency of three
valency of zeroWeather verbs Weather adjectivesIt is raining It is rainyIt is has been thundering It is windyPS. Inflection is not a part of proposition
valency of one-> intransitive verbs/one- argument verba.The dog is sleeping d.Grandfather died (lastb.Pecko laughed. week).c.The earth rotates (on e.A volcano erupted. its axis). f.The cake fell.Called actor carries out Event a change in the action condition of the entity named Affected the entity named in the argument undergoes this change
Table of Semantic RolesNo Terms and Meaning Sentence Examples1 Actors= performs some action Sylvia left. without affecting any other2 entity Betty likes opera Affected= undergoes changes due Opera delights Betty to some events/affected by some Tom broke window3 other entity Betty likes opera Affecting= without any actions,4 affects another entity Tom broke window. Agent= by its actions affects any5 other entities Roger is a student. Associate= tells the6 status/identity of another Tillie baked a pie. argument7 Effect= comes into existence The fireman climbed a ladder. through the action of the8 predicate Audrey is a computer expert. Place= names of the location where actions of the predicate occurs
More ExamplesThis soup is cold. Argument PredicateTerry is impatient. Theme DescriptionHenrietta was rather soup cold Terry impatient reckless. Henrietta recklessThe bottle is empty. bottle emptyThis man is a carpenter. Theme IdentityDextrose and fructose are man carpenter Dextrose and sugar sugars. fructoseEddy Eckstein is the village Eddy Eckstein village idiot Cora and Willis Class leaders idiot.Cora and Willis are the class leadersEquational proposition can be reversed to create
Valency of two Consist of intransitive verb Argument1 Predicate Argument2The cat killed a rat. agent action affectedI broke the window. cat killed ratBert hit Harry. I broke window Bert hit Harry The cat dug a hole. agent action EffectChris is making an omelet. cat dug hole Picasso created a Chris make Omelet Picasso create masterpiece masterpiece Argument1 Predicate Argument2Jennie crossed the street. actor action placeFiona entered the room. Jennie cross street Fiona enter roomSimon climbed a tree. Simon climb tree
The next groups tell how one entity affects—or fails to affect— another entity a. The decision surprised us b. Oliver was envious of his all. brother. You’re disturbing Oliver envied his brother. everybody. Angie was angry with The comedian didn’t AlgernonArgument1 Predicate Argument2 impress the audience. c. I’m afraid of that dog.affecting affect affected We were not aware of the accident.decision surprise us Argument1 Predicate Argument2You disturb everybody Aren’t you curious about…? affected affect affectingcomedian impress audience Oliver envy Brother I afraid dog We aware accident Ella curious plans
The predicate merely acts as a link theme link associateArgument1 Predicate Argument2 Sentence Theme Link AssociateSheila like mother Sheila is like her mother.present for you This present is for you.Tom with Ann Tom is with Annbook about fossils The book is about fossilsCanada is north of United StatesThe books are near/behind the selvesThe party will be on SaturdayThe next game is at 3 o’clockThe meeting is after class So, all prepositions which indicate position in space or time are two argument predicates at in on near beside under over
Theme Link Associates SentenceBrowns neighbors-of Greens The Browns are neighbors-of the GreensJulie daughter-of Carol Julie is Carol’s daughterMr. Sean boss-of me Mr . Sean is my bossI employee-of Barton & I am an employee of Barton & Dutton. Dutton It includes measurements of size, weight, value, and the like.This package weighs five kilosIt cost twenty dollars
Some changes in valencySome predicates can be used in a sentence that has two arguments and in another sentence that has only one argument. Tom broke the window The window brokeWe ate lunch (in the kitchen).We ate (in the kitchen). Maureen bathed the baby (in the tub). Maureen bathed (in the tub).Harvey drowned his mother-in-law.Harvey drowned.
Let’s Exercise..For each sentence here decide if it has the semantic structure 1. Affected+ Event Actor+Action or Affected+Event. Does the 2. Actor+Action subject name something that is 3. Actor+Action acting or something that is 4. Affected+Event affected? 5. Affected+Event 1. My head aches 2. Denis is (always) complaining 3. You were snoring 4. The pond froze (last night) 5. Arnold hurried 6. The lock has rusted
Four structures are represented in the sentences below: 1 agent-action-affected 1. Jenny admired the painting 2 agent-action-effect 2. The children built a sand 3 actor-action-place, castle 4 affecting-affect-affected 3. That medicine cured my 5 affected-affect-affecting headache 4. We crossed the street Read each sentence and tell 5. Alan entered the library its structure. 6. Stout troops destroyed the castle.1. 5 7. I miss him2. 23. 4 6. 14. 3 7. 55. 3
Each of the following sentences has a verb and two arguments, and in each case that verb can also be used in a sentence withonly one argument. Decide which of the three types is represented. Which predicates are like eat, which are like bathe, and which are like break? One of them is like eat and break. 1. Mary woke her husband (at seven o’clock) 2. Our team lost the game 3. The boys are flying kites 4. Did your barber shave you?
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